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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
September, 2001

Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On May 21, 2001, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Drug Abuse Health Services Research (PA-01-097). This PA replaces in its entirety PA-94-047 published in the NIH Guide, Vol. 23, No. 10 on March 11, 1994. Through this PA research is sought on the organization, management, and economics of drug abuse treatment and prevention services, and the effects of these factors on the quality, cost, access to, effectiveness and outcomes of care for drug abuse and addictive disorders. Additionally, this announcement seeks studies that examine the impact of the integration of HIV/AIDS and other services on outcomes.

PAs and RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On May 16, 2001, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components issued a Program Announcement entitled The Zebrafish as an Animal Model for Development and Disease Research (PA-01-095). The purpose of this PA is to solicit applications as part of an NIH initiative to increase our support of the zebrafish as an animal model for development, organ formation, behavior, aging, and disease research. This PA is a reissuance of PA-98-074 which was published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, Vol. 5, No. 22, on May 21, 1998. This effort stems from an NIH initiative with participation of numerous Institutes and Centers working through the Trans-NIH Zebrafish Coordinating Committee under the co-chairmanship of NICHD and NIDDK.

On May 21, 2001, NIDA and several other NIH components issued a Program Announcement entitled Behavioral, Social, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Research With Diverse Populations (PA-01-096). Through this PA, sponsoring NIH components invite submission of grant applications for behavioral, social, mental health, and substance abuse research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and related populations (LGBT populations). This PA was developed in response to recommendations produced at a workshop on "New Approaches to Research on Sexual Orientation, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse" which took place on September 27-28, 1999, under the co-sponsorship of NIMH, NIDA, OBSSR and ORWH.

On July 31, 2001, NIDA and NIMH jointly issued a Program Announcement entitled Collaborative R01s for Clinical and Services Studies of Mental Disorders and AIDS (CSMD) (PA-01-123). The purpose of this PA is to support collaborative intervention trials and other clinical and services studies at two or more sites. The studies typically share a specific protocol across the sites and are organized in order to increase sample size, accelerate recruitment, or increase sample diversity and representation. Each site has its own PI and the program provides a mechanism for cross-site coordination, quality control, database management, statistical analysis, and reporting. This PA supercedes PAR-98-017 published December 19, 1997.

On June 25, 2001, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (RFA-TW-02-005). This RFA solicits research and capacity building projects that address the burden of tobacco consumption in low- and middle- income nations by 1) pursuing observational, intervention and policy research of local relevance and 2) building capacity in these regions in epidemiological and behavioral research, prevention, treatment, communications, health services and policy research. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is September 4, 2001; Application Receipt Date is October 26, 2001.

On July 25, 2001, NIDA in collaboration with a number other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Clinical Research Education and Career Development in Minority Institutions (RFA-AR-01-009). The purpose of this RFA is to support the development and implementation of curriculum-dependent programs in minority institutions to train selected doctoral and postdoctoral candidates in clinical research leading to a Master of Science in Clinical Research or Master of Public Health in a clinically relevant area. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is December 17, 2001; Application Receipt Date is February 15, 2002.

On July 27, 2001, NIDA, in conjunction with several other NIH Institutes, issued an RFA entitled Cognitive Neuroimaging: Understanding the Link Between Neuronal Activity and Functional Imaging Signals (RFA-NS-02-009). This RFA invites research grant applications that offer the promise of exceptional technical and conceptual advances in our understanding of the nature of the signal being recorded in hemodynamic brain imaging techniques. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is September 30, 2001; Application Receipt Date is November 28, 2001.

Other Program Activities

The Methamphetamine Clinical Program

To implement the recommendations of the Methamphetamine Addiction Treatment Think Tank (MATTT) meeting held in January, a process was started to establish a group of sites to conduct clinical trials for methamphetamine dependents patients. Five sites have been selected where the epidemic is currently concentrated, two in the Midwest (Des Moines, Iowa, and Kansas City, Kansas), and the other three are Los Angeles, San Diego, CA, and Honolulu, HI. The first study is a behavioral pilot study where three times a week cognitive based group therapy is offered and data on withdrawal symptoms and methamphetamine urine PK data will be obtained. This will be followed by the first medication study protocol that is approved by FDA (ondansetron) and will be sent to local IRBs for review. This study is projected to start in October 2001. Additionally, selegiline and bupropion will be studied first in inpatient clinical pharmacology studies at UCLA, UTSA and UCSF for safety interactions with amphetamine. Following these studies, and if safety is not an issue, selegiline and bupropion will be advanced to outpatient studies. More safety interaction studies are planned for reserpine. Plans are underway to obtain lobeline from a pharmaceutical manufacturer to study its safety profile with amphetamine and ultimately also advance it to outpatient studies.

