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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

September, 1998

Program Activities

Program Announcements/RFAs

On June 9, 1998, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH Institutes including NIGMS, NIEHS, NIAMS, NIA, NIMH, NIAAA, NICHD, NHGRI and NHLBI, issued a Program Announcement to encourage research on the Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes (PA-98-078). The purpose of this initiative is to support new studies on the architecture of complex phenotypes, including research using human and model systems as well as research using theoretical approaches. The studies targeted by this Program Announcement are expected to expand understanding of the roles of genetic and environmental variation and their interactions in causing phenotypic variation in populations; increase the quantity and quality of population-based data; lead to development of mathematical and statistical tools for analyzing measured genotype data; lead to improvements in study design; and create biologically relevant models for understanding the origins, roles and implications of genetic variation in causing variation in phenotypes.

On June 10, 1998, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Basic Behavioral and Cognitive Science Research: Approaches to the Study of HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse (DA-99-002). This RFA is intended to encourage applications for research projects in the basic behavioral and cognitive sciences that can address the complex relationship between drug abuse/addiction and HIV/AIDS transmission and progression. Research is needed to characterize the antecedent variables and processes associated with increased risk for contracting HIV/AIDS and to determine the behavioral and cognitive consequences caused by potential combined effects of the virus, drugs of abuse, drug abuse pharmacotherapies, and anti-HIV medications. In addition, the recent development of anti-HIV medications requires adherence to complex medication regimens. It is important, therefore, to understand the basic cognitive and behavioral processes associated with treatment compliance, and the influence of drug abuse and addiction on these fundamental processes. Knowledge gained from basic behavioral and cognitive science research will aid in the development and refinement of treatment and prevention interventions. Letter of Intent Receipt date for this RFA is December 15, 1998; Application Receipt date is January 15, 1999.

Other Program Activities

Cocaine Rapid Efficacy Screening Trials (CREST) Program

The Medications Development Division, Clinical Trials Branch has initiated a Cocaine Rapid Efficacy Screening Trials (CREST) Program at 5 Medications Development Research Unit (MDRU) sites. Under direction of Dr. Deborah Leiderman, these Phase II trials evaluate the safety/efficacy of currently marketed medications for potential treatment of cocaine dependence. Each CREST protocol evaluates 2-3 marketed medications versus placebo in a controlled, 8 week double paradigm targeted to enroll 50-60 patients per site.

NIDA/NeuroSearch CRADA

The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between NIDA/MDD and NeuroSearch has progressed to the point where NeuroSearch has begun Phase I clinical trials of its proprietary compound as a potential treatment for cocaine addiction.

Drug Dependence Items on National Gambling Impact Study

NIDA is supporting inclusion of drug dependence items on a national survey of gambling behavior being fielded by the National Gambling Impact Study Commission (NGISC). The NGISC was created by the 104th Congress to conduct a comprehensive study of the social and economic impacts of gambling on individuals, families, communities, and social institutions. The national survey, which will be collected by telephone, will include, inter alia, questions to assess problem or pathological gambling according to the criteria in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV); the Commission mandate also covers consideration of illicit drug use. NIDA will also support a supplement to the NGISC to include drug items to allow ascertainment of drug dependence using DSM-IV criteria. The final Commission report, due to Congress in June 1999, will incorporate findings based on these NIDA-sponsored items, and the data files will be provided to NIDA staff for analysis of co-occurring pathological gambling patterns and drug dependence.

NIDA/IRP Summer Research Program for Students

Since 1986, the IRP has had a summer research program for students. During the summer of 1998, a total of 41 students representing 35 high schools, colleges, and medical and graduate schools participated in the program through either the NIH Summer Internship Program or the Minority Research and Training Program. Each student participant was assigned to work with an IRP scientist on a research project. The students' training program is individually developed and includes directed readings, tutorials, attendance at seminars, and actual laboratory experience under the direction of the scientist. The culmination of the summer program is the students' presentation of their research at the NIH Student Poster Session held at the Bethesda campus in early August. Because of outstanding contributions and effort, some students will be co-authors on published papers or abstracts. The NIH Summer Internship Program is coordinated by Dr. Stephen Heishman, and the Minority Research and Training Program is coordinated by Dr. Jean Cadet and Ms. Mary Affeldt.

