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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

September, 1998


Research Monograph

Cost-Benefit/Cost-Effectiveness Research of Drug Abuse Prevention: Implications for Programming and Policy--Research Monograph 176, NIH Pub. No. 98-4020.
This monograph provides definitions of prevention program types, discusses effect sizes to be expected from program delivery, assesses in financial and social terms the benefits to society that result from effective drug abuse prevention programs and policies. The monograph will have a variety of important uses to include guiding future developments in prevention programming, informing policy makers, legislators, and program managers concerning advanced prevention program strategies that work, and disseminating to the scientific research community an overview of the state-of-the-art of drug abuse prevention as reflected by a critical review of extant drug abuse prevention research.

Other Publications

National Conference on Drug Abuse Prevention: Presentations, Papers, and Recommendations NIH Pub. 98-4293.
This publication represents the outcome of more than 20 years of research that could be put to use in community prevention programs. The purpose of this publication is to present a compilation of keynote speeches, plenary presentations, and work group recommendations.

National Survey Results on Drug Use From the Monitoring the Future Study 1975-1997: Volume I: Secondary School Student, NIH Pub. 98-4345, NCADI BKD300.
Volume I of this report provides data from the 1995-1996 and the 1996-1997 school year. The Monitoring the Future data is one of the key indicators of trends in substance use among adolescents and young adults. It is the only national survey of its kind in the U.S. that collects data from 8th, 10th, and 12th graders.

National Survey Results on Drug Use From the Monitoring the Future Study 1975-1997: Volume II: College Students and Young Adults, NIH Pub. 98-4346.
This is the second volume in a two-volume set reporting the results of all surveys through 1997 from the Monitoring the Future study of American secondary school students, college students, and young adults. This second volume presents the results of the 1977 through 1997 follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1996 as these respondents have progressed through young adulthood.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community Epidemiology Work Group, December 1997: Volume I, NCADI BKD266, NIH Pub. 98-4297.
Volume I provides a detailed and quantitatively driven overview of current drug abuse patterns and trends. The report provides program administrators and officials with specific indicators and ethnographic information on current patterns and trends as well as emerging problems.

Slide Teaching Packet II: The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction, NCADI MS626.
This teaching packet was developed to provide health practitioners, neuroscientists, and teachers a tool to aid in discussions with high school students, the general public, and recovering drug addicts about the basic function of the brain, the neurobiological basis for addiction and the actions of heroin and cocaine. It includes a set of 30 slides, a "hard copy" print of the slide set (to aid in previewing) and a narrative script to accompany the slide set.

Economic Cost on Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992, NIH Pub. 98-4327, NCADI 265.
This publication was developed as a result of a study conducted to update information on the cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. This publication reporting the data and its analysis will be of considerable interest to policy makers as well as to drug abuse practitioners. This publication provides to the field of drug and alcohol demand and supply reduction the most current findings and interpretations of data in the areas of cost and cost analysis. The publication will be vitally important to the discussion of all aspects of drug and alcohol use reduction, including health care services, financing, and service delivery.

Mind Over Matter Series
This eye-catching series encourages young teens in grades 5 through 9 to reject drug use by teaching them about the effects of drugs on the brain. In each magazine, "Sara Bellum" takes students on a scientific journey to learn about the brain's complex responses to specific drugs. A brightly colored poster is included on the back of each magazine.

  • The Brain's Response to Marijuana, NIH Pub. 98-3859 NCADI PHD801L.
  • The Brain's Response to Inhalants, NIH Pub. 98-4038 NCADI PHD800L.
  • The Brain's Response to Steroids, NIH Pub. 98-3860 NCADI PHD804L.
  • The Brain's Response to Stimulants, NIH Pub. 98-3857 NCADI PHD805L.
  • The Brain's Response to Opiates, NIH Pub. 98-3856 NCADI PHD802L.
  • The Brain's Response to Hallucinogens, NIH Pub. 98-3858 NCADI PHD803L.
  • The Brain's Response to Nicotine, NIH Pub. 98-, NCADI PHD807.

Marijuana: Facts for Teens, NIH Pub. 98-4037 (Revised).
This revised publication provides adolescents, teenagers, and young adults with answers to some frequently asked questions about marijuana. The teen booklet explains the current knowledge about marijuana, what it is, who uses it, how it affects a person physically and mentally through short-term and long-term usage, and where to seek help. It also includes reactions to marijuana use by teenage users and nonusers.

