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NIDA Home > Publications > Director's Reports > September, 2008 Index    

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2008

Research Findings - International Program-Related Research

Publications by Former NIDA INVEST Fellows

Behavioral Characterization of the mGlu Group II/III Receptor Antagonist, LY-341495, in Animal Models of Anxiety and Depression
Bespalov, A.Y., van Gaalen, M.M., Sukhotina, I.A., Wicke, K., Mezler, M., Schoemaker, H., and Gross, G.
Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 2; [E-pub ahead of print]
INVEST Fellow: Anton Bespalov, Russia
There is a growing body of evidence indicating that stimulation of metabotropic glutamate type II receptors (mGlu(2/3)) reduces anxiety in laboratory animals and humans. Surprisingly, it was reported that mGlu(2/3) receptor antagonists have antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities in laboratory animal studies as well. The present study aimed to resolve this controversy by characterizing behavioral effects of a selective mGlu(2/3) receptor antagonist, LY-341495, in a variety of animal models sensitive to clinically used anxiolytic and antidepressant agents. In agreement with previous reports, LY-341495 (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced immobility in the mouse forced swim test. LY-341495 was also effective in the marble-burying test in mice, although similar effects were observed after administration of various drugs including methamphetamine. Further, LY-341495 had no effects in the elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests in mice, as well as on punished drinking (Geller-Seifter's test) and differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) in rats. It is concluded that the behavioral profile of mGlu(2/3) receptor antagonists as represented by LY-341495 is different from that of conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs.
PMID: 18634781 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Publications by Former NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Fellows

Key Findings from the WHO Collaborative Study on Substitution Therapy for Opioid Dependence and HIV/AIDS
Lawrinson, P., Ali, R., Buavirat, A., Chiamwongpaet, S., Dvoryak, S., Habrat, B., Jie, S., Mardiati, R., Mokri, A., Moskalewicz, J., Newcombe, D., Poznyak, V., Subata, E., Uchtenhagen, A., Utami, D.S., Vial, R., and Zhao, C.
Addiction. 2008 Jul 10; [E-pub ahead of print]
HHH Fellow: Sergey Dvoryak, Ukraine
Opioid substitution treatment has been studied extensively in industrialized countries, but there are relatively few studies in developing/transitional countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of opioid substitution treatment (OST) in less resourced countries. The design used was a longitudinal cohort study. The setting was purposively selected OST sites in Asia (China, Indonesia, Thailand), Eastern Europe (Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine), the Middle East (Iran) and Australia. Participants Seven hundred and twenty-six OST entrants served as participants. Participants were interviewed at treatment entry, 3 and 6 months. Standardized instruments assessed drug use, treatment history, physical and psychological health, quality of life, criminal involvement, blood-borne virus (BBV) risk behaviors and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C. Findings showed that participants were predominantly male, aged in their early 30s and had attained similar levels of education. Seroprevalence rates for HIV were highest in Thailand (52%), followed by Indonesia (28%) and Iran (26%), and lowest in Australia (2.6%). Treatment retention at 6 months was uniformly high, averaging approximately 70%. All countries demonstrated significant and marked reductions in reported heroin and other illicit opioid use; HIV (and other BBV) exposure risk behaviors associated with injection drug users (IDU) and criminal activity, and demonstrated substantial improvement in their physical and mental health and general wellbeing over the course of the study. The authors concluded that OST can achieve similar outcomes consistently in a culturally diverse range of settings in low- and middle-income countries to those reported widely in high-income countries. It is associated with a substantial reduction in HIV exposure risk associated with IDU across nearly all the countries. Results support the expansion of opioid substitution treatment. PMID: 18636999 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


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