NIDA/IRP Fellows Committee

Within the intramural program, a NIDA Fellows Committee has been established, consisting of fellows elected from each of NIDA's intramural branches. The committee is modeled after the highly successful NIH Fellows Committee. Its mission is to work for the enhancement of the intramural research experience at NIDA, to serve as liaison between NIDA's fellows and the NIDA Administration, and to promote the fellows' future scientific careers. As its first major project, the NIDA Fellows Committee created and conducted the NIDA Fellows Survey, a one-hundred item questionnaire which polled the fellows' satisfaction with many aspects of their fellowship experience (e.g. Physical Resources, Technical Support, Mentor Relations, the NIDA Administration). This survey was completed by forty of NIDA's forty-eight fellows, and its findings were presented in the NIDA Fellows Survey Results Summary, which identified those areas receiving praise and criticism, both NIDA-wide and broken down by NIDA branch. From these findings, and subsequent discussions which took place in both Branch and Committee meetings, the NIDA Fellows Committee Action Plan was generated and presented to NIDA's Scientific Director, Dr. Barry Hoffer, in July of 1998. This Action Plan consisted of ten specific recommendations for the NIDA Administration to undertake to improve the intramural fellowship experience, and included suggestions to hire a professional consulting firm to improve the subject recruitment process, allocate an FTE slot for a full-time statistician, make successful mentorship a formal part of each senior staff's evaluation, and mandate that each fellow receive the basic necessities of a personal work space, a personal computer, and the funds to attend one scientific conference and one scientific workshop per year.

Summer Research Placements in Drug Abuse for Underrepresented Minority Students

For the second consecutive year, NIDA's Special Populations Office (with support from the Office of Research on Minority Health) sponsored summer research placements in drug abuse for underrepresented minority high school and undergraduate students. Twenty-two students participated in this year's program, which enabled them to work closely with NIDA investigators.

NIDA'S New/Competing Awards Since May 1998

Adinoff, Bryon --- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Limbic Sensitivity in Cocaine Addiction

Aldrich, Jane V. --- University of Maryland
Opioid Peptide Analogs as Probes of Opioid Receptors

Arria, Amelia M. --- Johns Hopkins University/Dept. of Mental Hygiene
Suspected Influences on Methamphetamine Use

Aston-Jones, Gary --- Allegheny University of the Health Sciences
Norepinephrine, Extended Amygdala and Opiate Withdrawal

Basbaum, Allan I. --- University of California
Spinal Mechanisms of Opioid Analgesia and Tolerance

Bechara, Antoine --- University of Iowa
Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Substance Abuse

Benowitz, Neal L. --- San Francisco Hospital/Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine

Bidlack, Jean M. --- University of Rochester
Opioid Receptors on Lymphocytes and Brain

Bigelow, George E. --- Johns Hopkins University Bayview Campus
Treatment Research Center: Behavioral Pharmacology

Borchardt, Ronald T. --- University of Kansas
Cyclic Prodrugs of Opioid Peptides

Branch, Marc N. --- University of Florida
Behavioral Determinants of Cocaine Tolerance

Brooner, Robert K. --- Johns Hopkins University -- Bayview Medical Center
Comparing Complementary Behavior Therapies

Carroll, Frank I. --- Research Triangle Institute
Novel Pharmacotherapies for Cocaine Dependence

Celentano, David D. --- Johns Hopkins University
Epidemiology of HIV-1 among Opiate Users in N Thailand

Chavez, Ernest L. --- Colorado State University
Mexican-American Dropouts and Drug Use

Cheng, Peter Y. --- Cornell University Medical College
ACTH Release by Dyn A: Role of NMDA Receptors

Chen, Kewen --- University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey Medical School
Delay of Gratification: Substance Use/Abuse/Dependence

Cherek, Don R. --- University of Texas Health Sciences Center
Altering Behavioral Risk for Drug Dependence

Chiauzzi, Emil --- Innovative Training Systems
Smart: An Alternative for Incarcerated Substance Abusers

Childers, Steven R. --- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Molecular Regulatory Mechanisms of Brain Opioid Systems

Collins, Allan C. --- University of Colorado
Pharmacogenetic Regulation of Sensitivity to Nicotine

Collins, Linda M. --- Pennsylvania State University
Drug Abuse Prevention Research Methodology Conferences

Crystal, Stephen --- Rutgers University
Drug Treatment and Care During Pregnancy in HIV+ Women

Csuhai, Eva --- University of Kentucky
Regulation of N-arginine Dibasic Convertase

Curran, James W. --- Emory University/Rollins School of Public Health
Emory/Atlanta Center for AIDS Research

D'Aunno, Thomas A. --- University of Chicago
Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey

D'Esposito, Mark --- University of Pennsylvania
Drug Studies of Dopamine and Prefrontal Function

Devi, Lakshmi A. --- New York University Medical Center
Posttranslational Regulation of Opioid Receptors

