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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2002

Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On May 30, 2002, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Genetic Epidemiology of Substance Abuse Disorders (PA-02-112). The purpose of this announcement is to stimulate epidemiologic studies of substance use disorders (SUDs, drug abuse and dependence). Previous studies using twin, adoption and family approaches indicate that genetic factors substantially influence the risk for SUDs. Building on these findings, new studies are needed to refine SUD phenotypes for future molecular genetic studies, clarify gene-environment interactions, refine nosology and thus improve treatment matching, and expand findings to understudied populations. Also needed are longitudinal and developmental studies, more advanced statistical and analytic approaches to complex disorders and traits, and new methodological approaches to address challenges such as the equal environment assumption, the definition of affected and unaffected status, and changes in adoption patterns and family configuration.

On September 9, 2002, NIDA issued a new Program Announcement entitled Economic Evaluation of Drug Abuse Treatment and Prevention Services for HIV/AIDS (PA-02-164). Through this PA, applications are sought that employ the methods of economic analysis to pressing problems in the financing and delivery of HIV/AIDS services and drug abuse treatment and/or prevention services.

PAs and RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On May 1, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Research on Ethical Issues in Human Studies (PA-02-103). This PA replaces OA-99-079. The purpose of this announcement is to solicit research addressing the ethical challenges of involving human participants in research in order to inform and optimize protections for human participation in research.

On May 16, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components issued a Program Announcement entitled Structural Biology of Membrane Protein SBIR/STTR Announcement (PA-02-108). The purpose of this announcement is to encourage researchers to solve the structures of membrane proteins at atomic resolution and to develop the tools needed to solve these structures.

On May 29, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled Genetic Architecture, Biological Variation, and Complex Phenotypes (PA-02-110). This announcment updates PA-98-078 and is intended to solicit applications for new studies on genetic variation and the architecture of complex phenotypes. It restates the interest of a number of NIH Institutes in studies of the underlying causes and architecture of complex phenotypes, including human diseases. It is motivated by the volume and complexity of biological data that are being generated and by the understanding that complex phenotypes involve many genetic components that evolve in a variety of environments.

On July 2, 2002, NIDA along with many other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Bioengineering Nanotechnology Initiative (PA-02-125). This PA, which supercedes PA-00-018 and was issued as an initiative of the trans-NIH Bioengineering Consortium (BECON), invites grant applications for Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects on nanotechnologies useful to biomedicine.

On July 10, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled Mentored Quantitative Research Career Development Award (PA-02-127). This PA, which supercedes PA-99-087, was issued in an effort to advance research relevant to the mission of NIH which includes basic biomedical, clinical biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and behavioral research. Participating Institutes solicit applications for the Mentored Quantitative Research Career Development Award (K25). The K25 mechanism is meant to attract to NIH-relevant research those investigators whose quantitative science and engineering research has thus far been focused primarily on questions of health and disease.

On July 18, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), issued a Program Announcement entitled Collaborative Neurological Sciences (CNS) Award (PAR-02-130). The purpose of the CNS Award is to encourage collaborative research investigations among scientists at minority institutions and grantees from leading research laboratories that have NIH or equivalent grant support to conduct neuroscience research. It is envisioned that funding from the CNS Award will lead to joint research efforts and publications, shared research instrumentation and resources, exchange of research techniques, and other scientific activities to enhance the research capabilities of applicants at minority institutions to successfully compete for independent research funding during the performance period of award.

On July 26, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Continued Development and Maintenance of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Software (PA-02-141). The goal of this PA is to support the continued development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of existing software. The proposed work should apply best practices and proven methods for software design, construction and implementation to extend the applicability of existing bioinformatics/computational biology software to a broader biomedical research community.

On August 2, 2002, NIDA, numerous other NIH Institutes, and the Trans-NIH Zebrafish Coordinating Committee issued a joint Program Announcement entitled Tools for Genetic Studies in Zebrafish (PAR-02-142). This PA is intended to encourage investigator-initiated applications for research designed to exploit the power of mutagenesis screening in zebrafish in order to detect and characterize genes, pathways, and phenotypes of interest in development and aging, organ formation, behavior, and disease processes. Applications that propose to advance the technologies associated with such phenotyping are also welcome. A secondary goal of this PA is to ensure that tools developed under this initiative are widely available to the research community.

