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Prison Use of Medications for Opioid Addiction Remains Low

Treatment, Published July 2011
More opioid replacement therapy in correctional facilities might yield public safety and health benefits.

Describes results from a nationwide survey among correctional facilities on the use of opioid replacement therapy for people who are addicted to heroin.

Gene Influences Impact of Maternal Smoking on Children's Behavioral Problems

Basic Science, Published July 2011
Genetic variants affect boys and girls differently.

Describes research showing that the combination of prenatal smoking exposure and specific genes increases children’s and adolescent’s risk for behavior problems.

Neuropeptide Promotes Behaviors Tied to Addiction and Overeating

Basic Science, Published July 2011
Orexin receptor-blocking medications might treat both cocaine abuse and unhealthy eating.

Reports on several studies implicating a certain neuropeptide (a signaling molecule) in fostering addition and overeating and discusses implications for addiction treatment.

Two NIDA Grantees Receive Sarnat Prize

Bulletin Board, Published March 2011

Announces the recipients of the 2010 Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat International Prize in Mental Health, Dr. Eric J. Nestler and Dr. Charles P. O'Brien, prominent addiction scientists.

Dr. Paul Kenny Receives the 2010 Waletzky Memorial Award

Bulletin Board, Published March 2011

Announces the recipient of a 2010 award for innovation in research on drug addiction and alcoholism and describes his work on increasing our understanding of the molecular foundation of addiction.

Fewer Girls Are Smoking, But Change Is Uneven

Public Health, Published March 2011

Reports 2010 rates of cigarette smoking among eighth girls, providing historical data and racial and ethnic differences.

Teenage Marijuana Use Is on the Rise

Public Health, Published March 2011

Reports 2010 rates of marijuana use among 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, noting that daily use increased by more than 10 percent in all three grades since the 2009 survey. Also reports a rise in ecstasy use.

Brain Responds to Marijuana Cues in Familiar Manner

Treatment, Published March 2011

Researchers found that the brain activity that takes place when cues trigger marijuana cravings is similar to the activity that accompanies cravings for other drugs.

Menthol May Strengthen Nicotine Addiction

Public Health, Published March 2011

Reports on a study of Latino and African-American smokers of menthol cigarettes who did not benefit as much from a month-long smoking cessation program as smokers of non-menthol cigarettes.

Prevention Program Reduces Later Risky Sexual Behaviors

Prevention, Published March 2011

Reports on a school-based drug abuse prevention program showing that teens who participate in the program are less likely than their peers to engage in risky sexual behavior as young adults.

Physical Activity May Prevent Substance Abuse

Director's Perspective, Published March 2011

Considers the potential role of physical activity on substance abuse prevention and describes some of the research that has been conducted on this emerging area of addiction science.

Cocaine Alters Production of Hundreds of Proteins

Basic Science, Published March 2011
Affected proteins include enzymes that influence DNA repair, cell death, stress resistance, metabolism, and aging.

Describes research findings that show that chronic cocaine abuse may change the production of many proteins in the neurons of the brain’s reward system, aiding in our understanding how the drug causes addiction.

Combination Therapy Most Effective for Helping Smokers Quit

Treatment, Published March 2011
Treatment with a nicotine patch and lozenge outperformed four other smoking-cessation therapies in a large clinical trial.

Examines results from a randomized clinical trial which found that treatment with a nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge together produced the greatest benefits in helping people quit smoking and remain abstinent.

HIV Treatment Interruption Is Pervasive After Release From Texas Prisons

Treatment, Published March 2011
Helping inmates fill out application forms for antiretroviral medication doubles prescription utilization.

Describes a study revealing that HIV-infected prisoners in Texas often experience an interruption in treatment following their release and that assistance in filling out paperwork can reduce these interruptions.

Prevention Program Averts Initiation of Alcohol and Tobacco Use

Prevention, Published March 2011
Communities That Care aids towns in choosing and implementing effective activities

Describes a community focused prevention program that aids towns in lowering rates of delinquency, initiation of alcohol and tobacco use, and binge drinking among middle school students.

Three Scientists Join Advisory Council

Bulletin Board, Published December 2010

Announces three new NIDA National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse members and describes their drug abuse and addiction research experience.