Duncan, Terry E. --- Oregon Research Institute
Random Coefficient Models of Family Substance Use

Edgar, Dale M. --- Stanford University
Sleep Homeostasis and Stimulant Drugs of Abuse

Edlin, Brian --- University of California
HIV Prevalence and Incidence Trends among IDUs 1986-1997

Edlin, Brian --- University of California
Randomized Hepatitis B Vaccine Delivery Trial for IDUs

Engel, Jorgen A. --- Oteborg University Faculty of Medicine
Ethanol and Nicotine: Neurobiological Interactions

Evans, Christopher J. --- University of California, Los Angeles
Mutational Libraries to Study Opioid Receptor Function

Fiorentine, Robert --- UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center
Client Needs and Drug Treatment Effectiveness

Fischman, Marian W. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc.
Drug Effects on Behavior: Workplace Implications

Foltin, Richard W. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc.
Laboratory Analysis of Cocaine Abstinence

Forman, Steven D. --- Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic
Neurobiology of Cognitive Gains with Opiate Maintenance

Foung, Steven K. H. --- Stanford University
Immunologic Response of Intravenous Drug Users to HTLV

Gastfriend, David R. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
Validity of the ASAM Criteria for Drug Abuse Treatment

Gawin, Frank H. --- Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Novel Neuroregulation of Crack Dependence

Gentry, W. Brooks --- University of Arkansas
Mechanisms of Onset & Offset of Rapid Stimulant Effects

Gifford, Andrew N. --- Brookhaven Science Assoc.
Modulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Cannabinoids

Grandy, David K. --- Oregon Health Sciences University
Transgenic Mice for Studying Drugs of Abuse

Grandy, David K. --- Oregon Health Sciences University
OFQ Modulation of Opioid Effects

Greenfield, Shelly F. --- McLean Hospital
Drug Use Disorders and Health Services Utilization

Grella, Christine E. --- University of California
Context & Effectiveness of Two Models of Service Delivery

Griffin, James P. --- Rollins School of Public Health
BRAVE (Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence)

Griffiths, Roland R. --- Francis Scott Key Medical Center
Abuse Liability of Benzodiazepines and Caffeine

Grimes, Tresmaine R. --- South Carolina State University
Rural Black Youth in Transition: Impact on Drug Use

Groves, Philip M. --- University of California
Novel Modes of Action of Abused Drugs

Hanson, Glen R. --- University of Utah -- Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pharmacology and Toxicology of Methamphetamine Abuse

Hans, Sydney L. --- University of Chicago
Infant Attachment: Maternal Trauma and Drug Use

Harachi, Tracy W. --- Social Development Research Group
Cross-Cultural Families Study

Hargreaves, Kenneth M. --- University of Texas Health Sciences Center
Peripheral Cannabinoids and Neurogenic Inflammation

Henderson, Earl E. --- Temple University School of Medicine
Effects of Opioids on HIV-1 Replication and Reactivation

Horvitz, Jon --- Columbia University
Mechanisms of Drug Abuse: DA and CS-Reward Learning

Howlett, Allyn C. --- St. Louis University
Cannabinoid Receptor Structure Activity Relationships

Hughes, John R. --- University of Vermont
Reduced Smoking to Prompt Smoking Cessation

Kalman, David W. --- Brown University
Smoking Cessation Treatment for Substance Abusers

Kendler, Kenneth S. --- Virginia Commonwealth University
A Twin-Family Study of Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence

Kish, Stephen J. --- Clarke Institute of Psychiatry
Brain Neurochemistry of Human Methamphetamine Users

Kurtz, Stephen E. --- Northwest Neurologic, Inc.
A Method to Identify Pharmacotherapies for Cocaine Abuse

Lester, Robin A. --- University of Alabama
Subunit-Specific Regulation of Nicotinic Receptors

Levin, Edward D. --- Duke University
Chronic Nicotine-Infusion Induced Memory Improvement

Levin, Frances R. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc.
Methylphenidate Treatment for Cocaine Abuse and ADHD

Liberty, Hilary J. --- Social Sciences Innovations
Self-Report/Biological Measures Database of Drug Use

Lindberg, Iris --- Louisiana State University Medical Center
Opioid Peptide Processing Enzymes

Logan, T. K. --- University of Kentucky -- Center for Drug and Alcohol Research
HIV Risk Behavior and Violence among Crack Users

Luetje, Charles W. --- University of Miami School of Medicine
Binding Site Structure of Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

Madden, John J. --- Emory University School of Medicine
6th Conference: Drug Abuse, Immunomodulation and AIDS

Madras, Bertha K. --- Harvard Medical School
Molecular Probes for Specific Cocaine Recognition Sites

