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NIDA Home > Publications > Director's Reports > September, 2010 Index    

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2010


NIDA Publications

Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction (Revised) (in press)
NIH Pub. No. 10-5605

The Science of Addiction explains in layman's terms how science has revolutionized our understanding of drug addiction as a brain disease that affects behavior. It uses simple language, diagrams, and graphics to help people understand how drugs change the brain in structure and in function. The booklet explains some of the reasons that people take drugs, helps explain why some people become addicted while others do not, and demonstrates how addiction, like other chronic diseases, may be prevented and treated.

Drugs: Shatter the Myths (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-7589

New! Q&A booklet answers teens' most frequently asked questions about drugs and drug abuse. Written and designed specifically for teens, with teen input, this must-have resource provides scientific facts with engaging images and design to help teens shatter the myths about drugs and drug abuse.

Strategic Plan - National Institute on Drug Abuse (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-6119

NIDA's Strategic Plan lays out the Institute's strategic priorities for the next five years, focusing on prevention, treatment, HIV/AIDS, and cross cutting-issues. A multipronged approach is described to confront the most pressing research needs in the area of drug abuse and addiction, capitalizing on research programs in the basic and clinical neurosciences, medication and behavioral therapies, and health services and prevention. NIDA's Strategic Plan was informed by input from NIDA's Director, NIDA staff, the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and various outside constituencies. It provides a framework for exploring exciting future directions while continuing to apply what we know to best prevent and treat drug abuse and addiction and lessen their devastating consequences to individuals and to society as a whole.

Heads Up Real News About Drugs and Your Body - Student Compilation (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-7647

This booklet is a collection of articles originally published and distributed nationwide in Scholastic Inc magazines. Designed to teach youth in grades 6-12 about the science and health consequences of drug abuse and addiction, this year's compilation contains articles that highlight the questions about drug abuse and addiction that teens' most want answers to and provides helpful hints for how teens can use that information to navigate peer pressure situations. Articles include "Real Questions, Real Answers" — providing answers from NIDA scientists to real teen questions on drugs and drug abuse; "Teen Science Investigations" — profiling the winners of the 2009 Intel ISEF Addiction Science Awards; and "Facts into Action" —featuring tips for teens on how to make smart moves when it comes to drugs. As an added bonus this year's compilation includes an article previously only available on the web that contains scavenger hunt questions highlighting drug facts from the three articles.

Heads Up Real News About Drugs and Your Body - Teacher Compilation (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-7648

This booklet provides skills building extension activities, individual lesson plans, and worksheet reproducibles, as well as other resources to those contained in the companion student compilation for 2000-2010. The compilation of teacher editions were originally published and distributed nationwide in Scholastic Inc magazines. Designed to assist teachers of 6th-12th graders with lesson plans that incorporate the reading and comprehension of the companion student articles on the science and health consequences of drug abuse and addiction, this year's compilation contains articles that highlight the questions about drug abuse and addiction that teens' most want answers to and provides helpful hints for how teens can use that information to navigate peer pressure situations. Lessons in this compilation, including role play exercises, pertain to the articles: "Real Questions, Real Answers," "Teen Science Investigations," and "Facts into Action."

Marijuana: Facts for Teens (Revised) (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-4037

The booklet explains current knowledge about marijuana and the latest scientific information on its effects. It provides teens with questions about marijuana, including what it is, who uses it, and how it affects a person physically and mentally after short- and long-term use.

Marijuana: What Parents Need to Know (Revised) (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-4036

The booklet provides valuable information from research on the dangers of marijuana. It gives parents explanations of the latest scientific information about the drug and suggestions on how to talk to teenagers about the drug.

Research Report Series: Marijuana Abuse (Revised) (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-3859

This Research Report summarizes what the science tells us about marijuana abuse in the United States and its effects on the brain and body. It includes an extensive review of the latest research literature presented for a general audience interested in learning more about marijuana's consequences for physical, mental, and emotional health.

