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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2003


NIDA Publications

Drug Use Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities
NIH Pub. No. 03-3888

The Drug Use Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities 2003 is a revised updated publication, which draws together data from multiple sources to address the issue of substance use and related consequences of drug use for minority subgroups within the United States. The publication includes the most recent data available in the public domain at the time of the report on drug use among racial/ethnic minorities.

NIDA NOTES: Articles that Address Research on Club Drugs
NCADI #0060

New collection features NIDA NOTES articles originally published from 1996 through 2002. Topics include: the effects of ecstasy and methamphetamine on the brain and body; prenatal exposure to ecstasy; research aimed at reversing methamphetamine's neurotoxic effects; the epidemiology of club drug use; NIDA's initiatives to control the use of club drugs, and LSD, PCP, GHB, and ketamine.

NIDA NOTES: Articles that Address Research on Marijuana

New collection features NIDA NOTES articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include: long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users; evidence that chronic marijuana users experience withdrawal upon quitting; the influence of genes and the environment on drug abuse vulnerability; the body's natural THC-like compounds; epidemiology, prevention, and treatment.

Serie de Reportes De Investigaci—n Alucin—genos Y Drogas Disociativas
(Research Report Series: Hallucinogens and Dissociate Drugs)
NIH Pub. No. 03-4209(S)

Outlines the mechanisms by which hallucinogens work and details their effects and their dangers. Includes review of such drugs as LSD, PCP, and ketamine.

Principios para la Prevenci&oacte:n del VIH en las Poblaciones de Usarios de Drogas: Una guia basada en la investigación
(Principles of HIV Prevention in Drug-Using Populations: A Research-Based Guide)
NIH Pub. No. 03-4733(S)

The guide describes principles that characterize effective HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users. As an important contribution to NIDA's expanding prevention toolbox, this Guide will prove useful to community planners, policymakers, and medical practitioners as they develop and implement comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention programs to prevent the spread of HIV and other infections among drug users and their sexual partners.

Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse
NIH Pub. No. 03-4751

An essential tool for mental health professionals and other drug abuse treatment practitioners who deal with adolescent drug abuse. NIDA's first treatment manual in a series describes Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT), a short-term intervention strategy for treating adolescent drug abusers. BSFT targets associated conduct problems in adolescent drug users by basing the treatment intervention within the context of family dynamics.

National Survey Results on Drug Use From the Monitoring the Future, 1975-2002: Volume I, Secondary School Students
NIH Pub. No. 03-5375
NCADI #483

Reports on the prevalence of drug use among students in 8th-, 10th-, and 12th grades. Trends are analyzed to understand the changing drug abuse problem and to formulate appropriate prevention and treatment policies.

National Survey Results on Drug Use From the Monitoring the Future, 1975-2002: Volume II, College Students and Adults Ages 19-40
NIH Pub. No. 03-5376

Reviews trends in drug use by populations based on gender, college plans, regions of the country, population density, race/ethnicity, and parents' education. Trends are analyzed to understand the changing drug abuse problem and to formulate appropriate prevention and treatment policies.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse -- Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume I- December 2002
NIH Pub. No. 03-5364

This report provides an ongoing assessment of drug abuse in major metropolitan areas of the United States with the purpose of keeping both public and private sector policymakers and researchers informed with current and accurate data.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse -- Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume II -- December 2002
NIH Pub. No. 03-5365

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.

Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, Second Edition
NIH Pub. No. 03-4212A

This second edition of the "Red Book" includes updated principles, new questions, new program information, and expanded references and resources based on the latest findings from NIDA-funded prevention research. The 16 fundamental prevention principles, derived from research on effective prevention programs, are outlined. Discussions include key factors that place youth at risk for drug abuse, guidance for planning drug abuse prevention programs in the community, applying the prevention principles to programs, and describing the core elements of effective prevention programs.

Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents -- A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, Second Edition, In Brief
NIH Pub. No. 03-4212B

This "In Brief" version provides highlights from the "Red Book" -- Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders, Second Edition. It presents the updated prevention principles, an overview of program planning, and critical first steps for those learning about prevention. This shortened version therefore can serve as an introduction to research-based prevention for those new to the field of drug abuse prevention.

