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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2004


NIDA Publications

Instituto Nacional Sobre el Abuso de Drogas Como Prevenir el Uso de Drogas en los Niños y los Adolescentes — Una guía con base científica para padres, educadores y líderes de la comunidad — Segunda Edición — Version Abreviada (Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents)
NIH Pub. No. 04-4214(Sp.)

This second edition of the "Red Book" includes updated principles, new questions, new program information, and expanded references and resources based on the latest findings from NIDA-funded prevention research. The 16 fundamental prevention principles, derived from research on effective prevention programs, are outlined. Discussions include key factors that place youth at risk for drug abuse, guidance for planning drug abuse prevention programs in the community, applying the prevention principles to programs, and describing the core elements of effective prevention programs.

A Collection of NIDA Articles That Address Research on Cocaine

New collection features NIDA NOTES articles originally published from 1995 thru 2003. Includes titles such as "Cocaine's Effect on Blood Components May Be Linked to Heart Attack and Stroke," "Cocaine's Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow Differ Between Men and Women," "Cues for Cocaine and Normal Pleasures Activate Common Brain Sites," and "Coping Skills Help Patients Recognize and Resist the Urge to Use Cocaine."

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse, December 2003, Volume I
NIH Pub. No. 04-5364

This report provides an ongoing assessment of drug abuse in major metropolitan areas of the United States with the purpose of keeping both public and private sector policymakers and researchers informed with current and accurate data.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse, December 2003, Volume II
NIH Pub. No. 04-5365

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.

Science & Practice Perspectives. Volume 2, Number 2
NIH Pub. No. 04-5356

NIDA's peer-reviewed journal for drug abuse researchers and treatment providers highlights ways in which dialogue between scientific investigators and clinical practitioners is improving drug abuse treatment and research. The Director's column in this issue calls attention to several NIDA initiatives to create links between the production of scientific knowledge and its application. The lead section focuses on buprenorphine, a newly FDA-approved medication for opioid addiction. Providers are made aware of how it works, its efficacy and safety profile, how it is used in withdrawal and maintenance treatment, and how patients should be selected, educated, and monitored during treatment. Other topics include a description of how Behavioral Couples Therapy is being used in the treatment of substance abuse, a description of a pioneer residential treatment program for parents and their children, and a report of a panel discussion featuring prevention researchers and representatives of community drug prevention coalitions.

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use
Overview of Key Findings 2003
NIH Pub. No. 04-5506

This publication provides a concise review of the findings of the Monitoring the Future Study and comparison of data from previous years.

National Survey Results from the Monitoring the Future 2003, Volume I: Secondary Students
NIH Pub. No. 04-5507

Reports on the prevalence of drug use among students in 8th-, 10th-, and 12th grades. Trends are analyzed to understand the changing drug abuse problem and to formulate appropriate prevention and treatment policies.

National Survey Results from the Monitoring the Future 2003, Volume II: College
Students and Adults Ages 19-40
NIH Pub. No. 04-5508

Reviews trends in drug use by populations based on gender, college plans, regions of the country, population density, race/ethnicity, and parents' education. Trends are analyzed to understand the changing drug abuse problem and to formulate appropriate prevention and treatment policies.

Brain Power — Grades K-1
NIH Pub. No. 04-4945

Lesson modules designed to examine the effects of drugs on the brain. This curriculum lays the foundation for future scientific learning and substance abuse prevention efforts.

NIDA Notes

NIDA Notes, Volume 19 Issue 1
NIH Pub. No. 04-3478

In the Director's Column, Dr. Nora D. Volkow discusses NIDA's three-decade commitment to scientific research in drug abuse and addiction, as the Institute celebrates its 30th anniversary. Through its evolution to the world's foremost source of scientific knowledge on drug addiction, NIDA has built a basic science and research program that has produced, for example, discoveries on the brain and its molecular and neurochemical methods of communication, leading to new medications to treat drug abuse and other mental disorders. These and other research successes, initiatives, and partnerships are detailed in a 16-page insert commemorating the Institute's 30th anniversary.

