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Parental Supervision and Genetics Interact To Influence Nicotine Addiction

Prevention, Published December 2010
Followup on Previous NIDA Notes report

Reviews research indicating that both parental influence and certain genes interact to influence nicotine addiction and that parental monitoring may play a role in reducing risk.

NIDA Appoints New Director of the Intramural Research Program

Bulletin Board, Published December 2010

Announces NIDA’s new director of its intramural research program, Antonello Bonci, M.D., a leading researcher in neuropsychopharmacology.

Workgroup Keeps NIDA on the Cutting Edge of Brain Science

NIDA @ Work, Published December 2010

Reports on the objectives and activities of the Neuroscience Consortium and their impact on Institute drug abuse research programs and initiatives.

Intervention Improves Abstinence, Employment Among Welfare Recipients

Treatment, Published December 2010

Reports research to study the effectiveness of an intensive case management program to aid female substance abusers who receive welfare in staying off drugs and finding employment.

Deep Brain Stimulation Reduces Rats' Cocaine Seeking

Treatment, Published December 2010

Describes results from an animal study involving deep brain stimulation that holds promise as a therapy for severe cocaine addiction.

Incentives Promote Abstinence

Director's Perspective, Published December 2010

Explores research findings on the value of motivational incentives to promote and reinforce abstinence from substances of abuse and encourage healthy behaviors.

Multidimensional Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse Offers Broad, Lasting Benefits

Treatment, Published December 2010
An approach that integrates individual, family, and community interventions outperformed other treatments.

Describes findings from two randomized clinical trials showing that treatment with multidimensional family therapy resulted in fewer drug-related problems than treatment with cognitive behavior therapy.

Marijuana Linked With Testicular Cancer

Public Health, Published December 2010
Use is associated with more aggressive form of the disease.

Reports on a study of close to 400 Washington State men that found that those who use marijuana may increase their risk for developing testicular cancer.

Study Supports Methadone Maintenance in Therapeutic Communities

Treatment, Published December 2010
Methadone-treated and other patients fare equally well.

Describes a study that examined the effectiveness of combining two therapies for drug abuse addiction: methadone treatment and therapeutic communities, two approaches that are rarely combined.

Substance Abuse Evaluated Among Women With Children

Public Health, Published December 2010

Discusses rates of substance use or abuse among mothers with at-home children and the factors that may contribute to the abuse.

Cocaine Vaccine Helps Some Reduce Drug Abuse

Treatment, Published December 2010
A clinical trial encourages continued development of strategy based on immune system response.

Reports on the results of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of a cocaine vaccine designed as a therapy for cocaine abuse and plans underway for a new study of 300 patients to confirm these results.

Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Holds at Lowest Recorded Levels

Public Health, Published October 2010

Discusses 2009 prevalence rates of cigarette, alcohol, prescription drug, and illicit drug use among adolescents and discusses trends in use over time.

School-Wide Program Reduces Problem Behaviors and Improves Academic Outcomes

Prevention, Published October 2010
Positive Action schools, families, and communities emphasize fairness and respect.

Reports on a school-centered program for social and emotional development that was credited with reducing rates of substance abuse, violent behavior, and voluntary sexual activity among primary school children.

Lower Levels of Dopamine-Regulating Receptors Among Novelty Seekers

Basic Science, Published October 2010

Describes research results reporting that people who favor novelty have lower-than-average availability of a receptor that inhibits dopamine's release from neurons, which likely stimulates the activity of reward circuits.

Brain Opioid Receptor Levels Predict Time to Cocaine Relapse

Basic Science, Published October 2010

Describes study findings revealing that cocaine abusers who maintain high levels of a certain receptor in their brain during early abstinence relapse sooner than abusers whose levels drop.

High, Persistent Rates of Risky Sexual Behaviors in Delinquent Youth

Prevention, Published October 2010

Reports study findings that show young people who have gotten into trouble with the criminal justice system report high rates of sexual behaviors that increase risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Treatment Patterns Vary Among People With Co-Occurring Disorders Based on Type of Treatment System Entered

Treatment, Published October 2010

Presents a summary of a study that followed individuals who entered mental health crisis or substance abuse detoxification residential centers in San Francisco and the types of treatment they received.

