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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2002


NIDA Publications

National Survey Results of the Monitoring the Future Study 1975-2001, Volume I
NIH Pub. No. 02-5106

The annual report is the prevalence of drug use among American secondary students (specifically 8th, 10th & 12th graders). The trends are used for understanding the changing drug abuse problems and for formulating the appropriate intervention (prevention/treatment) policies.

National Survey Results of the Monitoring the Future Study 1975-2001, Volume II
NIH Pub. No. 02-5107

The annual report is the trends in use by populations based on gender, college plans, regions of the country, population density, race/ethnicity, and parents' education. The trends are used for understanding the changing drug abuse problems and for formulating the appropriate intervention (prevention/treatment) policies.

Drug Counseling for Cocaine Addiction: The Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study Manual #4
NIH Pub. No. 02-4380

This publication describes specific behavioral/cognitive models which can be implemented in a wide range of differing drug abuse treatment settings. The manual is designed to present material in a user friendly manner to program administrators, counselors and other related service providers assuming that these targeted populations have a wide range of prior academic training and experience with the concepts and processes involved.

Asian Americans/Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders - 2003 Calendar
NIH Pub. No. 02-05173

The purpose of the calendar is to increase the audience's knowledge and awareness of the signs, symptoms, and neurophysiological, and behavioral effects of various drugs.

Research Report Series: Marijuana Abuse
NIH. Pub. No. 02-3859

This publication will discuss the consequences of use, the effects of using, and peripheral issues such as medical uses.

NIDA Science and Practice Perspectives, Vol. 1
The National Institute on Drug Abuse has developed a new publication directed towards a combined specialized audience of drug abuse researchers and practitioners. This bi-annual publication aims to enhance the practical use of research and the rapid adaptation of research-based practices in drug abuse treatment. The first issue of this publication was released in July 2002.

NIDA Notes

NIDA Notes Volume 17, Issue 2
NIH Pub. No. 02-3478

The lead article describes a study that may provide insight into why women may suffer less brain damage from chronic cocaine abuse than men. Dr. Marc Kaufman of McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School found that cocaine had no significant effect on cerebral blood flow during the phase of a women's menstrual cycle that precedes ovulation when levels of the female sex hormone, estrogen are at their highest. However, cocaine reduced blood flow by about 10 percent following ovulation when levels of the hormone progesterone are highest. Cocaine also reduces cerebral blood flow in men. The minimal effect of cocaine on women's brain blood volume prior to ovulation may be attributable to the protective effects of estrogen, which improves blood vessel elasticity and may counter the vasoconstrictive effects of cocaine.

The Director's Column by Dr. Glen Hanson discusses NIDA's efforts to expand and focus research on the far-reaching and complex role of gender differences in all aspects of drug addiction ranging from risk of abuse through responses to treatment.

Other articles include a 10-year study that found that high-risk sexual behavior, rather than needle sharing and other injection behaviors, is the primary predictor of HIV infection for both men and women injection drug users; genetic variations in the brain's serotonin system, which mediates mood and behavior, that may be linked to smoking initiation at an earlier age; and brief family-focused prevention programs implemented with sixth-graders and their families that produced reductions in adolescent substance abuse over a 4-year follow-up period.

NIDA Notes, Volume 17, Issue 1
NIH Pub. No. 02-3478

The front-page story reports on research that found that even though the damage to brain cells is reduced over time, the damage to cognitive and motor skills continues to be impaired. Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York used brain-imaging techniques to measure the amount of damage and subsequent recovery of brain cells.

In the Director's Column, Dr. Glen Hanson discusses NIDA's efforts to address the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and substance abuse in the United States and other countries. NIDA-supported research has increased understanding of the complex role that drug abuse plays in the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Another article reports on the first large-scale study to evaluate the outcomes of adolescents in age-specific drug abuse treatment programs. The researchers found that longer stays in treatment can effectively decrease drug and alcohol use and criminal activity and improve the teens' school performance and psychological adjustments. Another article describes a program for HIV-positive youth that helps to reduce substance abuse and high-risk sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of HIV.