Malow, Robert M. --- University of Miami
Reducing HIV Risk in Drug Abusing Youth

Mandeville, Joseph B. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
fMRI Study of CNS Physiology During Cocaine Response

Mantyh, Patrick W. --- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Neurochemistry of Nociception

Mark, Gregory P. --- Oregon Health Sciences University
Nucleus Accumbens Involvement in Cocaine Reinforcement

Martin, Catherine A. --- University of Kentucky
Drug Abuse Pubertal Hormones and ADHD in Adolescence

Mattingly, Bruce A. --- Morehead State University
Receptor-Dependent Sensitization to Cocaine

McLaughlin, Robert J. --- Baylor College of Medicine
Efficacy of Teacher-Facilitated Student Support Groups

McMahon, Thomas J. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Drug-Dependent Fathers: A Developmental Perspective

Miczek, Klaus A. --- Tufts University
Psychomotor Stimulants and Aggression in Animals

Montoya, Isaac D. --- Affiliated Systems Corporation
A Field-Based Treatment Model for Hispanic Cocaine Users

Moore, Richard D. --- Johns Hopkins University
HIV Disease Outcomes in Drug Users in Clinical Practice

Morgan, James P. --- Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital
Cellular Mechanisms of Crack Cocaine's Cardiac Toxicity

Murphy, Sheigla --- Institute for Scientific Analysis
A Study of New Heroin Users

Nair, Prasanna --- University of Maryland
Program for Drug Abusing Women and Their Children

Nestler, Eric J. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Molecular Neurobiology of Drug Addiction

Nishith, Pallavi --- University of Missouri, St. Louis
Substance Use and Dissociation in Female Trauma Victims

Norman, Andrew B. --- University of Cincinnati
Passive Immunity to Cocaine Using Novel Human Antibodies

North, Carol S. --- Washington University
Homeless Drug Abuse: Service Use, Costs, Consequences

Nurco, David N. --- Friends Research Institute
Community-Based Intervention for Children

Nyamathi, Adeline M. --- University of California
TB/HIV Risk Reduction with Homeless and Drug-Addicted

O'Brien, Charles P. --- University of Pennsylvania
Efficacy of Three Models of Nicotine Patch Treatment

Oswald, Robert E. --- Cornell University
Cocaine & Nicotine Action on CNS Acetylcholine Receptors

Paone, Denise --- Beth Israel Medical Center
Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk

Patrick, James W. --- Baylor College of Medicine
Molecular Approaches to Nicotine Addiction

Pilling, Gary M. --- Albany Molecular Research Inc.
18-mc Analogs as Potential Anti-addictive Agents

Pingitore, Regina A. --- Hines VA Hospital
Effects of Tryptophan Depletion on Cigarette Cravings

Pintar, John --- UMDNJ/Robert W. Johnson Medical School
Prenatal Differentiation of the Pituitary Gland

Piomelli, Daniele --- University of California, Irvine
Characterization of Anandamide Transport in Brain

Platt, Jerome J. --- Allegheny University of the Health Sciences
Substance Use and the Transition from Welfare to Work

Prokai, Laszlo --- University of Florida
Neuropeptide Ff Antagonists for Treating Opiate Abuse

Pugatch, David --- Rhode Island Hospital
HIV Testing among Adolescents with Substance Abuse

Roehrs, Timothy A. --- CWRU Henry Ford Health Sciences Center
Sleepiness and the Reinforcing Effect of Methylphenidate

Rounsaville, Bruce J. --- Yale University/Center for Substance Abuse Treatment
Diagnosis & Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

Rowlett, James K. --- Harvard Medical School
Anxiolytic Effects and Abuse of Benzodiazepine Receptor Ligands

Schechter, Martin --- University of British Columbia
Role of Syringe Access & Risk Factors on HIV Transmission

Schenk, James O. --- Washington State University
Drugs of Abuse and Bidirectional Transport of Dopamine

Schmitz, Joy M. --- University of Texas at Houston
Prevention of Smoking Relapse in Women

Schoenbaum, Ellie E. --- Montefiore Medical Center
HIV Therapy Adherence and Viral Resistance in Drug Users

Schumacher, Joseph E. --- University of Alabama
Cost Effectiveness of Drug Treatment for Homeless

Shorter, Simon --- Adeza Biomedical Corporation
HLA-G Test for Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Delivery

Shumsky, Jed S. --- Allegheny University of the Health Sciences
Prenatal Cocaine Exposure & Seizure Susceptibility

Singer, Lynn Twarog --- Rainbow Babies & Childrens Hospital
Cocaine Exposed Infants and Their Mothers