Neuroimaging Challenges Common Assumption of Public Service Messaging

Prevention, Published October 2010
Study suggests a role for the technology in designing effective media strategies.

Describes a study of smokers' brain function while they watched antismoking PSAs and findings suggesting that calmer ads may be more effective.

Medications That Normalize Brain Glutamate Reduce Drug-Seeking in Rats

Treatment, Published October 2010
A compound used to treat pulmonary disease has a long-lasting impact on heroin-seeking.

Reports on two studies that demonstrate the promise of treating addiction with medications that alleviate drug-induced alterations in signaling by the neurotransmitter glutamate.

New Tools and Strategies to Bolster Behavioral Therapy

Director's Perspective, Published October 2010

Reports on research investigating whether certain medications might strengthen patients' understanding and memory retention.

Crack Cocaine Promotes Progression of HIV Infection to AIDS

Basic Science, Published October 2010
Cellular studies of cocaine and methamphetamine offer clues to underlying mechanism.

Reports on two studies showing a high prevalence of HIV infection and more rapid progression to disability and death among drug abusers.

Brain Adaptation May Dampen Effects of Cocaine

Basic Science, Published October 2010
Dendritic spine proliferation seems to compensate for some impacts of cocaine use.

Reports evidence that a cocaine-induced change in the structure of brain cells represents an adaptive response that may limit the drug’s impact.

Dr. Kathleen T. Brady Recognized

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Recognizes the 2010 Distinguished University Professor awardee, Dr. Kathleen T. Brady, who studies co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders and their treatment.

Four Scientists Receive Avant-Garde Awards

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Recognizes four scientists for the 2009 Avant-Garde Award for HIV research, an award intended to stimulate groundbreaking research for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in drug abusers.

French Government Honors Dr. Volkow

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Announces the 2009 International Prize, awarded by the French Institute of Health and Medical Research, to NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow.

NIDA Curriculum Piques Students' Interest in Addiction Careers

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Describes an eight-module web-based curricula that introduces addition research to graduate students of nursing, dentistry, and medicine.

Dr. Geoffrey Schoenbaum Receives the Waletzky Memorial Award

Bulletin Board, Published October 2010

Announces the recipient of a 2009 award for innovation in research on drug addiction and alcoholism and with a focus on the changes that occur in the brain after exposure to drugs.

Young Opioid Abusers Benefit From Extended Buprenorphine-Naloxone Treatment

Treatment, Published April 2010
Despite shorter addiction histories, youths' risk of relapse following detoxification resembles that of adults.

Reports on a study investigating the benefits of extended opioid maintenance therapy that included drug counseling and 12 weeks of therapy with buprenorphine and naloxone.

Vouchers Boost Smoking Abstinence During Pregnancy

Prevention, Published April 2010
Benefits of therapy include improved fetal growth.

Describes a voucher-based reinforcement therapy trial with pregnant smokers to determine its effectiveness in enhancing abstinence rates.

Reality Videos Bring NIDA Scientists to Web Site for Teens

Bulletin Board, Published April 2010

Highlights new video clips on NIDA's Web site for teens that explore the dangers of drug abuse and that address questions from youth and their parents on the topic.

Genetic Overlap Between Substance Abuse and Bipolar Disorder

Basic Science, Published April 2010

Describes a literature analysis reporting on the prevalence of people with bipolar disorder who also have a substance use disorder and discusses the genetic link that may contribute to this comorbidity.

Stroop Test Identifies Patients at Risk for Treatment Dropout

Treatment, Published April 2010

Reports on a study of cocaine abusers revealing that the Stroop test may predict which cocaine abusers are likely to drop out of therapy.

Peer Interaction Enhances Adolescent Rats' Drug Reward

Basic Science, Published April 2010

Describes an animal study reporting that peer interaction enhances adolescent rats’ drug reward and discusses the impact of these findings to future research on drug reward in social context.