On August 9, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Novel Approaches to Enhance Animal Stem Cell Research (PA-02-147). The purpose of this PA is to encourage the submission of applications for research to enhance animal stem cells as model biological systems. Research to isolate, characterize and identify totipotent and multipotent stem cells from nonhuman biomedical research animal models, as well as to generate reagents and techniques to characterize and separate those stem cells from other cell types is encouraged. Innovative approaches to the problems of making multipotent stem cells available from a variety of nonhuman sources, and to creating reagents that will identify those stem cells across species and allow for separation of multipotent stem cells from differentiated cell types, will be stressed.

On August 16, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) issued a Program Announcement entitled Services and Intervention Research With Homeless Persons Having Alcohol, Drug Abuse, or Mental Disorders (PA-02-150). This PA encourages research that will expedite the dissemination, implementation, and adoption of effective treatment and prevention efforts for homeless persons with ADM disorders. Interdisciplinary research teams and research partnerships with providers and consumers across multiple systems in community settings are strongly encouraged. Such settings may include but are not limited to shelters and food programs, parole and correctional settings, non-traditional or ad hoc service settings, or street-based, transitional, and special housing programs.

On May 9, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with the Office of Research Integrity, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) issued an RFA entitled Research on Research Integrity (NS-03-001). The purpose of this program is to foster empirical research on the institutions, processes, and values that affect integrity in research. The sponsoring agencies are particularly interested in studies that will inform policy making at DHHS, NIH, and research institutions, with the goal of fostering appropriate attention to integrity in publicly funded research programs. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: October 15, 2002; Application Receipt Date: November 15, 2002.

On June 20, 2002, NIDA, a number of other NIH components and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)/Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction (INMHA) with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) jointly issued an RFA entitled Stigma and Global Health Research Program (TW-03-001). The purpose of this initiative is to stimulate investigator-initiated research on the role of stigma in health, and on how to intervene to prevent or mitigate its negative effects on the health and welfare of individuals, groups, and societies world-wide. Collaborative interdisciplinary applications are particularly encouraged. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: October 14, 2002; Application Receipt Date: November 14, 2002.

On July 26, 2002, NIDA, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) jointly issued an RFA entitled HIV Prevention in Treatment Settings: U.S. and International Priorities (MH-03-006). The purpose of this RFA is to solicit research grant applications that will address some of the research gaps that currently exist in basic, behavioral science, medical and policy areas that are needed to develop enhanced HIV prevention strategies in treatment settings. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: September 27, 2002; Application Receipt Date: October 29, 2002.

On July 31, 2002, NIDA and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) jointly issued an RFA entitled Development of Tools for the Assessment of Depression (MH-03-002). This RFA invites research applications that apply recent advances in affective science, basic behavioral science, and measurement theory to the development of an instrument or assessment battery to assess depression. The instrument must be psychometrically sound, time-efficient, and suitable for tracking changes in symptoms and functioning as a repeated measure over time or in response to therapeutic intervention. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: September 15, 2002; Application Receipt Date: October 15, 2002.

On August 27, 2002, NIDA and NIMH jointly issued an RFA entitled National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Nicotine Addiction (MH-03-008). The purpose of this RFA is to establish a program to accelerate innovative drug discovery, the development of pharmacologic tools for basic and clinical research in mood disorders or nicotine addiction, and, in the case of mood disorders, the development and validation of models for evaluating novel therapeutics. The partnership between NIMH and NIDA in this initiative is logical given the likelihood that there are targets in common and overlap in the expertise that can be brought to bear on the discovery and development. An additional purpose of this RFA is to establish long-term partnerships between NIH, academia, and industry that will advance the development and testing of fundamentally new, rationally designed medications and treatments for mental disorders and drug addiction. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: October 25, 2002; Application Receipt Date: November 26, 2002.

