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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

September, 1999


Dr. Naimah Weinberg and Dr. Meyer Glantz, of the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, served as guest editors for a Special Section on Child Psychopathology Risk Factors for Drug Abuse, for the September 1999 issue of the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. This section includes six original papers by participants in NIDA's July 1997 Workshop on Child Psychopathology Risk Factors for Drug Abuse, and a discussion piece by Dante Cicchetti. Many of the contributors are NIDA grantees. The three population-based studies move the field beyond cross-sectional comorbidity surveys, by studying children and risk factors longitudinally. The three family-based studies apply novel methodologic approaches to understanding familial risk and comorbidity. In addition to serving as guest editors, Drs. Weinberg and Glantz contributed an overview paper which reviews the current literature and introduces the special section. Weinberg, N.Z., and Glantz, M.D. "Child Psychopathology Risk Factors for Drug Abuse: Overview." Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, pp. 290-297, 1999.

A new research volume, supported in part by NIDA, the American Anthropological Association, and the Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, reviews the past contributions of research that has combined ethnography with epidemiology to understand risks for HIV in drug using populations. Chapters in this new volume cover such issues as the application of ethnographic and other qualitative methods in epidemiological research on drug use and HIV/AIDS in diverse community settings; the significance of historical, political, economic, and sociocultural factors for understanding drug use behavior and risks for HIV/AIDS; the integration of methodological approaches in collaborative studies involving ethnography and virology; the challenges that often arise in ethnographic and epidemiological research on drug abuse and HIV transmission, such as studies of social and sexual risk networks, needle exchange programs, gender-based/sensitive issues, and violence; the role of multidisciplinary and qualitative research in developing treatment and prevention strategies and evaluating interventions; and the nature and resolution of ethical dilemmas in anthropological and epidemiological research on drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. Marshall, P., Singer, M., Clatts, M. (Eds.) with Guest Editors, R. Needle and E. Lambert. Integrating Anthropological Approaches in Epidemiological and Prevention Research on Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS. NIDA Research Volume, September 1999.

Weinberg, N.Z. "Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits associated with Parental Alcohol Use." In: M.E. Hertzig and E.A. Farber (Eds.), Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development 1998, Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel, pp. 315-329, 1999. Reprinted from Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Weinberg, N.Z. "Commentary: Behavioral Inhibition and Developmental Risk." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, pp. 417-420, 1999.

Simpson, D.D., Joe, G.W., Fletcher, B.W., Hubbard, R.L., and Anglin, M.D., A National Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes for Cocaine Dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry 56(6), pp. 507-514, 1999.

Hilton, T. "Enrolling Management Support for Dealing with Poor Performers", Government Executive Magazine On-line, June 8, 1999.

Avants, S.K., Margolin,A. Sindelar,J.L, Rounsaville,B.J., Schottenfeld, R., Stine, S., Cooney, N.L., Rosenheck, R.A., Li, Shou-Hua, and Kosten, T.R. "Day Treatment versus Enhanced Standard Methadone Services for Opioid-Dependent Patients: A Comparison of Clinical Efficacy and Cost." Am J Psychiatry, 156, pp. 27-33, 1999.

Bolla, K.I., Rothman, R., and Cadet, J.L. "Dose-Related Neurobehavioral Effects of Chronic Cocaine Use." J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 11(3), pp. 361-369, 1999.

Jayanthi, S., Ladenheim, B., Andrews, A.M., and Cadet, J.L. "Overexpression of Human Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in Transgenic Mice Attenuates Oxidative Stress Caused by Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)." Neuroscience 91(4), pp. 1379-1387, 1999.

Herning, R.I., King, D.E., Better, W.E., and Cadet, J.L. "Neurovascular Deficits in Cocaine Abusers." Neuropsychopharmacology 21(1), pp. 110-118, 1999.

Bell, S.L., Taylor, R.C., Singleton, E.G., Henningfield, J.E., and Heishman, S.J. "Smoking after Nicotine Deprivation Enhances Cognitive Performance and Decreases Tobacco Craving in Drug Abusers." Nicotine and Tobacco Research 1, pp. 45-52, 1999.

Heishman, S.J. and Henningfield, J.E. "Is Caffeine a Drug of Dependence? Criteria and Comparisons." In B.S. Gupta and U. Gupta (Eds.), Caffeine and Behavior: Current Views and Research Trends, pp. 137-150. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999.

Shurtleff, D. "Comment: Applying Behavioral Economics to the Challenge of Reducing Cocaine Abuse." In: Chaloupka, F.S., Grossman, M., Bickel, W.K., and Saffer, H. (Eds.). The Economic Analysis of Substance Use and Abuse. Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago Press, pp. 180-184, 1999.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community Work Group, Volume II, December 1998: Proceedings
NIH Pub. No. 99-4527
This publication provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends in drug use reported by NIDA researchers located in selected cities and states throughout the United States.

Pending Publications

Approaches to Substance Abuse Counseling
NIH Pub. No. 99-4151
This publication will detail descriptions of 12 counseling approaches currently being used in the United States. Contributions from the University of Pennsylvania, the Hazelden Foundation, and the Betty Ford Center, among others, are included.

Integrating Cultural, Observational, and Epidemiological Approaches in the Prevention of Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS: Current Status and Future Prospects
NIH Pub. No. 99-4565
This publication, developed in conjunction with the American Anthropological Association, will report on a variety of topical areas including the application of ethnographic methods to epidemiological research on drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention and the role of multidisciplinary and qualitative research in developing treatment and prevention strategies.

Measuring and Improving Cost, Cost-Effectiveness, and Cost-Benefit for Substance Abuse
NIH Pub. No. 99-4518
This "how to" manual will provide managers of substance abuse programs with a step-by-step approach to conducting cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of their programs.

Mind Over Matter-The Brain's Response to Methamphetamine
NIH Pub. No. 99-4394
This addition to NIDA's award-winning "Mind Over Matter" series targeting middle school age youth will address scientific information about how methamphetamine acts in the brain and body.

National Survey Results on Drug Use from the Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1998: Volume I: Secondary School Students
NIH Pub. No. 99-4660
Volume II: College Students and Young Adults
NIH Pub. No. 99-4661 These two publications will report on the cumulative findings of the NIDA-supported Monitoring the Future study which examines the prevalence of drug use among American secondary students (i.e., 8th, 10th, and 12th grades), college-age, and young adults.

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment-A Research-Based Guide
NIH Pub. No. 99-4180
The publication will provide over-arching principles related to effective drug addiction treatment based on 25 years of NIDA research. Also included will be answers to commonly asked questions about drug treatment, descriptions of major kinds of treatment, examples of effective therapies, and a resource section.


NIDA NOTES, Vol. 14, Issue No. 2
The association between drug abuse and infectious diseases is highlighted in this issue in an article about heroin snorters and their risk of contracting several infectious diseases and transitioning to injecting drug use. The Director discusses the ways in which NIDA's drug abuse research helps curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and hepatitis B and C. New medication compounds that attach cocaine in the bloodstream before it affects the brain are discussed, as well as the role of two neurotransmitters in affecting cocaine's action in the brain. Other articles feature the new members of NIDA's Advisory Council and how NIDA has tracked drug abuse patterns over the years.

NIDA NOTES, Vol. 14, Issue No. 3
This issue's lead article and Director's Column deal with the subtle but significant effects of prenatal cocaine exposure. NIDA's most recent Town Meeting in Atlanta is covered. Another article looks at how a NIDA-supported science education project in a California high school is sparking student interest in science in general and drug abuse research. The Tearoff offers information in brief on cocaine abuse and treatment.

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