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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Drug Addiction Research and the Health of Women

Cora Lee Wetherington, Ph.D., Women's Health Coordinator
Adele B. Roman, M.S.N., R.N., Deputy Women's Health Coordinator

Table of Contents


Drug Addiction Research and the Health of Women-------1
Loretta P. Finnegan, M.D.

Role of the Office of Research on Women's Health-------5
Vivian W. Pinn, M.D.

Women and Substance Abuse: A New National Focus-------13
Susan J. Blumenthal, M.D., M.P.A.

Women and Addiction in the United States-1850 to 1920 -------33
Stephen R. Kandall, M.D.

Women and Addiction in the United States- 1920 to the Present-------53
Stephen R. Kandall, M.D.

Keynote Address: Neurobiological Correlates of the Addictions: Findings From Basic and Treatment Research-------81
Mary Jeanne Kreek, M.D.



The Epidemiology of Substance Use and Dependence Among Women-------105
Denise B. Kandel, Ph.D.; Lynn A. Warner, M.P.P.; and Ronald C. Kessler, Ph.D.


Biological/Behavioral Mechanisms

Cocaine Abuse and Reproductive Function in Women-------131
Nancy K. Mello, Ph.D.

Stress-Related Psychopathology as a Vulnerability Factor in Drug-Taking: The Role of Sex-------151
D. Caroline Blanchard, Ph.D.


Biological/Behavioral Mechanisms Panel

Gender Differences in Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats: Relevance to Human Drug-Taking Behavior-------165
David C.S. Roberts, Ph.D., and Rachel Phelan, M.Sc.

The Relevance of Stress and Eating to the Study of Gender and Drug Use-------173
Neil E. Grunberg, Ph.D., and Laura Cousino Klein, M.S.

Translating Basic Research on Drugs and Pregnancy Into the Clinical Setting-------187
James R. Woods, Jr., M.D.



Behavioral Therapies for Female Drug Users: An Efficacy-Focused Review-------197
Karla Moras, Ph.D.

Pharmacology: Gender-Specific Considerations in the Use of Psychoactive Medications-------223
Sidney H. Schnoll, M.D., Ph.D., and Michael F. Weaver, M.D.

Need for Services Research on Treatment for Drug Abuse in Women-------229
Jacqueline Wallen, Ph.D., M.S.W.

Service Providers and Treatment Access Issues-------237



Substance Abuse Among Women: Familial Factors and Comorbidity-------245
Kathleen R. Merikangas, Ph.D., and Denise E. Stevens, Ph.D.


Etiology Panel

Warriors and Worriers: A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences in Drug Use-------271
Judith S. Brook, Ed.D.; Martin Whiteman, Ph.D.; and Patricia Cohen, Ph.D.

Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use and Abuse Among Women-------285
Dean G. Kilpatrick, Ph.D.; Heidi S. Resnick, Ph.D.; Benjamin E. Saunders, Ph.D.; and Connie L. Best, Ph.D.

Pregnancy, Drugs, and Harm Reduction-------309
Marsha Rosenbaum, Ph.D., and Katherine Irwin

Work Stress, Coping, and Substance Use Among Female Nurses-------319
R. Lorraine Collins, Ph.D.; Gernot Gollnisch, Ph.D.; and Elizabeth T. Morsheimer, Ed.M.



HIV Infection in Women: Implications for Drug Abuse Treatment and Research-------339
Peter A. Selwyn, M.D., M.P.H., and Marc N. Gourevitch, M.D., M.P.H.

Social and Behavioral Consequences of Chemical Dependence-------355
Rafaela R. Robles, Ed.D.; Carmen A. Marrero, M.P.H.; Tomás D. Matos, M.S.; Héctor M. Colón, M.A.; Lourdes I. Cancel, M.S.; and Juan C. Reyes, M.S.


Consequences Panel

Psychosocial Predictors of AIDS Risk Behavior and Drug Use Behavior in Homeless and Drug-Addicted Women of Color-------365
Adeline Nyamathi, R.N., Ph.D., F.A.A.N.; Judith A. Stein, Ph.D.; and Mary-Lynn Brecht, Ph.D.

Association Between Early or Later Onset of Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Women-------389
Linda B. Cottler, Ph.D.; Arbi Ben Abdallah, M.S.; and Wilson M. Compton, M.D.

Partner Violence Experiences and Women's Drug Use: Exploring the Connections-------407
Brenda A. Miller, Ph.D.



Links Between Prevention and Treatment for Drug-Abusing Women and Their Children-------417
Karol L. Kumpfer, Ph.D.



Factors Influencing Health Behaviors and Drug Abuse Among Low-Income Black and Latino Women-------439
Kathy Sanders-Phillips, Ph.D.


Legal and Criminal Justice Issues

Punishing Women for Their Behavior During Pregnancy: An Approach That Undermines the Health of Women and Children-------467
Lynn M. Paltrow, J.D.


Crosscutting Issues Panel

Homeless African-American Women and Their Families: Coping With Depression, Drugs, and Trauma-------503
Sheryl Brissett-Chapman, Ed.D., A.C.S.W., L.I.C.S.W.

Drug Use and Increased Risk of HIV Among Lesbians and Other Women Who Have Sex With Women-------517
Marjorie J. Plumb, M.N.A.; Elizabeth J. Rankow, P.A.-C., M.H.S.; and Rebecca M. Young, M.Phil.

Methodological and Conceptual Issues in Understanding Female Hispanic Drug Users-------529
Margarita Alegría, Ph.D.; Mildred Vera, Ph.D.; Gisela Negrón, Ph.D.; Margarita Burgos, Ph.Dc.; Carmen Albizu, M.D.; and Glorisa Canino, Ph.D.

Health Needs of American Indian Women-------553
Pamela Jumper-Thurman, Ph.D., and Barbara Plested, M.A.

Treatment of Women With Substance Abuse Problems-------565
David J. Mactas

Research Directions and Opportunities-------573
Richard A. Millstein

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