On August 28, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH issued an RFA entitled Exploratory/Developmental Translational Grants for Borderline Personality (MH-03-001). In this RFA, NIDA and NIMH extend their translational research initiatives to borderline personality disorder research, inviting exploratory/developmental R21 applications for new, innovative translations of basic science theories, methods and findings to clinical research concerning borderline personality disorder, its features, and its relationship to co-occurring disorders, e.g., depression, post traumatic stress disorder, and drug dependence. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: January 13, 2003; Application Receipt Date: February 12, 2003.

Other Program Activities

Phase III Trial of Lofexidine Hydrochloride Discontinued

The placebo arm of a Phase III multi-center double-blind trial of lofexidine hydrochloride (trade name BritLofex) as a medication to treat opiate withdrawal was discontinued after an interim analysis by the Central Department of Veterans Affairs Data Safety Monitoring Board showed overwhelming efficacy for the BritLofex arm of the study. The efficacy of BritLofex over placebo was statistically and clinically significant. BritLofex is a non-opiate, non-dependence producing alpha 2 adrenergic agonist compound used to manage withdrawal symptoms in patients during opiate detoxification. The study was conducted under a Clinical Trial Agreement between NIDA (DTR&D) and Britannia Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. Participating clinical sites were the UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Program, the New York Psychiatric Institute, and the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The company is actively pursuing future product development plans. If BritLofex were approved by the FDA, it would be the first non-opiate detoxification agent available in the U.S.

NIDA Guidelines for Developing Data and Safety Monitoring Plans

Dr. Ivan Montoya of the DTR&D led an initiative to prepare and implement the NIDA guidelines for developing data and safety monitoring plans for NIDA grantees who are conducting, or planning to conduct, clinical trials. This initiative was in response to new NIH policies on data and safety monitoring in NIH supported clinical trials. The guidelines have been posted on the NIDA website at

Targets for High-Throughput Screening in Cocaine Treatment Discovery

On June 7, 2002, in Quebec City (prior to the CPDD meeting), Dr. David McCann (DTR&D) chaired a consultants meeting entitled "Targets for High-Throughput Screening in Cocaine Treatment Discovery." Dr. Friedbert Weiss presented the case for pursuing CRF-1 and Neuropeptide Y ligands, Dr. Michael Kuhar for CART peptide receptor ligands, Dr. Mark Epping-Jordan for mGluR5 antagonists, and Dr. Elliott Richelson for Neurotensin agonists. In addition, Drs. James Bibb, William Freeman and David Self presented the results of recent studies evaluating the effects of cocaine on gene expression, with a focus on identifying new targets for medication discovery. A group of listening consultants - primarily leaders in target identification within major pharmaceutical companies - provided feedback to NIDA. The consultants expressed the greatest enthusiasm for pursuit of CRF-1 antagonists and/or mGluR5 antagonists in future NIDA library screening efforts. The meeting organizers were Dr. McCann, Dr. Jane Acri (DTR&D) and Dr. David Thomas (DNBR).

Translationally Oriented Approaches, Devices, and Strategies (TOADS) Workgroup

Drs. Ro Nemeth-Coslett (DTR&D) and Dave Thomas (DNBR) formed and co-chair the new NIDA workgroup, "Translationally Oriented Approaches, Devices, and Strategies" (TOADS) whose purpose is to promote the development and application of state-of-the-art technologies that are being used successfully in other disciplines (e.g., virtual reality) for the purposes of studying, preventing and treating drug abuse, as well as related NIDA programmatic areas (e.g., pain). To explore the exciting possibilities of applying new approaches, devices and/or strategies to problems of substance abuse, many areas of expertise are clearly needed. TOADS, therefore, draws on a multidisciplinary trans-Institute effort in the strong belief that cooperation and interaction between various NIDA staff are essential for the proposed aims to be realized. Basic research-oriented individuals will be invaluable in the assessment of the effectiveness of applying the various technologies to models of drug abuse and clinically oriented NIDA staff will be needed to evaluate the clinical utility of the new technologies as primary, adjunctive or complimentary preventive or treatment interventions.