The lead article examines the role of an acute dopamine surge in a part of the brain called the nucleus accumbens that suggests it may push an addicted individual to actively seek and take drugs. Research observations were made possible by use of a fast-scan cyclic voltammetry technique that measures dopamine levels hundreds of times faster than other techniques. Other Research Findings report:

  • Cognitively impaired cocaine abusers derive less benefit and have higher dropout rates from cognitive-behavioral therapy than do nonimpaired abusers, challenging researchers to consider how to modify treatment for this population.
  • African-American drug-using women in two tailored HIV risk prevention intervention groups reduced their risky behaviors even more than women who received the NIDA standard intervention.
  • Smoking reduces levels of a key enzyme, MAO-B, throughout the body, findings that demonstrate that smoker's peripheral organs are harmed as much by cigarette smoke as are their lungs and heart.

Research News updates readers on the research studies and participant network of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Also noted is the availability of e-mail delivery of NIDA NOTES, whereby subscribers can receive the newsletter two weeks earlier than the print version. Bulletin Board items note the newest collaborative product of NIDA and the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America—Practical theorist 5: Marijuana Abuse: Using Science for an Effective Community Response. Also announced is the inauguration of the new Jacob F. Waletzky Memorial Award for Innovative Research in Drug Addiction and Alcoholism, awarded to Dr. Pier Piazza at the annual Society for Neuroscience conference in November 2003.

Advancing the Frontiers on Drug Abuse Research: NIDA Celebrates a Record Year of Achievement

This special publication commemorates NIDA's 30th anniversary as the Federal focal point for research to increase knowledge about drug abuse, promote effective strategies to address the problem, and develop and manage a nationwide network of drug abuse prevention, treatment, and training programs. The booklet traces NIDA's 30 years of achievement in the following areas:

  • assessing the Nation's drug abuse problems;
  • addressing the health impacts of drug abuse;
  • understanding the addicted brain and behavior; and
  • preventing drug abuse and addiction

A second section of the commemorative booklet examines NIDA's efforts to develop effective addiction treatments. Research to develop new medications and to identify effective behavioral therapies is detailed. The booklet's final section explores research and practice partnerships that the Institute has had in place for several years that have helped it achieve its mission. Other partnerships are more recent. All partners will team with NIDA as it pursues the next generation of drug abuse and addiction research.

NIDA Notes, Volume 19 Issue 2
NIH Pub. No. 04-3478

In the Director's Column, Dr. Nora D. Volkow describes NIDA's Brain, Behavior, and Health Initiative, a multidisciplinary investigation of the neuroscience underlying addiction. This initiative will support research into the integrated roles of genes, proteins, brain cells, brain circuits and pathways, and behavior. We cannot understand the complex brain disease we call addiction without fully understanding the brain, Dr. Volkow says, and cannot understand the brain by looking at its parts in isolation. The Brain, Behavior, and Health Initiative provides the structure and strategy necessary to develop a comprehensive picture of biological and environmental factors that interact and lead to drug abuse, dependence, and addiction.

The lead article describes the development and initial testing of a synthetic compound that may be as effective as opioids for treatment of pain that results from injury to nerves. The compound, tested in rats, acts on cannabinoid receptors and does not cause the undesirable side effects—nausea, sedation, and depression—associated with other cannabinoids that have pain-relieving properties. Other Research Findings report:

  • High school students, whose biology and chemistry curriculum teaches scientific concepts using drugs as examples, score higher on tests of their understanding of biology and chemistry than do students whose lessons did not use drug-related examples.
  • Animal studies suggest that smoking is more addictive if it is begun during adolescence and that early initiation of smoking increases vulnerability to some effects of other addictive drugs.
  • A new tool for evaluating a child's neurobehavioral disinhibition—a suite of emotional, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics—can predict the child's vulnerability to substance abuse later in life.
  • Rats exposed before birth to MDMA (ecstasy) and tested at 21 days of age exhibit significant behavioral and neurochemical deficits compared with unexposed rats.

The Bulletin Board provides a brief discussion of NIDA-supported research into the prevalence of co-morbid substance abuse and major mental disorders among the more than 100,000 youths under age 18 in juvenile detention facilities. Among the sample of 1,829 youths ages 10 to 18, 10 percent of boys and 14 percent of girls reported both substance abuse and a mental disorder, such as major depression, psychosis, or a manic episode. The Tearoff article introduces readers to NIDA's newest Web Site, "NIDA for Teens: The Science Behind Drug Abuse." The Web site developers included a panel of teens who critiqued the content and design to help assure that the site will be appealing to their media-savvy peers.

Other Publications

Agnati, L.F., Ferre, S., Leo, G., Lluis, C., Canela, E.I., Franco, R. and Fuxe, K. On the Molecular Basis of the Receptor Mosaic Hypothesis of the Engram. Cell Mol Neurobiol, 24(4), pp. 501-516, 2004.