Clinical Research Efficacy Screening Trial (CREST-II) Study

In April 2001 a group of outside consultants reviewed the data from each NIDA/VA Medications Development Research Unit (MDRU) in their CREST studies (eight medications total and an unmatched placebo). Out of the 8 medications reviewed two medications (tiagabine, a GABA uptake inhibitor, anti-seizure medication, and Sertraline, an SSRI antidepressant) were shown to give trends toward positive signals in these screening pilot studies. The recommendations of the consultants were to follow up with larger phase II studies on these medications.

Cocaine Clinical Trials Operations

This network of four academic clinical sites has been established to replace the old MDRU sites to conduct clinical trials for cocaine addiction. The sites are University of California, Los Angeles, University of Cincinnati, Medical University of South Carolina, and University of Texas at San Antonio. The contract is in place with two other supporting contracts with TRI and KAI for data management. Eight protocols have been submitted for the sites to study, three are phase one interaction studies (Modafinil, Metyrapone, Tolcapone) one is a phase IIa study (Ondansteron) and two are phase IIb studies (reserpine and cabergoline). These studies have been initiated and subject recruitment is underway.

GBR 12909 Study

The study report from the Phase I (healthy volunteer) study is complete and was reviewed by consultants in June 2001 in planning for a cocaine interaction study. The study showed 30-40% dopamine transporter occupancy at the 100mg dose level. Based on primate data showing equivalent levels of occupancy at doses reducing cocaine self-administration, this may be clinically meaningful in cocaine treatment. The consultants' recommendation was to follow up with an ADME study in cocaine dependent patients.

NS2359 Study

The study has started at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; the first dose cohort will be complete in September 2001 and will be reviewed by DSMB prior to proceeding to the next dose level.

Selegiline Study

The phase III 300 subject, 16 sites Selegiline Transdermal System study started and subject recruitment is underway.

Lofexidine for Heroin Withdrawal Study

This phase III multisite study protocol has started, and subject recruitment is underway.

CTN Protocol Update

For protocol CTN 0001, Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Detoxification in Inpatient Settings, two sites have begun enrollment, four additional sites will start in the next few months.

For protocol CTN 0002, Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Detoxification in Outpatient Settings, all six sites are enrolling patients. Total enrollment has reached about one-third of the total target enrollment.

For protocol CTN 0003, Buprenorphine/Naloxone: Comparison of Three Taper Schedules for Opiate Detoxification, fourteen sites across nine nodes is set to begin enrollment. Enrollment should begin this fall after IRB and other regulatory approvals are complete.

For protocol CTN 0004, Motivational Enhancement Therapy, one site has begun enrolling; five additional sites will be launched soon.

For protocol CTN 0005, Motivational Interviewing, four sites have begun enrollment, one additional site will start shortly.

For protocol CTN 0006, Motivational Incentives in Drug Free Clinics, five sites are currently enrolling patients; two additional sites will be active when fully launched.

For protocol CTN 0007, Motivational Incentives in Methadone Clinics, three sites are enrolling patients, another four sites will begin enrollment shortly.

The CTN nodes submitted 17 new research concepts as the 3rd Wave in March 2001. These concepts were subsequently reviewed by the CTN Concept Review Sub-committee, of the CTN Steering Committee. Nine concepts were selected and presented to the CTN Oversight Board for review on July 31, 2001. Approved Concepts will be further developed into protocols.