CTN Protocol Update

  • For protocols CTN 0001 - 0007, over 1,500 patients have been enrolled in these studies.
  • A Spanish version of protocol CTN 0004, Motivational Enhancement Therapy, is being developed for Spanish speaking subjects throughout the CTN. Five community treatment programs across five nodes have signed up for this study.
  • Protocol CTN 0008 (Baseline Survey) began enrollment in January 2002.
  • Protocols CTN 0010 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults) and CTN 0011 (A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure - TELE - to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities) have received approval and will begin enrollment early this fall.
  • Two new protocols are in the final stages of approval before being launched in the CTN. These are CTN 0009 (Smoking Cessation Treatment in Substance Abuse Programs) and CTN 0012 (Infections Screening in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs).
  • The third wave of protocols has been submitted and is in various stages of development and review. These will be launched in the fall or winter of 2002. By the end of 2002, it is projected that twenty protocols will be actively enrolling patients throughout the CTN.
  • A fourth wave of protocol concepts was reviewed by the CTN Steering Committee in August 2002.

Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Fourth Semi-Annual Report of Findings

The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign (the Campaign) was funded by the Congress to reduce and prevent drug use among young people both directly, by addressing youth and indirectly, by encouraging their parents and other adults to take actions known to affect youth drug use. The major intervention components include television, radio, and other advertising, complemented by public relations efforts including community outreach and institutional partnerships. The goals of the evaluation are to determine: 1) if there is change in the behaviors, attitudes and beliefs targeted by the campaign and 2) if such change can be attributed to the Campaign. The findings summarized below are from the fourth Evaluation report; the first three waves of data collection involved enrolling nationally representative samples of about 8,100 youth from 9 to 18 and 5,600 of their parents. The 4th wave was the first follow-up wave, including about 2100 youth from 12 to 18 and 1500 of their parents who had been originally interviewed in Wave 1. The new report covers the period from September 1999 through December 2001 and examines 1) exposure to anti-drug messages (both general exposure and specific exposure to ads played on a computer to respondents); 2) effects on parents; and 3) effects on youth.

Exposure to and Recall of Campaign Messages

Most parents and youth recalled being exposed to Campaign anti-drug messages. About 70 percent of both groups report exposure to one or more messages through all media channels every week. The average (median) youth remember seeing one television ad per week. In previous waves less than 25 percent of parents recalled seeing a TV ad every week; this increased to 40 percent in the second half of 2001. Both parents and youth reported substantial recognition of the Campaign's "anti-drug" brand phrases.

Effects on Parents

The evidence suggests a favorable Campaign effect on parents. Overall, there are favorable changes in 4 out of 5 parent belief and behavior outcome measures including talking about drugs with, and monitoring of, children. In addition, those parents who report more exposure to Campaign messages scored better on those outcomes after applying statistical control for confounders. However, there is no evidence of indirect effects on youth behavior as a result of parent exposure to the Campaign.

Effects on Youth

Thus far, there is no evidence of direct favorable Campaign effects on youth. There is no statistically significant decline in marijuana use or improvements in beliefs and attitudes about marijuana use between 2000 and 2001, and no tendency for those reporting more exposure to Campaign messages to hold more desirable beliefs.

For some outcomes, and for some subgroups of respondents, the analyses suggest the possibility that those youth with greater exposure to the specific Campaign ads during the first six months of the evaluation had less favorable outcomes over the following 18 months. This was found among youth respondents who were nonusers and aged 10 to 12 at the start of the evaluation, with regard to their intentions to use marijuana in the future and for all youth 12 to 18 for their perceived social norms about marijuana use. Girls with the highest exposure to Campaign ads at the start were more likely to initiate marijuana use than less exposed girls. This effect was not seen for boys. This unfavorable association with initiation was also significant for the youngest respondents and for the low risk respondents. Further data collection and analysis is required before any firm conclusion can be reached to support these unexpected outcomes.