Science & Practice Perspectives, Vol. 2, No. 1
2003 * Journal * NCADI #M

NIDA's peer-reviewed journal brings together scientific investigators and clinical practitioners to present and discuss ideas for improving drug abuse treatment and research. The issue features:
Researcher --written reviews: Douglas B. Marlowe proposes integrating substance abuse treatment with criminal justice supervisions for economical use of resources and for levels of monitoring appropriate to clients' drug use and criminal justice histories. Paula D. Riggs presents current knowledge of treatment of adolescents with both substance abuse and psychiatric disorders, offering practical advise for history taking and identifying areas requiring further investigation.
Clinician-written perspectives: James R. Sharp and colleagues tell why and how their inpatient programs treat nicotine addiction as uncompromisingly as addiction to any other drug of abuse. Gregory S. Brigham describes the integration of 12-step treatment and empirically-based therapy at his community-based facility in Ohio.
And: Panel discussions examine and expand the ideas and implications of each review and perspective article.
Plus: Nancy M. Petry and Michael J. Bohn discuss their experiences with low-cost contingency management. A striking visual captures brain activity during cue-induced craving. A continuing education (CE) quiz offers counselors an opportunity to earn two NAADAC-certified CE hours.

NIDA INVEST Letter, Spring -- Summer 2003
The main article in this issue summarized the 11 programs to address the international impact of drug abuse and addiction that are cosponsored by NIDA and the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center. Other features focused on the interaction of drug abuse, HIV infection, and progression to AIDS and announced a Global Forum for Health Research request for proposals to identify research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Dr. James Smith, Wake Forest University School of Medicine and a member of the NIDA Advisory Council International Subcommittee, wrote the inaugural edition of "From the Field," a column by NIDA grantees to address the way international collaboration has influenced their drug abuse research. In the "Fellow Profile," former NIDA INVEST Fellow, Dr. Eli Lawental, Israel, discussed his training and research career. Other articles on Fellowship activities announced the appointment of Zhijun Li, M.D., China, and Pajulo Marjaterttu, M.D., Ph.D., Finland, as the 2003-2004 NIDA INVEST Fellows; reported on the orientation program and grant process workshop for current INVEST and Humphrey Fellows; and memorialized former NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow Dr. Viswananthan S. Mani, India, who died of a heart attack in February 2003.


NIDA Notes, Volume 17, Issue No. 5
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

The lead article discusses a study by Dr. Thomas Dishion of the Oregon child and Family Center. Dr. Dishion found that preventive interventions that put high-risk youths into groups could, under certain circumstances, produce worse rather than better behavior.

Other articles include the first study to clearly show an association between cocaine exposure before birth and cognitive impairments in toddlers. Researchers at Case Western Reserve University found that nearly twice as many cocaine-exposed children scored in the mental retardation range of a test that assesses mental development compared to unexposed children. Also described is a study that found that monkeys that became dominant developed higher brain dopamine levels and were significantly less inclined to self-administer cocaine than subordinate monkeys--a finding that may have implications for understanding the interaction between environmental factors and drug abuse vulnerability in humans. Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey results are reported showing that from 2001 to 2002 the use of MDMA (ecstasy), marijuana, and cigarettes declined among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders.

NIDA Notes, Volume 17 Issue No. 6
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

The lead article discusses recent research on nicotine's effects on the brain/s reward system. In the Director's Column, Dr. Glen R. Hanson discusses NIDA's research partnership with the National Institute of Mental Health for investigating the roles of neurochemical receptors in mood disorders and nicotine addiction. Also discussed is Translating Tobacco Addiction Research to Treatment, a NIDA initiative that supports the development of new treatment and prevention options. Other articles on NIDA-funded research address cocaine's effect on blood components and the link to heart attack and stroke, middle schools' selection and implementation of drug prevention programs, the use of vouchers to reward naltrexone treatment for heroin-dependent patients, and sex differences in the success of strategies to reduce drug-seeking. News articles note Dr. Nora D. Volkow's appointment as the new NIDA Director and the addition of eight new Advisory Council members.