Marijuana: What Parents Need to Know, NIH Pub. 98-4036 (Revised).
This revised publication provides valuable information gained from research on the dangers of marijuana and gives parents details about the drug so they can better communicate dangers to their children. The booklet also includes answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about marijuana, explanations of the latest scientific information, and suggestions about how to talk to teenagers about marijuana. Audiences for this publication include parents, grandparents, care givers, teachers, and recreation and community leaders who work with young people.

Research Report Series

Nicotine Addiction, NCADI PHD762, NIH Pub. No. 98-4342.
This publication describes what nicotine is; current epidemiological research data regarding its use; the medical consequences of nicotine use, with an emphasis on the effects of nicotine on the brain; current research findings about use during pregnancy, and treatment approaches.


NIDA NOTES, Vol. 12, Issue No. 5, NCADI NN0025.
This issue features results from NIDA's Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study. The issue also reports findings that morphine shrinks nerve cells in the brain. NIDA's cooperative work with Latin American countries to advance drug abuse research is also reported. An article also describes drug abuse education materials for middle school students.

NIDA NOTES, Vol. 12, Issue No. 6, NCADI NN0027.
The lead article in this issue reports on NIDA's Heroin Conference in Washington, D.C. Other articles discuss the conclusions of two panels: one on effective medical treatment of heroin, and the other on the need for research on the medical potential of marijuana. Another feature article looks at recent progress in research on pain relief.

NIDA NOTES -Vol. 13, Issue No. 1, NCADI NN0028.
NIDA's Methamphetamine Initiative is featured in this issue, as well as highlights from NIDA's 1997 Constituent Conference. Another feature article describes how NIDA uses interagency pacts and collaborations with other NIH institutes to extend its research reach. This issue's Tear off compares methamphetamine and cocaine.

NIDA NOTES -Vol. 13, Issue No. 2, NCADI NN0029.
A number of articles and the Director's Column in this issue discuss the links between child abuse and the victim's later abuse of drugs. A NIDA-sponsored international meeting of epidemiologic researchers is covered, including findings on international trends in drug abuse that were reported at the meeting. Another article reports on brain imaging studies that are providing information on cocaine's effects on the brain. Results from NIDA's annual Monitoring the Future study of drug use among high school students are detailed as well.

NIDA NOTES -Vol. 13, Issue No. 3, NCADI NN0030.
NIDA's National Conference on Drug Addiction Treatment is the lead story in this issue. The Director highlights NIDA's nicotine addiction research in his column, and a pair of articles looks at new findings in that area. Another feature reports on evidence showing that cocaine abuse may lead to strokes and mental deficits. NIDA-funded studies on how to stem tuberculosis among injecting drug abusers are covered as well.

A volume entitled Cocaine: Effects on the Developing Brain was published by the New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS) in June 1998. The volume is edited by John A. Harvey and Barry E. Kosofsky, and contains a Foreword by Dr. Leshner. A result of a NYAS meeting held in September 1997 with partial support from NIDA, the book brings together contributions from basic and clinical researchers, and includes discussion of research that has attempted to identify the molecular, neurochemical, physiologic, and neuropathologic processes that may mediate toxicity of in utero cocaine exposure, as well as behavioral and clinical correlates of that exposure.

Special Issue Chronicles NIDA's Prevention Research Response to Drug Abuse, HIV, and AIDS
In June 1998, the U.S. Public Health Service published a special supplement on the origins, evolution, and current status of the HIV prevention science knowledge base that was derived, in large part, from the HIV research and intervention programs supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) Community Research Branch. The special issue's Guest Editor is Richard H. Needle, Ph.D., MPH, Chief of NIDA's Community Research Branch, and the Guest Associate Editors are Susan L. Coyle, Ph.D., Chief of OEPR's Clinical, Epidemiological, and Applied Sciences Review Branch, and Helen Cesari, M.S., of the Community Research Branch. The special supplement chronicles NIDA's prevention research response to the epidemics of drug abuse, HIV, and AIDS since the Public Health Service first established a comprehensive plan in 1985 to control and prevent the spread of the infection. Public Health Reports, 113 (Suplmt. #1), June 1998.