Research Report Series: Cocaine Abuse (Revised) (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-4166

This updated version contains scientific information on crack and cocaine. Facts based on the latest technology are used to describe the different effects of this drug as well as the pathways in the brain that it affects; the medical consequences of use; and some behavioral treatments for cocaine abuse. NIDA also reports on several pharmacological compounds currently being tested for their potential use in treating cocaine addiction.

Research Report Series: Comorbidity Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses (Revised) (in press)
NIH Pub. No.: 10-5771

When two disorders or illnesses occur simultaneously in the same person, they are called comorbid. This research report addresses the comorbidity of drug abuse and addiction and other mental disorders. It explores the complex ways in which genetic, developmental, and environmental factors appear to interact to predispose individuals to develop both diseases or to have a greater risk of the second disorder after the first appears. The report describes the prevalence of comorbidity as well as the diagnostic and treatment challenges posed by comorbid conditions that involve drug abuse, addiction, and other mental disorders.

NIDA Notes, Vol. 23, No. 2
The lead story of this issue features animal research that demonstrates the potential of two medications to reduce relapse to cocaine and heroin abuse. The issue also presents neuroimaging data suggesting that flashy public service announcements are not as effective as low-key ads at stimulating those parts of the brain most likely to help smokers abstain. Another feature reports that crack cocaine users who are infected with HIV experience an accelerated decline in immune function regardless of their success in adhering to therapy, and that cocaine and methamphetamine increase both the ease with which the HIV virus enters immune cells and its replication rate once inside. The issue also reports that cocaine-induced proliferation of microscopic structures called dendritic spines in a brain region involved in reward and motivation may represent an adaptation that limits the drug's harmful effects. The issue also includes a story about a school-centered program for social and emotional development, called Positive Action, which was credited with a sharp reduction in rates of substance abuse, violent behavior, and voluntary sexual activity among primary school children in Hawaii. Finally, in the Director's Perspective column, NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow shares her insights on new tools and strategies to bolster anti-drug abuse behavioral therapies—from medications that act as cognitive enhancers to computer programs that increase the reach of behavioral therapies.

Addiction Science & Clinical Practice Vol. 5, No. 2
NIH Pub. No.: 10-7418

This issue presents an article by Dr. Thomas J. Gould that reviews current knowledge on the cognitive effects of drugs and the neurological underpinnings for those effects. In addition, Margaret Mroziewicz and Dr. Rachel F. Tyndale introduce the field of pharmacogenetics and provide examples demonstrating the impact of genetic variation on drug effects and drug dependence. Dr. Steve Martino reviews the empirical basis of evidence-based treatments for addiction and describes strategies for training counselors in using them. Drs. Jody L. Sindelar and Samuel A. Ball examine cost considerations of adopting evidence-based treatments and analyze, as an example, whether adopting contingency management is the best use of a certain program's resources. Dr. Michael S. Robbins and colleagues present challenges encountered and solutions developed during a scientifically rigorous trial of Brief Strategic Family Therapy implemented in a community setting.

CTN-Related Publications

CTN Brochure - Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice -- National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: The First Decade. This new 12-page brochure provides an overview of the first decade of research in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. It highlights several of the most successful protocols (buprenorphine, motivational incentives, etc.) and describes both the NIDA/SAMHSA Blending Initiative and the CTN Dissemination Library. It can be downloaded from the dissemination library: or from the CTN website:

Seven editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the progress of the protocols, committees, and node activity in the CTN. The Bulletin has wide readership within and outside the CTN and NIDA.

Data from 22 CTN studies are now available on the CTN Data Sharing Web Site Over 300 research scientists have downloaded one or more data sets. These data sets are in compliance with HIPAA and CDISC (Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium) standards in support of the interoperability required by the NIH Roadmap. The CTN Data Share is also part of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), which is a dynamic inventory of Web-based neuroscience resources: data, materials, and tools accessible via any computer connected to the Internet.

International Program Publications

NIDA International Program 2009 Annual Report
The 2009 Annual Report demonstrates how the NIDA International Program has promoted new research initiatives, disseminated knowledge, and engaged partners in diverse settings to build a network of international and regional organizations that share the common goal of finding evidence-based solutions to the public health problems of drug abuse, addiction, and drug-related HIV/AIDS.