Some Teens Reporting Nonmedical Use of Prescriptions Develop Disorders

Public Health, Published April 2010

Reports teen drug abuse based on 2006-2007 data from a national survey on drug use and health and compares differences by gender.

Injection Drug Users Acquire Hepatitis C Infection Later in Developed Countries

Public Health, Published April 2010

Reports trends in onset of injection drug use to infection with hepatitis C virus in developed countries and notes the influence of prevention efforts.

Workgroup Directs Search for Genes That Influence Addiction

NIDA @ Work, Published April 2010

Highlights NIDA’s research portfolio to identify the genes and genetic processes responsible for a person’s vulnerability to drug abuse.

Helping Doctors Become First Responders to Substance Abuse

Director's Perspective, Published April 2010

Describes a toolkit that guides doctors in assessing a patient’s risk of developing an addiction problem, advising patients on the effects of substance abuse, and arranging for referrals.

Behavior Game Played in Primary Grades Reduces Later Drug-Related Problems

Prevention, Published April 2010
Positive effects are most pronounced in disruptive boys.

Presents research findings on a study to test the effectiveness of a classroom activity designed to instill appropriate behavior during children’s first 2 years of school.

James A. Inciardi (1939-2009)

Bulletin Board, Published April 2010

Remembers Dr. James A. Inciardi, founder and co-director of the Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies and professor at the University of Delaware, who died on November 23, 2009.

How-To Guides Provide Tips for Publishing Addiction-Related Articles

Bulletin Board, Published April 2010

Describes a book and online tutorial for young investigators of addiction science that provides tips for publishing their studies in scholarly journals.

Dr. Phil Skolnick Now Leads NIDA's Medications Development Efforts

Bulletin Board, Published April 2010

Announces the appointment of Dr. Phil Skolnick as NIDA’s director of the Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse.

Attention to Bipolar Disorder Strengthens Substance Abuse Treatment

Treatment, Published April 2010
Integrated group counseling improves outcomes in a difficult-to-treat dual-disorder population.

Describes a study of participants who had both substance abuse and bipolar disorder to investigate the potential benefits of integrated group therapy for this population.

Report Discusses Co-Occurrence of Drug Abuse and Other Mental Disorders

Treatment, Published December 2009

Describes an updated report on the co-occurrence, or comorbidity, of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia, and depression.

Study Gives Green Light to Antiretroviral Medications for HIV-Infected Injection Drug Users

Treatment, Published December 2009
HIV mortality rates were similar regardless of whether patients used illicit injection drugs.

Reports finding from a study showing that access to antiretroviral therapies, HAART in particular, can improve the health of HIV-infected patients who have a history of injection drug use.

Test Substance Attenuates Signs of Cocaine Withdrawal in Rats

Treatment, Published December 2009

Reports on several drugs that may ward off depression and anxiety, common withdrawal symptoms from cocaine, based on an animal study.

Recovery May Be Harder for Adolescents, Animal Study Suggests

Treatment, Published December 2009

Reports animal study findings that suggest adolescents' heightened sensitivity to drug reward puts them at enhanced risk of addiction and may also increase their challenges in recovery.

Rats Reared Alone Show ADHD Signs

Basic Science, Published December 2009

Describes an animal study showing that rats raised in isolation may prove useful in future studies exploring the neurobiology that links impulsivity and vulnerability to addiction.

Recovery Checkup System Helps Substance Abusers Who Have Mental Disorders

Treatment, Published December 2009
Benefits include quicker return to treatment when recovery falters and longer retention.

Reports on a posttreatment intervention to support recovery that may be especially beneficial for substance abusers with co-occurring mental disorders.

Rare Glutamate Receptor Proliferates After Cocaine Withdrawal

Basic Science, Published December 2009
Molecular change in rat brains parallels increase in drug-seeking behavior.

Reports findings that a rare neuroreceptor may be linked to the intensive cravings cocaine abusers experience during their first weeks of abstinence.

Teens With Unhealthy Weight-Control Behavior Are More Likely to Abuse Drugs

Public Health, Published December 2009

Highlights data on unhealthy eating behaviors, such as fasting or purging, and substance abuse problems among teens.

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