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The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States - 1992

Table 4.14

Overview of Selected Studies of Drug-Exposed Infants

Authors, Publication Date

Population Studied

Study Methodology and Population

Major Findings

Joyce et al. (1994) Hospital Application of prevalence rates from a California State study to national birth figures was used to estimate national prevalence for 1991; the hospital-based prevalence data used information on all patients who delivered at large New York City hospitals during a 5-month period. 287,800 black, white, and Hispanic infants were born exposed to illegal drugs in 1991
11.2% of the hospital sample were exposed to one or more drugs
Zuckerman et al. (1989);
Frank et al. (1988)
Hospital Assessed cocaine and marijuana use by interviews and urine tests obtained prenatally and immediately post partum from 679 women enrolled in prenatal care at Boston City Hospital between 1984 and 1987. 18.0% cocaine
27.0% marijuana
4.0% opiates
MacGregor et al. (1990) Hospital Urine tests for marijuana prevalence among 322 women delivering in an urban hospital admitted during a 1.5-month period in 1987. 19.9% marijuana
32.3% public prenatal care patients
7.5% private prenatal care patients
Chasnoff et al. (1990) Population Urine tests of all pregnant women enrolled for prenatal care during a 1-month period in 1989 at any of 5 public clinics and at any of 12 private obstetrical practices in Pinellas County, Florida. 3.4% cocaine
11.9% marijuana
0.3% opiates
Gomby and Shiono (1991) Population (national survey) Used the 1990 NIDA National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) and 1987 national birth rates to estimate prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among pregnant women (ages 12-34). 4.5% cocaine
17.4% marijuana
Gerstein and Harwood (1990) Population (national survey) Used the 1988 NIDA NHSDA to determine (1) the numbers of infants exposed each year to one or more illicit drugs and (2) the number of pregnant women in need of treatment. 350,000 to 625 infants are exposed each year to 1 or more illicit drugs
105,000 pregnant women are in need of drug treatment

Source: CSAP (1994).

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