The Wave 4 Report findings are interim results that reflect only the first 2 years of an evaluation and only a first follow up with 40 percent of the respondents. The full evaluation will involve three interviews with respondents over 3 and a half years. It is possible that subsequent semi-annual reports may show different effects, including a favorable impact on youth. The Executive Summary and the full Wave 4 report are available on the NIDA website at: /initiatives/westat/Westat502/ExecSummary502.html.

2002 Summer Research With NIDA Program

The Sixth Annual Summer Research With NIDA Program, coordinated by Flair Lindsey, Special Populations Office, allowed high school and undergraduate students to engage in drug abuse research with NIDA grantees for 8-10 weeks during the summer. In 2002, 76 students and 24 grantees participated in the program.

NIDA's New and Competing Grants Awarded Since May 2002

Abood, Mary E. -- California Pacific Medical Center-Pacific Campus
Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabinoid Receptor Regulation

Allen, Richard M. -- University of Colorado at Denver
Escalating Cocaine Self-Administration: NMDA Mechanisms

Allen, Sharon S. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Menstrual Phase Effects on Smoking Relapse

Atchley, Paul -- University of Kansas Lawrence
Attentional Supports of Smoking Behavior

Bailey, Susan L. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Family Process and HIV Risk Reduction In Young IDU's

Bandstra, Emmalee S. -- University of Miami
Neurodevelopmental Outcome of In Utero Cocaine Exposure

Bentler, Peter M. -- University of California Los Angeles
Collaborative Research on Drug Abuse

Bergman, Jack -- McLean Hospital
Cocaine Addiction: Medication Strategies and Evalution

Berrettini, Wade H. -- University of Pennsylvania
Quantitative Genetics of Opiate Addiction

Beversdorf, David Q. -- Ohio State University
Cognitive Flexibility, Withdrawal, and Norepinephrine

Brauer, Lisa H. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Interactions Between Progesterone and Cocaine In Women

Carroll, Frank I. -- Research Triangle Institute
Development of Ligands for Nicotinic Receptors

Caton, Carol L. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
A Peer Support Intervention for Psychosis and Drug Use

Chamberlain, Patricia -- Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
Preventing Health-Risking Behaviors In Delinquent Girls

Chavkin, Charles -- University of Washington
Molecular Components Underlying Drug Abuse

Cohen, Mark S -- University of California Los Angeles
Simultaneous Electrophysiology and Functional MRI

Compton, Margaret A. -- University of California Los Angeles
Hyperalgesia In Methadone Patients: Can It Be Treated?

Coolen, Lique M. -- University of Cincinnati
Role of Endogenous Opioids In Male Reproductive Behavior

Corodimas, Keith P. -- Lynchburg College
Effects of Cannabinoids On Emotional (Fear) Learning

Dani, John A. -- Baylor College of Medicine
Cellular Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

Das, Sudip K. -- Idaho State University
Mucoadhesive Buprenorphine for Opioid Addiction Therapy

Dixon, Lisa B. -- University of Maryland Baltimore Professional School
Do Practice Guidelines Reduce Smoking In Schizophrenia?

Dyer, Jo E. -- University of California San Francisco
GHB Abuse: Motivations, Medical Consequences, & Risks

Engel, Jorgen A. -- Goteborg University
Ethanol and Nicotine: Neurobiological Interactions

Fairbanks, Carolyn A. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Agmatinergic Control of Opioid Tolerance and Drug Abuse

Foltin, Richard W. -- Columbia University Health Sciences
IV Cocaine Abuse Treatment: A Laboratory Model

Freudenberg, Nicholas -- Hunter College
Impact/HIV Intervention/Adolescent Males Leaving Jail

Friedman, Herman -- University of South Florida
Marijuana Effects On Immunity: Nature and Mechanisms

Friedman, Theodore C. -- Charles R. Drew University of Medicine & Science
Genes and Proteins Leading To Addiction

Gatley, Samuel J. -- Brookhaven Science Assoc-Brookhaven Lab
Human Brain Pharmacokinetics of (-)-Delta-9 THC