QT Prolongation Consultants Meeting

On September 5, the Medications Discovery & Toxicology Branch (MDTB) held a "QT Prolongation Consultants Meeting" at NIDA Headquarters in Rockville. During recent years, drug-induced QT prolongation has surfaced as a major issue in medications development; several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to QT prolongation and the associated risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias. As part of a more general effort to identify and drop "problem compounds" early in the preclinical discovery and development process, the MDTB has established subcontracts to conduct two different in vitro assays, the "HERG channel assay" and the "Purkinjie fiber action potential duration assay," both of which are claimed to be predictive of clinical QT prolongation problems. NIDA's consultants - Dr. Alan Stuart Bass (Schering Plough), Dr. Anthony Fossa (Pfizer), Dr. Gary Gintant (Abbott), Dr. Dustan (Eli Lilly), Dr. Peter Siegl (Merck) and Dr. Craig January (University of Wisconsin) - assisted NIDA in interpreting the initial data obtained from the two assays, which in several cases yielded conflicting predictions for the same compound. The meeting proved to be mutually beneficial to NIDA, the consultants, and FDA staff (attending in an observer role), all of whom are struggling to deal with the challenge of predicting QT prolongation problems through new, in vitro assays. Regulatory guidelines have not been established in this area. The meeting was organized by Drs. Naresh Chand, James Terrill and David McCann.

NIDA/VACSP #1018 Buprenorphine Best Practices Trial

Enrollment for the study closed on January 6, 2001 with a total of 583 patients being enrolled. Patients can participate up to one year from the date of their enrollment. The last patient should complete on February 6, 2002 (assuming 1 year participation and 30 day follow-up). 38 physicians' offices and 33 pharmacies participated.

33.8% of the patients enrolled were female. The mean age at baseline was 35.8 years (36.0 median) with a range of 15 to 66. As of May 21, 2001, 272 patients were still following the protocol. The main reasons for dropout were failure to return to clinic (63%) followed by the patient's request to discontinue (8.6%).

Meetings are currently being held with the data center, to finalize the data analyses to be performed, before the final dataset is obtained, in an effort to decrease the time to a final study report.

NIDA's New and Competing Grants Awarded Since May 2001

Agar, Michael H. -- Friends Research Institute
Trend Theory In Community Context

Akins, Chana K. -- University of Kentucky
A Visual Cue Model To Investigate Cocaine Reward

Andrews, Anthony R. -- Ohio University
High Speed Microscale Drug Screening of Saliva

Anglin, M.D. -- UCLA Drug Abuse Research Training Center
UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Program

Anokhin, Andrey -- Washington University
Biobehavioral Markers of Risk for Nicotine Addiction

Arfken, Cynthia L. -- Wayne State University
Organizational Processes In Treatment Programs

Barr, Gordon A. -- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene Inc.
Chronic Opiates During Ontogeny: A Microarray Analysis

Bartus, Raymond T. -- Alkermes, Inc.
Novel, Sustained-Release Naltrexone for Opiate Abuse

Baum, Marianna K. -- Florida International University
Zinc Therapy In Zinc Deficient HIV+ Drug Users

Beaudoin, Alison O. -- Yale University School of Medicine
Behavioral Effects of GHB In Healthy Volunteers

Berke, Joshua D. -- Boston University
Multiple Memory Systems In Action Selection

Bidlack, Jean M. -- University of Rochester
Pharmacology of Drug Abuse

Bigelow, George E. -- Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Human Behavioral Pharmacology of Substance Abuse

Blanco, Carlos -- Columbia University
Opioid Dependence and Pathological Gambling

Booze, Rosemarie M. -- University of Kentucky Medical Center
HIV/Cocaine Neurotoxicity In Females

Borsook, David -- Massachusetts General Hospital
CNS Reward/Aversion Circuitry Activated By Pain/Opioids

Brown, David R. -- University of Minnesota
Mucosal Defense Mechanisms In Substance Abuse

Brue, Vesta -- Lifetechniques, Inc.
Electronic Smoking Cessation Monitor and Communicator

Butler, Stephen F. -- Innovative Training Systems
A Spanish Adaption of the ASI-Multimedia Version

Carelli, Regina M. -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Neurophysiological Study: Cocaine and Natural Reinforcers

Carlson, Robert G. -- Wright State University
MDMA/Club Drug Use and STD/HIV Sex Risk Behavior In Ohio

Carroll, Frank I. -- Research Triangle Institute
Cocaine: A Study of the Biochemical Mechanism of Action

Catalano, Richard F. -- University of Washington
Reducing Risk and Enhancing Protective Factors In Children