Aung, A.T., Pickworth, W.B. and Moolchan, E.T. History of Marijuana Use and Cigarette Smoking Topography in Tobacco Dependent Adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, June, 29(4), pp. 699-706, 2004.

Bolla, K.I., Eldreth, D.A., Matochik, J.A. and Cadet, J.L. Sex-related Differences in a Gambling Task and Its Neurological Correlates. Cereb Cortex (e-pub), 2004.

Borlongan, C.V., Wang, Y. and Su, T.P. Delta Opioid Peptide (D-Ala2, D-Leu5) Enkephalin: Linking Hibernation and Neuroprotection. Front Biosci, 9, pp. 3392-3398, 2004.

Brown, P.L. and Kiyatkin, E.A. Brain Hyperthermia Induced by MDMA ('ecstasy'): Modulation by Environmental Conditions. Eur J Neurosci, 20(1), pp. 51-58, 2004.

Chang, C.F., Lin, S.Z., Chiang, Y.H., Morales, M., Chou, J., Lein, P., Chen, H.L., Hoffer, B.J. and Wang, Y. Intravenous Admininstration of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 after Ischemia Improves Motor Function in Stroke Rats. Stroke, 34, pp. 558-564, 2003.

Cox, S., Harvey, B.K., Sanchez, J.F., Wang, J.Y. and Wang, Y. Mediation of BMP7 Neuroprotection by MAPK and PKC in Rat Primary Cortical Cultures. Brain Res, 1010, pp. 55-61, 2004.

Duan, W., Guo, Z., Jiang, H., Ladenheim, B., Xu, X., Cadet, J.L. and Mattson, M.P. Paroxetine Retards Disease Onset and Progression in Huntington Mutant Mice. Ann Neurol, 55(4), pp. 590-594, 2004.

Ferre, S., Ciruela, F., Canals, M., Marcellino, D., Burgueno, J., Casado, V.V., Hillion, J., Torvinen, M., Fanelli, F., de Benedetti, P., Goldberg, S.R., Bouvier, M., Fuxe, K., Agnati, L.F., Lluis, C., Franco, R. and Woods, A. Adenosine A(2A)-dopamine D(2) Receptor-receptor Heteromers. Targets for Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 10(5), pp. 265-271, 2004.

Gasior, M., Witkin, J.M., Goldberg, S.R. and Munzar, P. Chlormethiazole Potentiates the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Methamphetamine in Rats. Eur J Pharmacol, 494(2-3), pp. 183-189, 2004.

Gorelick, D.A., Gardner, E.L. and Xi, Z.X. Agents in Development for the Management of Cocaine Abuse. Drugs, 64, pp. 1547-1573, 2004.

Grundt, P., Kopajtic, T.A., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. The Effect of 6-substituted-4', 4"-Difluorobenztropines on Monoamine Transporters and the Muscarinic M1 Receptor. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 14, pp. 3295-3298, 2004.

Harvey, B.K., Chang, C.F., Chiang, Y.H., Bowers, W.J., Morales, M., Federoff, H.J., Hoffer, B.J. and Wang, Y. HSV Amplicon Delivery of Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor is Neuroprotective Against Ischemic Injury. Exp Neurol, 183, pp. 47-55, 2003.

Harvey, B.K., Mark, A., Chou, J., Chen, G.J., Hoffer, B.J. and Wang, Y. Neurotrophic Effects of Bone Morphogenetic protein-7 in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. Brain Res., 1022(1-2), pp. 88-95, October 1, 2004.

Hayes, R.J. and Gardner, E.L. The Basolateral Complex of the Amygdala Mediates the Modulation of Intracranial Self-stimulation Threshold by Drug-associated Cues. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, pp. 273-280, 2004.

Heidbreder, C.A., Andreoli, M., Marcon, C., Thanos, P.K., Ashby, C.R. Jr, and Gardner, E.L. Role of Dopamine D3 Receptors in the Addictive Properties of Ethanol. Drugs Today, 40, pp. 355-365, 2004.

Ikemoto, S., Witkin, B.M., Zangen, A. and Wise, R.A. Rewarding Effects of AMPA Administration into the Supramammillary or Posterior Hypothalamic Nuclei But Not the Ventral Tegmental Area. J Neurosci, 24(25), pp. 5758-5765, 2004.

Ikemoto, S. Unconditional Hyperactivity and Transient Reinforcing Effects of NMDA Administration Into the Ventral Tegmental Area in Rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 172(2), pp. 202-210, 2004.