NIDA Grantee Wins Prize for Genetics Web Sites

Bulletin Board, Published December 2010

Announces the recipient of an award for online resources in education, Dr. Louisa Stark, who developed two interactive Web sites on genetics.

Program Enhances Physician Knowledge on Substance Abuse

Bulletin Board, Published December 2010

Reports on an evaluation of the Chief Resident Immersion Training (CRIT) program to assess its effectiveness in improving knowledge, confidence, and preparedness to diagnose, manage, and teach about substance abuse.

Addiction Science Award Winners Announced

Bulletin Board, Published December 2010

Announces the 2010 high school student recipients of the Addiction Science Awards and describes their winning addiction-focused projects.

Modafinil Normalizes Sleep During Early Cocaine Abstinence

Treatment, Published December 2010
Followup on Previous NIDA Notes report

Describes a study investigating the effectiveness of modafinil in enhancing sleep among cocaine abusers who are currently abstinent.

Detoxification Services and Pharmacotherapies Lacking in Nation's Jails and Prisons

Treatment, Published December 2010

Reports findings from a survey that revealed that although substance abuse is prevalent in jails and prisons, many correctional facilities do not offer detoxification services or therapies to aid in maintaining abstinence.

Drug Abuse at Highest Level in Nearly a Decade

Public Health, Published December 2010

Reports on 2009 data indicating a rise in drug abuse in the United States and the factors that may have contributed to this increase.

Parental Supervision and Genetics Interact To Influence Nicotine Addiction

Prevention, Published December 2010
Followup on Previous NIDA Notes report

Reviews research indicating that both parental influence and certain genes interact to influence nicotine addiction and that parental monitoring may play a role in reducing risk.

NIDA Appoints New Director of the Intramural Research Program

Bulletin Board, Published December 2010

Announces NIDA’s new director of its intramural research program, Antonello Bonci, M.D., a leading researcher in neuropsychopharmacology.

Workgroup Keeps NIDA on the Cutting Edge of Brain Science

NIDA @ Work, Published December 2010

Reports on the objectives and activities of the Neuroscience Consortium and their impact on Institute drug abuse research programs and initiatives.

Intervention Improves Abstinence, Employment Among Welfare Recipients

Treatment, Published December 2010

Reports research to study the effectiveness of an intensive case management program to aid female substance abusers who receive welfare in staying off drugs and finding employment.

Deep Brain Stimulation Reduces Rats' Cocaine Seeking

Treatment, Published December 2010

Describes results from an animal study involving deep brain stimulation that holds promise as a therapy for severe cocaine addiction.

Incentives Promote Abstinence

Director's Perspective, Published December 2010

Explores research findings on the value of motivational incentives to promote and reinforce abstinence from substances of abuse and encourage healthy behaviors.

Multidimensional Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse Offers Broad, Lasting Benefits

Treatment, Published December 2010
An approach that integrates individual, family, and community interventions outperformed other treatments.

Describes findings from two randomized clinical trials showing that treatment with multidimensional family therapy resulted in fewer drug-related problems than treatment with cognitive behavior therapy.

Marijuana Linked With Testicular Cancer

Public Health, Published December 2010
Use is associated with more aggressive form of the disease.

Reports on a study of close to 400 Washington State men that found that those who use marijuana may increase their risk for developing testicular cancer.

Study Supports Methadone Maintenance in Therapeutic Communities

Treatment, Published December 2010
Methadone-treated and other patients fare equally well.

Describes a study that examined the effectiveness of combining two therapies for drug abuse addiction: methadone treatment and therapeutic communities, two approaches that are rarely combined.

Substance Abuse Evaluated Among Women With Children

Public Health, Published December 2010

Discusses rates of substance use or abuse among mothers with at-home children and the factors that may contribute to the abuse.

Cocaine Vaccine Helps Some Reduce Drug Abuse

Treatment, Published December 2010
A clinical trial encourages continued development of strategy based on immune system response.

Reports on the results of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of a cocaine vaccine designed as a therapy for cocaine abuse and plans underway for a new study of 300 patients to confirm these results.

Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Holds at Lowest Recorded Levels

Public Health, Published October 2010

Discusses 2009 prevalence rates of cigarette, alcohol, prescription drug, and illicit drug use among adolescents and discusses trends in use over time.

School-Wide Program Reduces Problem Behaviors and Improves Academic Outcomes

Prevention, Published October 2010
Positive Action schools, families, and communities emphasize fairness and respect.

Reports on a school-centered program for social and emotional development that was credited with reducing rates of substance abuse, violent behavior, and voluntary sexual activity among primary school children.

Lower Levels of Dopamine-Regulating Receptors Among Novelty Seekers

Basic Science, Published October 2010

Describes research results reporting that people who favor novelty have lower-than-average availability of a receptor that inhibits dopamine's release from neurons, which likely stimulates the activity of reward circuits.

Brain Opioid Receptor Levels Predict Time to Cocaine Relapse

Basic Science, Published October 2010

Describes study findings revealing that cocaine abusers who maintain high levels of a certain receptor in their brain during early abstinence relapse sooner than abusers whose levels drop.

High, Persistent Rates of Risky Sexual Behaviors in Delinquent Youth

Prevention, Published October 2010

Reports study findings that show young people who have gotten into trouble with the criminal justice system report high rates of sexual behaviors that increase risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Treatment Patterns Vary Among People With Co-Occurring Disorders Based on Type of Treatment System Entered

Treatment, Published October 2010

Presents a summary of a study that followed individuals who entered mental health crisis or substance abuse detoxification residential centers in San Francisco and the types of treatment they received.

Neuroimaging Challenges Common Assumption of Public Service Messaging

Prevention, Published October 2010
Study suggests a role for the technology in designing effective media strategies.

Describes a study of smokers' brain function while they watched antismoking PSAs and findings suggesting that calmer ads may be more effective.

Medications That Normalize Brain Glutamate Reduce Drug-Seeking in Rats

Treatment, Published October 2010
A compound used to treat pulmonary disease has a long-lasting impact on heroin-seeking.

Reports on two studies that demonstrate the promise of treating addiction with medications that alleviate drug-induced alterations in signaling by the neurotransmitter glutamate.

New Tools and Strategies to Bolster Behavioral Therapy

Director's Perspective, Published October 2010

Reports on research investigating whether certain medications might strengthen patients' understanding and memory retention.

Crack Cocaine Promotes Progression of HIV Infection to AIDS

Basic Science, Published October 2010
Cellular studies of cocaine and methamphetamine offer clues to underlying mechanism.

Reports on two studies showing a high prevalence of HIV infection and more rapid progression to disability and death among drug abusers.

Brain Adaptation May Dampen Effects of Cocaine

Basic Science, Published October 2010
Dendritic spine proliferation seems to compensate for some impacts of cocaine use.

Reports evidence that a cocaine-induced change in the structure of brain cells represents an adaptive response that may limit the drug’s impact.

Dr. Kathleen T. Brady Recognized

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Recognizes the 2010 Distinguished University Professor awardee, Dr. Kathleen T. Brady, who studies co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders and their treatment.

Four Scientists Receive Avant-Garde Awards

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Recognizes four scientists for the 2009 Avant-Garde Award for HIV research, an award intended to stimulate groundbreaking research for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in drug abusers.

French Government Honors Dr. Volkow

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Announces the 2009 International Prize, awarded by the French Institute of Health and Medical Research, to NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow.

NIDA Curriculum Piques Students' Interest in Addiction Careers

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Describes an eight-module web-based curricula that introduces addition research to graduate students of nursing, dentistry, and medicine.

Dr. Geoffrey Schoenbaum Receives the Waletzky Memorial Award

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Announces the recipient of a 2009 award for innovation in research on drug addiction and alcoholism and with a focus on the changes that occur in the brain after exposure to drugs.

Young Opioid Abusers Benefit From Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment

Treatment, Published April 2010
Despite shorter addiction histories, youths' risk of relapse following detoxification resembles that of adults.

Reports on a study investigating the benefits of extended opioid maintenance therapy that included drug counseling and 12 weeks of therapy with buprenorphine and naloxone.