Chiauzzi, Emil -- Inflession, Inc.
Multimedia Smoking Cessation for Alcoholic Clients

Childers, Steven R. -- Wake Forest University
Neuroscience of Drug Abuse Training Program

Clatts, Michael C. -- Columbia University of New York
HIV Risk Among MSM 'Speed' Injectors

Cohen, Mark S. -- UCLA Brain Mapping Center
Enabling Technologies In FMRI and Cigarette Smoking

Commons, Kathryn G. -- Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Opioids and Stress: The PAG

Corodimas, Keith P. -- Lynchburg College
Adenosinergic Neuromodulation of Emotional Learning

Coscia, Carmine J. -- St. Louis University School of Medicine
Gestational Buprenorphine and Mesolimbic Systems Ontogeny

Crabbe, John C. -- Oregon Health Sciences University
Biological Bases of Drug Seeking Behavior

Dewey, William L. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Training In the Pharmacology of Abused Drugs

Dishion, Thomas -- University of Oregon
Understanding and Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse

Eiden, Rina D. -- Research Institute on Addiction
Maternal Substance Use and Toddler Self-Regulation

Ellinwood, Everett H. -- Duke University
Medication Development for Methamphetamine Abuse

Escoffery, Ngoc-Cam T. -- University of Georgia
Smoking Cessation Intervention for College Smokers

Fairbanks, Carolyn A. -- University of Minnesota
Endogenous Agmatine In Glutamatergic Pain Processing

Fals-Stewart, William S. -- Research Institute on Addiction
Brief Couples Therapy In Drug Abuse Treatment

Fiez, Julie A. -- University of Pittsburgh
FMRI Studies of the Neural Basis of Reward Processing

Flanigan, Timothy P. -- Miriam Hospital
HIV and Other Infectious Consequences of Substance Abuse

Flewelling, Robert L. -- Pacific Institute for Research
National Study of Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Use

Flores, Christopher M. -- University of Texas Health Science Center
Mechanisms of Nicotine-Induced Neurogenic Inflammation

Foster, E. M. -- Oregon Research Institute
School-Wide Prevention of Risk Factors for Drug Abuse

Frost, Douglas O. -- University of Maryland, Baltimore
Effects of M-Amphetamine on Neural Circuit Development

Frost, James J. -- Johns Hopkins University
Brain Opioid Receptors and Cognition In Cocaine Abuse

Gatley, John S. -- Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brain Imaging and Drug Abuse

Gebo, Kelly A. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Improving Health Care Utilization In HIV+ Drug Users

Gelberg, Lillian -- UCLA Center for Health Sciences
Hepatitis B and C Among Homeless Adults

Gibb, James W. -- University of Utah
Differential Effects of Methamphetamine and Cocaine

Girdler, Susan S. -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Gender,Nicotine and Stress-Induced Analgesia

Gollub, Erica L. -- University of Pennsylvania
Empowering Women Drug Users To Reduce HIV Risk

Gonzalez-Haddad, Gerardo -- Yale University School of Medicine
Comorbid Disorders In Treatment of Opiate Dependence

Graham, Camilla S. -- Beth Israel Deacones Medical Center
Cellular Immunity to Hepatitis C Virus In HIV

Green, William M. -- University of Chicago
Upregulation of Nicotinic Receptors

Grobe, James E. -- University of Kansas
Smoking Controllability/Moderation of Tobacco Effects

Guydish, Joseph R. -- University of California-San Francisco
Integrating Multi-Assessment Into Practice

Hackett, Perry -- University of Minnesota
Insertional Mutagenesis In Zebrafish By Sb Transposons

Hatsukami, Dorothy K. -- University of Minnesota Medical School
Treatment of Smokeless Tobacco Users

Higgins, Stephen T. -- University of Vermont
Voucher-Based Incentives To Treat Pregnant Smokers

Hinkin, Charles H. -- UCLA/NPI
Predictors: Medication Adherence In HIV+ Cocaine Abusers

Hohmann, Andrea G. -- University of Georgia
Endocannabinoid Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Analgesia

Howell, Leonard L. -- Emory University
PET Imaging and Cocaine Neuropharmacology In Monkeys

Huang, Li-Yen M. -- University of Texas Medical Branch
Opioid Receptor Gene Transfer-Pain and Tolerance