NIDA International Forum Abstract Database
Research abstracts accepted for poster presentation at NIDA International Forums from 2003 through 2010 are now available in a searchable online database at Users may look for abstracts by author, title/subject, year, research category (basic science, epidemiology, prevention, or treatment), country, or geographic region.

Other Publications

Dr. David Thomas, DBNBR, published a Guest Editorial on Virtual Reality and Pain Research in Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation (1) 2010.

Bjork JM, Smith AR, Chen G, Hommer DW. Adolescents, adults and rewards: comparing motivational neurocircuitry recruitment using fMRI. PLoS One 2010; 5(7):e11440.

Borek N, Allison S, Caceres C. Involving vulnerable populations of youth in HIV prevention clinical research. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jul 1;54 Suppl 1:S43-49.

Boyce, CA. Reducing the unequal burden of mental health for Hispanic children in immigrant families. In Growing Up Hispanic: Health and Development of Children of Immigrants (In N.S. Landale, S.Hale, & A., Booth Eds). Urban Institute Press.

Wetherington CL. Sex differences and gonadal hormone influences in drug addiction and sexual behavior: progress and possibilities. Hormones and Behavior. 2010; 58, 2-7.

Compton WM, Dawson D, Duffy SQ, Grant BF. The effect of inmate populations on estimates of DSM-IV alcohol and drug use disorders in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry 2010;167: 473-475.

Saha TD, Compton WM, Pulay AJ, Stinson FS, Ruan WJ, Smith SM, Grant BF. Dimensionality of DSM-IV nicotine dependence in a national sample: An item response theory application. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2010;108: 21-28.

Goldstein RB, Compton WM, Grant BF. Antisocial behavioral syndromes and additional psychiatric comorbidity in posttraumatic stress disorder among U.S. adults: Results from wave 2 of the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurse Association 2010;16: 145-165.

Conway KP, Levy J, Vanyukov M, Chandler R, Rutter J, Swan GE, Neale M. Measuring addiction propensity and severity: The need for a new instrument. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, May 10, 2010 [Epub ahead of print].

Okuda M, Hasin DS, Olfson M, Khan SS, Nunes EV, Montoya I, Liu SM, Grant BF, Blanco C. Generalizability of clinical trials for cannabis dependence to community samples. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 May 25.

Li SM, Collins GT, Grundt P, Newman AH, Grandy DK, Woods JH, Katz JL. Species Differences in the Effects of Dopamine Receptor Agonists: Yawning and Locomotor Behavior in Mice and Rats. Behav. Pharmacol. 2010; 21(3): 171-181.

Richtand NM, Liu Y, Ahlbrand R, Sullivan JR, Newman AH, McNamara RK. Dopaminergic Regulation of Dopamine D3 and D3nf Receptor mRNA Expression. Synapse, 2010, 64(8) 634-643.

Orio L, Wee S, Newman AH, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF. The dopamine D3 receptor partial agonist CJB090 and antagonist PG01037 decrease progressive ratio responding for methamphetamine in rats with extended-access. Addiction Biology. 2010; 15: 312-323.

Achat-Mendes C, Grundt P, Cao J, Platt DM, Newman AH, Spealman RD. Dopamine D3 and D2 Receptor Mechanisms in the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Cocaine: Studies with Preferential Antagonists and Agonists in Squirrel Monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010; e-pub May 20, 2010.

Zhang P, Zou MF, Rodriguez AL, Conn PJ, Newman AH. Structure-Activity Relationships in a Novel Series of 7-Substituted-Aryl Quinolines and 5-Substituted-Aryl Benzothiazoles at the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5. Bioorg Med Chem 2010; 18(9): 3026-3035.

Eriksen J,Yoshimoto WB, Jorgensen TN, Newman AH, Gether U. Postendocytic Sorting of Constitutively Internalized Dopamine Transporter in Cell Lines and Dopaminergic Neurons. J Biol Chem 2010; e-pub June 15, 2010.


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