NIDA Notes, Volume 18 Issue No. 1
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

In the Director's Column, Dr. Nora D. Volkow discusses NIDA's commitment to expand research to increase understanding of factors contributing to dual addiction to drugs and alcohol and to provide insight into the development of effective treatment interventions that will address both problems. To meet this research need, NIDA and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism have issued a joint program announcement to spur studies to evaluate the efficacy of current drug and alcohol treatment medications and new pharmacological treatment for dually addicted patients.

Simultaneous treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cocaine abuse is the focus of the lead story. The article discusses findings that exposure therapy can be safely and effectively combined with substance abuse counseling to reduce PTSD symptoms and cocaine use in some patients.

In other research findings, a new animal study stimulating human exposure to cocaine found that prenatal exposure to cocaine might cause long-term changes in short-term memory. Other research addressed in this issue examines how medications to treat ADHD help protect children with this disorder from later drug abuse, and notes ethnic and gender variations in the co-occurring psychiatric disorders seen in adolescent substance abusers. The Tearoff page announces the upcoming release of the Brief Strategic Family Therapy Manual, the latest in the Therapy Manuals for Drug Addiction series.


During the months April -- July 2003, nine editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the progress of the protocols, committees, and node activity in the CTN.

"Quality Assurance & You; A Guide to Conducting High Quality Research in the CTN" was approved and printed for distribution to the clinical trial sites.

Three new brochures for the Suboxone (Buprenorphine/Naloxone) Taper: A Comparison of Taper Schedules protocol (CTN 0003) have been written and approved for printing and distribution.

A clinician brochure written for the Smoking Cessation Treatment With Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs protocol (CTN 0009) was approved and distributed to the clinical trial sites.

Three new brochures for the Buprenorphine/Naloxone-Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescent/Young Adults protocol (CTN 0010) have been approved and distributed to the clinical trial sites.

Two new brochures for the Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome in Pregnant Substance Users protocol (CTN 0013) have been approved and distributed to the clinical trial sites. Two new brochures (patient and clinician) written for the Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorders protocol (CTN 0015) were approved for printing and distribution to the clinical trial sites.


A Life Sciences issue entitled "Stimulants and Other Drugs of Abuse and their Effects on Neuropeptides and the Peptidergic Systems" was published as a special Proceedings volume. It appeared as Vol 73, Issue 6, Pages 641-822, 27 June 2003. This issue resulted from a NIDA Workshop On Neuropeptides, held June 27-28, Marco Island, Florida and chaired by Dr. Rao Rapaka. Guest Editors for the special issue were Dr R. S. Rapaka and Dr. F. Porreca.

Montoya, I.D., Herbeck, D.M., Svikis, D.S., Fitek, D.J., Marcus, S.C., and Pincus, H.A. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Psychiatrists who Primarily Treat Patients with Substance Use Disorders. Am J Addict. 2(3), pp. 181-192, May-June 2003.

Khalsa, J.H., Genser, S. and Francis, H. Interventions for Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders in HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Supplement 1, September 2003.

Compton, W.M., Glantz, M. and Delany, P. Addiction As A Chronic Illness -- Putting the Concept into Action, Evaluation and Program Planning, 26, pp. 353-354, 2003.

Conway, K.P., Kane, R.J., Ball, S.A., Poling, J.C. and Rounsaville, B.J. Personality, Substance of Choice, and Polysubstance Involvement Among Substance Dependent Patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 71, pp. 65-75, 2003.

Conway, K.P., Swendsen, J.D. and Merikangas, K.R. Expectancies, Alcohol Consumption, and Problem Drinking: The Importance of Family History. Addictive Behaviors, 28, pp. 823-836, 2003.

Flanzer, J. Book Review of Drug problems: Cross-cultural policy and program development, by R. Isralowitz, M. Afifi, & R. Rawson (Eds.), Westport, CT: Auburn House, 2002, Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 2(4), pp. 147-149, 2002.

Kaftarian, S.J. and Robertson, E. What Do Schools Really Think About Prevention Research? Connection, June 2003.

Pringle, B., Dahlquist, L. M., and Eskenazi, A. Memory in Children Undergoing Conscious Sedation for Painful Medical Procedures, Health Psychology, 22(3), pp. 263-269, 2003.

Stein, J. Attitudes of Social Work Students about Substance Abuse: Can a Brief Educational Program Make a Difference? Journal of Social Work Practices in Addictions, 3(1), pp. 77-90, 2003.