Jones, D., Schroeder, J.R. and Moolchan, E.T. Time Spent with Friends Who Smoke and Number of Quit Attempts Among Teen Smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 29(4), pp. 723-729, June 2004.

Katz, J.L., Kopajtic, T., Agoston, G.E, and Newman, A.H. Effects of N-Substituted Analogues of Benztropine: Diminished Cocaine-like Effects in Dopamine Transporter Ligands. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 288, pp. 302-315, 2004.

Kiyatkin, E.A. and Brown, P.L. Brain Temperature Fluctuations During Passive vs. Active Cocaine Administration: Clues for Understanding the Pharmacological Determination of Drug-taking Behavior. Brain Res, 1005(1-2), pp. 101-116, 2004.

Kreuter, J.D., Mattson, B.J., Wang, B., You, Z.B. and Hope, B.T. Cocaine-induced Fos Expression in Rat Striatum is Blocked by Chloral Hydrate or Urethane. Neuroscience, 127(1), pp. 233-242, 2004.

Kulkarni, S.S., Grundt, P., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. Structure-Activity Relationships at Monoamine Transporters for a Series of N-Substituted-3a-(Bis[4-fluorophenyl]methoxy)tropanes: Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation. J. Med. Chem. 47, pp. 3388-3398, 2004.

Lee, C.C., Lin, S.Z., Wang, Y., Lin, J.J., Liu, J.Y., Chen, G.J., Chiang, Y.H., Liu, J.C. and Zhou, F.C. First Human Ventral Mesencephalon and Striatum Cografting in a Parkinson Patient. Acta Neurol Sin 87, pp. 159-162, 2003.

Lu, L., Grimm, J.W., Dempsey, J. and Shaham, Y. Cocaine Seeking Over Extended Withdrawal Periods in Rats: Different Time Courses of Responding Induced by Cocaine Cues versus Cocaine Priming Over the First 6 Months. Psychopharmacology (Berl), published online 8 April 2004.

Lu, L. and Dempsey, J. Cocaine Seeking Over Extended Withdrawal Periods in Rats: Time Dependent Increases of Responding Induced by Heroin Priming Over the First 3 Months. Psychopharmacology (Berl)., published online 8 April 2004.

Luo, F., Xi, Z.X., Wu, G., Liu, C., Gardner, E.L. and Li, S.J. Attenuation of Brain Response to Heroin Correlates with the Reinstatement of Heroin-seeking in Rats by fMRI. Neuroimage, 22, pp. 1328-1335, 2004.

Quarta, D., Ferre, S., Solinas, M., You, Z. B., Hockemeyer, J., Popoli, P. and Goldberg, S.R. Opposite Modulatory Roles for Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors on Glutamate and Dopamine Release in the Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens. Effects of Chronic Caffeine Exposure. J Neurochem, 88(5), pp. 1151-1158, 2004.

Radzius, A., Gallo, J., Gorelick, D., Cadet, J.L., Uhl, G., Henningfield, J. and Moolchan, E. Nicotine Dependence Criteria of the DIS and DSM-III-R: A Factor Analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 6(2), pp. 303-308, 2004.

Sarabi, A., Chang, C.F., Wang, Y., Tomac, A.C., Hoffer, B.J. and Morales, M. Differential Expression of GDNF Receptor in GFR1 +/- and +/+ Mice During Stroke. Neurosci Lett, 341, pp. 241-245, 2003.

Solinas, M., Zangen, A., Thiriet, N. and Goldberg, S.R. Beta-endorphin Elevations in the Ventral Tegmental Area Regulate the Discriminative Effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Eur J Neurosci, 19(12), pp. 3183-3192, 2004.

Solinas, M., Panlilio, L.V. and Goldberg, S.R.. Exposure to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Increases Subsequent Heroin Taking but not Heroin's Reinforcing Efficacy: A Self-Administration Study in Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29(7), pp. 1301-1311, July 2004.

Wang, Y., Chang, C.F., Morales, M., Chiang, Y.H., Su, T.P., Tsao, L.I. and Thiemermann, C. Neuroprotective Efects of Adenosine Teraphosphate in Animal Models of Stroke and Parkinson's Disease. J Neurosci 23, pp. 7958-7965, 2003.