Gerasimov, Madina R. -- Brookhaven Science Assoc-Brookhaven Lab
PET Investigations of Abused Inhalants

Gintzler, Alan R. -- SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Ontogeny of Identifiable Neurons and Opioid Mechanisms

Gosnell, Blake A. -- Neuropsychiatric Research Institute
Food Intake, Sensitization and Relapse To Drug-Seeking

Griffiths, Roland R. -- Johns Hopkins University
Experimental Analysis of Novel Drugs of Abuse

Hawkins, David J. -- University of Washington
Diffusion of Prevention Science In Communities

Heinricher, Mary M. -- Oregon Health & Science University
Medullary Circuitry of Opioid Analgesia

Higgins, Stephen T. -- University of Vermont
Modeling Initial Smoking Abstinence and Relapse Risk

Holmes, William C. -- University of Pennsylvania
Surveying Men About Abuse, Risk Taking: Phone Assessment

Holtzman, Stephen G. -- Emory University
Maternal Separation: Rat Model of Opioid Vulnerability

Hser, Yih-Ing -- University of California Los Angeles
Treatment System Impact & Outcomes of Proposition 36

Hussong, Andrea M. -- University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Stress and Substance Use In Children of Alcoholics

Johanson, Chris-Ellyn -- Wayne State University
Intravenous Cocaine Discrimination In Humans

Johnston, Lloyd D. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Drug Use and Lifestyles of American Youth

Kaufman, Marc J. -- McLean Hospital
Cocaine & Steroids: Brain Vascular & Behavioral Effects

Koenig, Barbara A. -- Stanford University
Genetics of Nicotine Addiction-Examining Ethics & Policy

Lane, Scott D. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston
Mechanisms In Risk Taking: Disinhibitory Drugs of Abuse

Laruelle, Marc A. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Imaging Ventrostriatal Dopamine System In Cocaine Abuse

Lee, Juliet P. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Social Networks Among Drug-Using Ethnic Minority Youth

Lejuez, Carl W. -- University of Maryland
Testing A Behavioral Predictor of HIV Risk

Low, Malcolm J. -- Oregon Health & Science University
Operant Responding In Opioid-Deficient Mice

Madras, Bertha K. -- Harvard University Medical School
Evaluation of Novel Cocaine Medications

Makriyannis, Alexandros -- University of Connecticut Storrs
Cannabinergic Ligands & Drugs

Marks, Michael J. -- University of Colorado at Boulder
Alpha Conotoxin MII--Selective Nicotinic Receptor Probe

Martin, Billy R. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
THC Receptors

Melnick, Gerald -- National Development & Research Institutes
Organizational Variables In Drug Treatment Efficacy

Meng, Ian D. -- University of California San Francisco
Trigeminal Mechanisms of Cannabinoid Analgesia

Mintun, Mark A. -- Washington University
Nicotine-Induced Dopamine Changes In Addicted Smokers

Monti, Peter M. -- Brown University
Contingency Management and MET for Adolescent Smoking

Moody, David E. -- University of Utah
Human Metabolism of Anti-Abuse Medications

Mosberg, Henry I. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Conformation-Selectivity Relations of Opioid Peptides

Murphy, Anne Z. -- University of Maryland Baltimore Professional School
Sex Differences In Opioid Analgesia

Nair, Madhavan P. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
AIDS Encephalopathy and HIV Disease: Role of Opioids

Nordahl, Thomas E. -- University of California Davis
Neural Damage In Methamphetamine Users: An MRS Study

Oncken, Cheryl -- University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry
Nicotine Replacement Treatment for Pregnant Smokers

Pentz, Mary A. -- University of Southern California
Drug Abuse Prevention Adolescence & Early Adulthood

Petry, Nancy M. -- University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry
Lower-Cost Contingency Management In A Group Setting

Phadtare, Shashikant K. -- Xavier University of Louisiana
New Phenyl Nucleosides As Anti-HIV Agents

Pintar, John E. -- University of Medicine/Dentistry NJ-R W Johnson Medical School
Gene Array Analysis of Opioid System Mutant Mice