The Tearoff presents the 17 science-based prevention principles from the new NIDA handbook: Principles of HIV Prevention in Drug-Using Populations. The Bulletin Board notes the publication of NIDA's latest Community Alert Bulletin: Stress and Substance Abuse; describes new radio and TV public service announcements to educate young people about the dangerous link between drug use and transmission of HIV/AIDS; and announces the publication of the latest manual in NIDA's "Therapy Manual for Drug Addiction" series.

Other Publications

Montoya, I.D., Preston, K.L., Rothman, R., and Gorelick, D.A. Open-Label Pilot Study of Bupropion Plus Bromocriptine for Treatment of Cocaine Dependence. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 28(1), pp. 189-196, 2002.

Kreek, M.J. and Vocci, F. History and Current Status of Opioid Maintenance Treatments: Blending Conference Session. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23(2), pp. 93-105, 2002.

Schindler, C.W., Gilman, J.P., Bergman, J., Mello, N.K., Woosley, R.L., and Goldberg, S.R. Interactions Between Cocaine and Dopamine Agonists on Cardiovascular Function in Squirrel Monkeys. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 300(1), pp. 180-187, 2002.

Stefanski, R., Lee, S-H., Yasar, S., Cadet, J.L., and Goldberg, S.R. Lack of Persistent Changes in the Dopaminergic System of Rats Withdrawn from Methamphetamine Self-administration. European Journal of Pharmacology, 439, pp. 59-68, 2002.

Munzar, P., Justinova, Z., Kutkat, S.W., Ferre, S., and Goldberg, S.R. Adenosinergic Modulation of the Discriminative-stimulus Effects of Methamphetamine in Rats. Psychopharmacology, 161, pp. 348-355, 2002.

Zapata, A. and Shippenberg, T.S. The D3 Dopamine Receptor Modulates the Clearance of Extracellular Dopamine. J. Neurochem., 81, pp. 1035-1042, 2002.

Chefer, V.I. and Shippenberg, T.S. Changes in Basal and Cocaine-evoked Extracellular Dopamine and Dopamine Uptake in the Rat Nucleus Accumbens During Abstinence from Chronic Cocaine: Quantitative Determination Under Transient Conditions. Neuroscience, 112(4), pp. 907-919, 2002.

Shippenberg, T.S. and Chefer, V.I. Opioid Modulation of Psychomotor Stimulant Effects. Molecular Biology of Drug Addiction. Humana Press, pp. 107-132, 2002.

Zapata, A. and Shippenberg, T.S. D-3 Receptor Ligands Modulate Extracellular Dopamine Clearance in the Nucleus Accumbens. J. Neurochemistry, 81(5), pp. 1035-1042, 2002.

Carvelli, L., Moron, J.A., Kahlig, K.M., Ferrer, J.V., Sen, N., Lechleiter, J.D., Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F., Merrill, G., Lafer, E.M., Ballou, L.M., Shippenberg, T.S., Javitch, J.A., Lin, R.Z. and Galli, A. PI 3-kinase Regulation of Dopamine Uptake. J Neurochemistry, 81(4), pp. 859-869, 2002.

De Vries, T.J., and Shippenberg, T.S. Neural Systems Underlying Opiate Addiction. J Neuroscience, 22(9), pp. 3321-3325, 2002.

Daws, L.C., Callaghan, P.D., Moron, J.A., Kahlig, K.M., Shippenberg, T.S., Javitch, J.A., and Galli, A. Cocaine Increases Dopamine Uptake and Cell Surface Expression of Dopamine Transporters Biochem Bioph Res Co., 290(5), pp. 1545-1550, 2002.