Witkin, J. M., Dijkstra, D., Levant, B., Akunne, H. C., Zapata, A., Peters, S., Shannon, H.E. and Gasior, M. Protection Against Cocaine Toxicity in Mice by the Dopamine D3/D2 Agonist R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-o xazin-9-ol [(+)-PD 128,907]. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 308(3), pp. 957-964, 2004.

Woods, A. S., Ugarov, M., Egan, T., Koomen, J., Gillig, K.J., Fuhrer, K., Gonin, M. and Schultz, J.A. Lipid/peptide/nucleotide Separation with MALDI-ion Mobility-TOF MS. Anal Chem, 76(8), pp. 2187-2195, 2004.

Yu, J., Wang, J., Cadet, J.L. and Angulo, J.A. Histological Evidence Supporting a Role for the Striatal Neurokinin-1 Receptor in Methamphetamine-induced Neurotoxicity in the Mouse Brain. Brain Res. 1007(1-2), pp. 124-131, 2004.

Xi, Z.X., Gilbert, J., Campos, A.C., Kline, N., Ashby, C.R. Jr, Hagan, J.J., Heidbreder, C.A. and Gardner, E.L. Blockade of Mesolimbic Dopamine D3 Receptors Inhibits Stress-induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-seeking in Rats. Psychopharmacology, 2004 Apr 9 [Epub ahead of print].

Xi, Z.X., Wu, G., Stein, E.A. and Li, S.J. Opiate Tolerance by Heroin Self-administration: An fMRI Study in Rat. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 52, pp. 108-114, 2004.

Berrettini. W., Bierut, L., Crowley, T.L., Cubells, J., Frascella, J., Gelernter, J., Hewitt, J.K., Kreek, M.J., Lachman, H., Leppert, M., Li, M.D., Madden, P., Miner, C., Pollock, J.D., Pomerleau, O., Rice, J.P., Rutter, J.L., Shurtleff, D., Swan, G.E., Tischfield, J.A., Tsuang, M., Uhl, G.R., Vanyukov, M., Volkow, N. and Wanke, K. Setting Priorities for Genomic Research. Science, 304, pp. 1445-1446, 2004.

Forman, R.F., Svikis, D., Montoya, I.D. and Blaine, J. Selection of a Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Instrument by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. J. Subst. Abuse Treat., 27, pp. 1-8, 2004.

Montoya, I.D., Gorelick, D.A., Preston, K.L., Schroeder, J.R., Umbricht, A., Cheskin, L.J. et al. Randomized Trial of Buprenorphine for Treatment of Concurrent Opiate and Cocaine Dependence. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 75, pp. 34-48, 2004.

Martin, S.E., Maxwell, C.D., White H.R. and Zhang, Y. Trends in Alcohol Use, Cocaine Use and Crime: 1989-1998. Journal of Drug Issues, 34(2), pp. 333-360, 2004.

Brommelhoff, J., Conway, K.P., Merikangas, K.R. and Levy, B.R. Higher Rates of Depression in Women: Role of Gender Bias within the Family. Journal of Women's Health, 13, pp. 69-76, 2004.

Amass, L., Bringing Buprenorphine-Naloxone Detoxification to Community Treatment Providers: The NIDA Clinical Trials Network Field Experience. The American Journal on Addictions, 13 pp S42-S66, 2004.

Forman, R.F., Svikis, D., Montoya, I.D., and Blaine, J. Selection of a Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Instrument by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. J. Substance Abuse Treatment 27, pp. 1-8, 2004.

The CTN was featured in an article by Jamie Chamberlin in APA Online's Monitor on Psychology volume 35(5), May 2004. "Studying Substance Abuse in the Field" highlighted the work of Drs. James Sorensen (UCSF, California/Arizona Node), Kathleen Carroll (Yale University, New England Node), Dennis McCarty (Oregon Health Sciences University, Oregon Node), Maxine Stitzer (Johns Hopkins University, Mid-Atlantic Node), William Miller (University of New Mexico, Southwest Node), and Jose Szapocznik (University of Miami, Florida Node). The investigators state that work at the CTN is unique, covering a wide range of real-life issues in the treatment of drug abuse.

During the months May- July, six editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the progress of the protocols, committees, and node activity in the CTN.

A patient recruitment brochure for CTN Protocol - 0018 (Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Men in Drug Abuse Treatment) was published and distributed throughout the CTN.

A patient recruitment brochure for CTN Protocol — 0019 (Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment) was published and distributed throughout the CTN.

A patient recruitment brochure for was translated into Spanish for CTN-0015 (Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorders) and was distributed throughout the Network.


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