Singer, Merrill --- Hispanic Health Council
Longitudinal Study of AIDS Risk among Drug Users

Singhal, Pravin C. --- Long Island Jewish Medical Center
HIV-Associated Nephropathy in Drug Addicts

Slesnick, Natasha --- University of New Mexico
Treatment Outcome for Runaway Adolescents

Song, Zhao-hui --- Texas A & M University
Structure and Function of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor

Spealman, Roger D. --- New England Regional Primate Research Center
Primate Model of Speedball Abuse: Mechanisms & Treatment

Stewart, Jane --- Concordia University
Neurobiology of Relapse Induced by Stress and Drugs

Stinchcomb, Audra L. --- Albany College of Pharmacy
Naltrexone Prodrugs for Transdermal Delivery

Stormshak, Elizabeth A. --- Counseling Psychology Program
High-Risk Siblings as Predictors of Substance Use

Stranger, Catherine --- University of Vermont
Outcomes for Children of Drug Abusers: a Multisite Study

Sullivan, Jane M. --- Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Cannabinoid Effects on Synaptic Function and Plasticity

Swisher, John D. --- Pennsylvania State University
Life Skills Infusion/Prevention in Rural Junior High

Szeto, Hazel H. --- Cornell University Medical College
Pharmacokinetics and Fetal Exposure to Narcotics

Tecott, Laurence --- University of California, San Francisco
Serotonin 5HT2c Receptors and the Actions of Cocaine

Thomas, Mary L. --- University of Texas
Cocaine, Sex Hormones & 5-HT: Molecular & Behavioral Analyses

Toga, Arthur W. --- UCLA School of Medicine
A Conference on Brain Mapping Addiction Neurobiology

Turner, Barbara J. --- Jefferson Medical College
Medical & Substance Abuse Care for HIV+ Drug Users

Valentine, James D. --- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation
Stress & Reinstatement of Nicotine-Seeking Behavior

Vazquez, Delia M. --- University of Michigan
Postnatal Stress: HPA Axis and Vulnerability to Drug Use

Waterhouse, Barry D. --- Allegheny University of Health Sciences
Cocaine Modulation of Sensory Neuron Function

Weerts, Elise M. --- Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus
Vocalizations: A Model of Subjective Drug Effects

Welch, Sandra P. --- Virginia Commonwealth University
Career Development in Drug Abuse Research

Wells, Elizabeth A. --- University of Washington
Stages of Change and Cocaine Treatment

West, Charles H. --- Emory University/Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
Amphetamine Sensitization & Response to Natural Rewards

West, James B. --- Bend Research, Inc.
Technology for Generation of Drug-Candidate Libraries

West, Mark O. --- Rutgers/State University of New Jersey
Cocaine Self-Administration Mesolimbic Neurophysiology

Wilkins, Diana G. --- University of Utah -- Center for Human Toxicology
Hair Analysis to Monitor Drug Abuse Treatments

Winters, Ken C. --- University of Minnesota -- Research & Technology Transfer Adm.
Assessment and Treatment of Adolescent Drug Abusers

Woodward, Erna J. --- Biographics, Inc.
System to Test Medications Developed to Treat Drug Abuse

Zwaan, Rolf A. --- Florida State University
Smoking Addiction and Higher-Level Cognitive Processes

Review Activities

Staff Development

NIDA's Office of Extramural Program Review (OEPR) continues active involvement in providing staff training for NIDA and other NIH staff. In June, Dr. Teresa Levitin, Director, OEPR, presented at two sessions that were sponsored by the NIH Office of Extramural Research to address the implementation of the new policy on inclusion of children in research. These were attended by staff from many NIH Institutes, and Dr. Levitin addressed how the new policy will be implemented in review groups.

In July, Dr. William C. Grace, Deputy Director, OEPR, spoke on the various roles of the review administrator in extramural administration and facilitated case studies as part of the core training for new NIH employees provided through the NIH Office of Extramural Research.


At a grant writing workshop at the American Psychiatric Association's annual meeting in Toronto in June, Dr. Teresa Levitin presented on the Role of the Scientific Review Administrator in the peer review process. She gave a similar presentation to the Society of Biological Psychiatry convention in May and at the College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) meeting in Scottsdale in June, where she also led a mock Scientific Review Group meeting. Dr. Rita Liu co-presented a CPDD workshop titled "Merger of NIDA Science into the NIH Center for Scientific Review."

Dr. Mark Swieter presented an Update on Fellowship Review Procedures at the Third Annual NIDA Training Directors' Meeting held in Bethesda in May.

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