Shippenberg, T.S. and Koob, G.F. Animal Models of Drug Addiction 5th Generation of Progress (Neuropharmacology) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, New York, pp. 1381-1397, 2002.

Shippenberg, T.S. Animal Models of Addiction. Textbook of Biological Psychiatry. (eds. J. D'haenen, H. Westenberg and P. Willner) Wiley Co., New York, pp. 1-60, 2002.

Shippenberg, T.S. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Dependence. Biological Psychiatry, (eds. H.D'haenen, J.A. den Boer and P. Willner) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York, pp. 403-413, 2002.

Chausmer, A.L. and Katz, J.L. Comparison of Interactions of D1-like Agonists, SKF 81297, SKF 82958 and A-77636, with Cocaine: Locomotor Activity and Drug Discrimination Studies in Rodents. Psychopharmacology, 159, pp. 145-153, 2002.

Xu, L., Izenwasser, S., Katz, J.L., Kopajtic, T., Klein-Stevens, C., Zu, N., Lomenzo, S.A., Winfield. L. and Trudell, M.L. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-substituted 3_-tolyltropane Derivatives. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 45, pp. 1203-1210, 2002.

Mead, A.N., Katz, J.L. and Rocha, B.A. Intravenous Cocaine-induced Activity in A/J and C57BL/6J Mice: Behavioral Sensitization and Conditioned Activity. Neuropharmacology, 42, pp. 976-986, 2002.

Zou, M-F., Agoston, G.E., Belov, Y., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. Enantioselective Synthesis of S-(+)-2b-Carboalkoxy-3a-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]tropanes as Novel Probes for the Dopamine Transporter, Bioorg Med. Chem. Lett. 12, pp. 1249-1252, 2002.

Newman, A.H., and Kulkarni, S.S. Probes for the Dopamine Transporter: New Leads Toward a Cocaine-Abuse Therapeutic - A Focus on Analogues of Benztropine and Rimcazole. Med. Res. Rev., 22, pp. 1-36, 2002.

Brown, L.L., Kulkarni, S., Pavlova, O., Mukhin, A.G., Newman, A.H., and Horti, A.G. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Series of 5-(2-(4-pyridinyl)vinyl)-6-chloro-3-((1-methyl-2-(S)-pyrrolidinyl)methoxy)pyridine Analogues as Potential Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Agents for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. J. Med. Chem., 45, pp. 2841-2849, 2002.

Heishman, S.J., Henningfield, J.E., and Singleton, E.G. Tobacco, Nicotine, and Human Cognition. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 4, pp. 3-4, 2002.

Heishman, S.J. Effects of Marijuana on Human Performance and Assessment of Driving Impairment. In E. S. Onaivi (Ed.), TheBiology of Marijuana: From Gene to Behaviour, New York: Taylor and Francis, pp. 110-124, 2002.

Heishman, S.J. Cannabis: Clinical Pharmacology and Performance Effects in Humans. In M.S. Bahrke and C.E. Yesalis (Eds.), Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., pp. 247-256, 2002.

Volman, S, and Pollock, J.D. Non-Mammalian Models in Drug Abuse Research. Nature Insight, 417(68860), 16 May 2002.

Forman, R., Bovasso, G., Woody, G., McNicholas, L., Clark, C., Royer-Malvestuto, C., and Weinstein, S., Staff Beliefs about Drug Abuse Clinical Trials. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23, pp. 55-60, 2002.

Katz, E., Chutuape, M.A., Jones, H., and Stitzer, M., Voucher Reinforcement for Heroin and Cocaine Abstinence in an Outpatient Drug-free Program. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, pp.136-143, May 2002.

Nine editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed this period. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the activities of the various protocol teams and subcommittees of the CTN.

The Summer 2002 edition of the CTN Report, a quarterly newsletter on the CTN, was distributed in August 2002.

A poster on good clinical practice strategies entitled "Be on Target with Your Protocols!" was published and distributed to all clinical trial sites within the CTN.


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