Pomerleau, Ovide F. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Effects of Family Smoking History In Never-Smokers

Portoghese, Philip S. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Opiate Bivalent Ligands: Structure/Function Studies

Portoghese, Philip S. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Selective Nonpeptide Opioid Ligands

Potashkin, Judith A. -- Finch University of Health Sciences/Chicago Medical School
Cocaine Regulation of fosB Splicing

Razdan, Raj K. -- Organix, Inc.
Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Related Compounds

Ricaurte, George A. -- Johns Hopkins University
Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity In Nonhuman Primates

Ricaurte, George A. -- Johns Hopkins University
MDMA Neurotoxicity In Nonhuman Primates

Robles, Rafaela R. -- Universidad Central Del Caribe
Risky Families Embedded In Risky Environments

Rosen, Marc I. -- Yale University
Contingent Reinforcement of Compliance In Drug Users

Royal, Walter I. -- Morehouse School of Medicine
Retinoids and Substances of Abuse In HIV-1 Infection

Schafer, William R. -- University of California San Diego
Machine Vision Analysis of Nematode Behavioral Patterns

Scott, Christy K. -- Chestnut Health Systems
Pathways To Recovery for Substance Abusers In Treatment

See, Ronald E. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Basolateral Amygdala-A Substrate for Relapse

Self, David W. -- University of Texas SW Medical Center/Dallas
Regulation of Addictive Behavior By Dopamine Signaling

Singer, Mark I. -- Case Western Reserve University
Faciliators/Barriers To Dual Diagnosis Treatment

Smith, Mark A. -- Davidson College
Social & Environmental Influences on Opioid Sensitivity

Sporns, Olaf -- Indiana University Bloomington
Neuro-Robotic Models of Learning and Addiction

Spoth, Richard L. -- Iowa State University of Science & Technology
Partnership Model for Diffusion of Proven Prevention

Spoth, Richard L. -- Iowa State University of Science & Technology
Rural Youth and Family Competencies Building Project

Strupp, Barbara J. -- Cornell University Ithaca
Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Attentional Dysfunction

Sulzer, David -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Presynaptic Mechanisms In Dopamine Neurotransmission

Sumikawa, Katumi -- University of California Irvine
Long-Term Potentiation and Nicotine Withdrawal

Vlahov, David H. -- New York Academy of Medicine
Expanded Syringe Access Program: NY Evaluation

Volkow, Nora D. -- Brookhaven Science Assoc-Brookhaven Lab
PET Studies of Brain Dopamine In Stimulant Abusers

Volkow, Nora D. -- Brookhaven Science Assoc-Brookhaven Lab
Studies In Cocaine Abuse

Watkins, Linda R. -- University of Colorado at Boulder
Pain Control Via Spinal Interleukin-10 Gene Therapy

Wei, Li-Na L. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Studies of Mouse Kappa Opioid Receptor Gene Regulation

Weiss, Stanley J. -- American University
Incentive Properties of Abused Drugs

Wensel, Theodore G. -- Baylor College of Medicine
RGS Domain Function In Mammalian Brain

Wentland, Mark P. -- Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Aminobenzomorphan: Potential Cocaine Abuse Medications

White, Francis J. -- Finch University of Health Sciences/Chicago Medical School
Cocaine and Mesolimbic Dopamine Electrophysiology

White, Wesley O. -- Morehead State University
Mechanisms of Amphetamine Withdrawal and Recovery

Wightman, Robert M. -- University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Dynamics of In Vivo Dopamine Release

Wilens, Timothy E. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Substance Abuse In ADHD Girls

Wong, Frank Y. -- George Washington University
Sexuality, HIV/Drug In 3 Groups of Asian/Gay/Bi Men/MSM

Young, Alice M. -- Wayne State University
Behavioral Studies of Opiate Tolerance and Dependence

Zahm, Daniel S. -- St. Louis University
LPH To VTA Neurotensin: Actions and Cocaine Effects


Research Findings

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Staff Highlights

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