Bolla, K.I., Eldreth, D.A., London, E.D., Kiehl, K.A., Mouratidis, M., Contoreggi, C., Matochik, J.A., Kurian, V., Cadet, J.L., Kimes, A.S., Funderburk, F.R. and Ernst, M. Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Abstinent Cocaine Abusers Performing a Decision-Making Task. Neuroimage, 19, pp. 1095-1102, 2003.

Brown, P.L., Wise, R.A. et al. Brain Hyperthermia is Induced by Methamphetamine and is Exacerbated by Social Interaction. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 3924-3929, 2003.

Cao, J., Kulkarni, S.S., Husbands, S.M., Bowen, W.D., Williams, W., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L. George, C. and Newman, A.H. Dual Probes for the Dopamine Transporter and _1 receptors: Novel Piperazinyl alkyl-bis(4'-fluorophenyl)amine Analogues as Potential Cocaine-Abuse Therapeutic Agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 46, pp. 2589-2598, 2003.

Chefer, V.I., Zakharova, I., et al. Enhanced Responsiveness to Novelty and Cocaine is Associated with Decreased Basal Dopamine Uptake and Release in the Nucleus Accumbens: Quantitative Microdialysis in Rats under Transient Conditions. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 3076-3084, 2003.

Desai, R.I., Terry P. and Katz, J.L. Comparison of the Discriminative-stimulus Effects of SKF 38393 with those of Other Dopamine Receptor Agonists. Behavioural Pharmacology, 14, pp. 223-228, 2003.

Ferre, S., Ciruela, F. et al. Glutamate mGlu5-ademosine A2A-dopamine D2 Receptor Interactions in the Striatum. Implications for Drug Therapy in Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Drug Abuse. Curr. Med. Chem. 3(Central Nervous System Agents), pp. 1-26, 2003.

Franco, R., Canals, M. et al. Regulation of Heptaspanning-Membrane-Receptor Function by Dimerization and Clustering. Trends in Biochemical Science, 28, pp. 238-243, 2003.

Herning, R.I., Better, W., Tate, K. and Cadet, J.L. EEG Deficits in Chronic Marijuana Abusers During Monitored Abstinence: Preliminary Findings. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 993, pp. 75-78, 2003.

Karcz-Kubicha, M., Antoniou, K. et al. Involvement of Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors in the Motor Effects of Caffeine after its Acute and Chronic Administration. Neuropsycho-pharmacology, 28, pp. 1281-1291, 2003.

Karcz-Kubicha, M., Quarta, D. et al. Enabling Role of Adenosine A1 Receptors in Adenosine A2A Receptor-Mediated Striatal Expression of c-fos. European Journal of Neuroscience,18, pp. 296-302, 2003.

Katz, J.L. and Higgins, S.T. The Validity of the Reinstatement Model of Craving and Relapse to Drug Use. Psychopharmacology, 168, pp. 21-30, 2003.

Katz, J.L., Libby, T.A., Kopajtic, T. Husbands, S.M., and Newman, A.H. Behavioral Effects of Rimcazole Analogues Alone and in Combination with Cocaine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 468, pp.109-119, 2003.

Kiyatkin, E.A. and Brown, P.L. Fluctuations in Neural Activity during Cocaine Self-administration: Clues Provided by Brain Thermorecording. Neuroscience, 116(2), pp. 525-538, 2003.

Kiyatkin, E.A. and Mitchum, R.D. Fluctuations in Brain Temperature during Sexual Interaction in Male Rats: An Approach for Evaluating Neural Activity Underlying Motivated Behavior. Neuroscience, 119, pp. 1169-1183, 2003.

Le, A.D., Wang, A. et al. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Self-administration and Reinstates Alcohol Seeking in Rats. Psychopharmacology, 168, pp. 216-221, 2003.

Le Foll, B., Schwartz, J.C. et al. Disruption of Nicotine Conditioning by Dopamine D3 Receptor Ligands. Molecular Psychiatry, 8, pp. 225-230, 2003.

Lu, L. and Shaham, Y. Stress and Opiate and Psychostimulant Addiction: Evidence from Animal Models. Handbook on Stress, Immunology and Behaviour. T. Steckler, N. Kalin and J. M. H. M. Reul, Elsevier Science B.V., 2003.