Special Issue Provides Findings from NIDA's Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Research
A recent special issue provides findings from NIDA's Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research Program (CA) which, as of February 1997, included over 28,000 participants from as many as 23 urban and rural research sites in the U.S., Puerto Rico, and Brazil. The special issue makes clear that drug users are highly heterogeneous and difficult to categorize into any one group. In addition, while macro-level factors such as region or size of metropolitan area may influence drug use patterns and risks for HIV/AIDS, local contextual factors which define the conditions of daily lives (e.g., the local distribution and control of drugs, HIV seroprevalence levels, access to health care, living conditions, local traditions and customs regarding drug use, peer norms, and other social and cultural influences) have immediate and direct impacts as well. The special issue contains eight papers by NIDA-sponsored Principal Investigators, Co-PIs, and colleagues in the CA, and the Guest Co-Editors of the issue are David Himmelgreen and Merrill Singer, of the Hispanic Health Council in Hartford, Connecticut. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (Special Issue on the NIDA Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research Program); 24 (2), 1998.

Gorelick, D.A., Montoya, I.D. & Johnson, E.O. Sociodemographic Representation in Published Studies of Cocaine Abuse Pharmacotherapy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 49, pp. 89-93, 1998.

Carmona, G.N., Schindler, C.W., Shoaib, M., Jufer, R., Cone, E.J., Goldberg, S.R., Greig, N.H., Qian-Sheng, Y., and Gorelick, D.A. Attenuation of Cocaine's Behavioral Activity by Butyrylcholinesterase. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6, pp.274-279, 1998.

Gorelick, D.A. The Rate Hypothesis and Agonist Substitution Approaches to Cocaine Abuse Treatment. In Goldstein, D. (Ed.), Catecholamines: Bridging Basic Science with Clinical Medicine. (Advsnces in Pharmacology, Vol 42), (San Diego, Academic), pp. 995-997, 1998.

Sloboda, Z. What We have Learned from Research about the Prevention of HIV Transmission among Drug Abusers. Public Health Reports, 113, pp. 194-204, 1998.

Sloboda, Z. Drug Abuse among College Students: Part I. Impaired Driving Update, II(3), March/April 1998.

Sloboda, Z. Drug Abuse among College Students: Part II. Impaired Driving Update. II(4), May/June 1998.

Sloboda, Z. State of the Art of Prevention Research in the United States. Evaluating Drug Prevention in the European Union. EMCDDA Scientific Monograph Series, No. 2, 1998.

Cohen, P.J. The Placebo is not Dead: Three Historical Vignettes, IRB 20, pp. 6-8, 1998.

Dr. Jonathan Katz, IRP, has recently completed editorial work on a book summarizing recent research on the pharmacology and psychology of cocaine abuse. This book includes chapters by recognized experts in the field of cocaine abuse and covers areas from the basic pharmacology of cocaine, basic behavioral pharmacology of cocaine (co-authored by Katz), clinical pharmacology of cocaine, drug discovery efforts directed at cocaine abuse therapeutics, cocaine induced teratology, genetic underpinnings of cocaine abuse, treatment approaches to elimination of cocaine abuse, as well as sociologic issues involved in cocaine abuse.

Higgins, S.T. and Katz, J.L. (Eds.) Cocaine Abuse Research: Pharmacology, Behavior, and Clinical Applications. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.

Bergman, J. and Katz, J.L. Behavioral Pharmacology of Cocaine. In: S.T. Higgins and J.L. Katz (Eds.). Cocaine Abuse Research: Pharmacology, Behavior, and Clinical Applications. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.

Dr. Amy Newman served as guest editor of a special issue of the Journal Medicinal Chemistry Research. The issue focused on the recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of novel dopamine transporter ligands and their relationship to the development of a cocaine pharmacotherapeutic. Dr. Newman also contributed the invited guest editorial Novel Dopamine Transporter Ligands: The State of the Art. Med. Chem. Res. 8, pp. 1, 1998. The special issue was published in June, 1998.

Dr. Amy Newman prepared an invited review of her research efforts on the development of novel dopamine transporter ligands, based on benztropine. The review entitled "Novel Benztropine [3aŽ-(Diphenylmethoxy)tropane] Analogs as Probes for the Dopamine Transporter" will appear in Current Medicinal Chemistry, 5, pp. 301-315, 1998.

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