Lu, L., Grimm, J.W. et al. Molecular Neuroadaptations in the Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area during the first 90 days of Forced Abstinence from Cocaine Self-administration in Rats. Journal of Neurochemistry, 85, pp. 1604-1613, 2003.

Lyles, J. and Cadet, J.L. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) Neurotoxicity: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms. Brain Research Review, 42, pp. 155-168, 2003.

Matochik, J.A., London, E.D., Eldreth, D.A., Cadet, J.L. and Bolla, K.I. Frontal Cortical Tissue Composition in Abstinent Cocaine Abusers: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Neuroimage, 19, pp. 1095-1102, 2003.

Moolchan, E.T., Berlin, I., Robinson, M.L. and Cadet, J.L. Characteristics of African American Teenage Smokers who Request Cessation Treatment: Implications for Addressing Health Disparities. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine,157, pp. 533-538, 2003.

Newman, A.H., Cao, J., Bennett, C.J., Robarge, M.J., George, C., Freeman, R. and Luedtke, R. Novel N-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]butyl, butenyl and butynyl}arylcarboxamides as Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonists. Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 13, pp. 2179-2183, 2003.

Panlilio, L.V., Katz, J.L., Pickens, R.W. and Schindler, C.W. Variability of Drug Self-administration in Rats. Psychopharmacology, 167, pp. 9-19, 2003.

Rebec, G.V. and Kiyatkin, E.A. Differential Modulation of Single-Unit Activity in the Striatum of Freely Moving Rats by D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors. The Basal Ganglia VI. A. M. Graybiel, M. R. DeLong and S. T. Kitai. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: 527-535, 2003.

Roth-Deri, I., Zangen, A. et al. Effect of Experimenter-Delivered and Self-administered Cocaine on Extracellular Beta-Endorphin Levels in the Nucleus Accumbens. Journal of Neurochemistry, 84, pp. 930-938, 2003.

Shaham, Y. and Miczek, K.A. Reinstatement-Toward a Model of Relapse. Psychopharmacology 168, pp. 1-2, 2003.

Shalev, U., Marinelli, M. et al. The Role of Corticosterone in Food Deprivation-induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in the Rat. Psychopharmacology, 168, pp. 170-176, 2003.

Solinas, M., Panlilio, L.V. et al. The Cannabinoid CB1 Antagonist N-piperidinyl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -4-methylpyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR-141716A) Differentially Alters the Reinforcing Effects of Heroin Under Continuous Reinforcement, Fixed Ratio, and Progressive Ratio Schedules of Drug Self-administration in Rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 306, pp. 93-102, 2003.

Taltavull, J., Chefer, V.I., Shippenberg, T.S. and Kiyatkin, E.A. Severe Brain Hypothermia as a Factor Underlying Behavioral Immobility During Cold-Water Forced Swim. Brain Research, 975, pp. 244-247, 2003.

Windels, F., Bruet, N. et al. Influence of the Frequency Parameter on Extracellular Glutamate and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Substantia Nigra and Globus Pallidus during Electrical Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus in Rats. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 72, pp. 259-267, 2003.

Wise, R.A. and Gardner, E.L. Animal Models of Addiction. London, Oxford University Press, 2003.

Woods, A.S., Moyer, S.C. et al. Chlorisondamine Interaction with the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Journal Proteome Research, 2, pp. 207-212, 2003.

Zangen, A. and Shalev, U. Nucleus Accumbens Beta-Endorphin Levels are not Elevated by Brain Stimulation Reward but do Increase with Extinction. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, pp. 1067-1072, 2003.

Zapata, A., Chefer, V.I. et al. Behavioural Sensitization and Enhanced Dopamine Response in the Nucleus Accumbens after Intravenous Cocaine Self-administration in Mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, pp. 590-596, 2003.

Zou, M.-F., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. Structure-Activity Relationship Comparison of (S)-2_-substituted 3_-(bis[4-fluorophenyl]methoxy)tropanes and (R)-2_-substituted 3_-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)tropanes at the Dopamine Transporter. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 46, pp. 2908-2916, 2003.


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