Hunt, Geoffrey P. -- Scientific Analysis Corp.
The Social World of Club Drugs: A Qualitative Study

Javitt, Daniel C. -- Nathan Kline Psychiatric Institute
Phencyclidine Abuse and Psychoses: Biomedical Mechanisms

Jennings, Peggy J. -- University of Wyoming
Cognitive Consequences of the Stress Response

Kharasch, Evan D. -- University of Washington
Methadone and HIV Drug Interactions

Khodakhah, Kamran -- University of Colorado Health Science Center
Regulation of Neuronal Excitability By Calcium Release

Kimberg, Daniel Y. -- University of Pennsylvania
A Flexible Architecture For Neuroimaging Data Analysis

Kleber, Herbert D. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Improving Drug Abuse Treatment By Research and Training

Ko, Mei-Chuan -- University of Michigan
Intrathecal Opioid-Induced Pruritus

Kornetsky, Conan -- Boston University School of Medicine
Opiate Abuse, Reward and Aging

Kosofsky, Barry E. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Cocaine-Induced Disturbances of Mouse Brain Development

Kosten, Thomas R. -- Yale University
Pharmacotherapy for Opioid and Cocaine Dependence

Kuhar, Michael J. -- Emory University
Cart: A Novel Cocaine Regulated Neurochemical

Landau, Nathaniel R. -- Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Murine Model for HIV-1 Replication

Latimer, William W. -- Johns Hopkins University
Neurobehavioral Model of HIV In Injection Drug Users

Law, Ping-Yee -- University of Minnesota
G Proteins and Opioid Receptor Functions

Levitt, Pat R. -- University of Pittsburgh
Brain Structure and Function After Fetal Cocaine Exposure

Liberty, Hilary J. -- Social Sciences Innovations Co.
Self-Report/Biological Measures Database of Drug Use

Ling, Walter -- Friends Medical Research Center
Pain Analgesic Response In Opiate Dependence

Lipsey, Mark W.-- Vanderbilt University
Meta-Analysis of Risk For Substance Use

Lord, Sarah E. -- Innovative Training Systems
Multimedia Addiction Severity Index for Adolescents

Luedtke, Robert R. -- University of North Texas
Mapping the D2/D3 Dopamine Receptor Binding Sites

Lupica, Carl R. -- University of Arizona
The Functional Neurobiology of Cannabinoids In Brain

Macaulay, Araxi -- National Health Promotion Assoc., Inc.
Life Skills Training Parent Component

Mackie, Kenneth P. -- University of Washington
Cannabinoid Modulation of Neuronal Function

Mannuzza, Salvatore -- New York University School of Medicine
Childhood Stimulant Treatment and Adult Substance Abuse

Mao, Jianren -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Cellular Mechanisms of Hyperalgesia and Opioid Tolerance

Martin, Billy R. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Center for Drug Abuse Research

Mayhan, William G. -- University of Nebraska Medical Center
Nicotine-Induced Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

Meisch, Richard A. -- University of Texas Houston Health Science Center
Drug Reinforcing Effects

Mendelson, Jack H. -- McLean Hospital
Drug Abuse Research Training Program

Miller, Gregory A. -- University of Illinois
Neurocognitive Mechanisms: Appetitive and Aversive Emotion

Molitor, Thomas W. -- University of Minnesota
Training In Neurobehavior/Neuroimmune Addiction Research

Molliver, Mark E. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Drug Addiction: Dual 5-HT Innervation of Limbic System

Monterosso, John -- University of Pennsylvania
Brain Substrates of Self-Control In Addiction

Morgan, Michael M. -- Washington State University
Contribution of the PAG To Morphine Tolerance

Morris, Martina W. -- Pennsylvania State University
Modeling HIV and STD In Drug User and Sexual Networks

Morrow, Lisa A. -- Western Psychiatric Institute
WTW Clients: Substance Abuse and Neuropsychiatric Function

Morse, Edward V. -- Tulane University Health Sciences Center
Risk Reduction for Young African American IDUs

Nemoto, Tooru -- University of California, San Francisco
HIV Risk Reduction Among Asian Women

Neumeyer, John L. -- McLean Hospital
Mixed Kappa/MU Opioids: Synthesis and Evaluation

Nunes, Edward V. -- Columbia University
Drug Abuse Pharmacotherapy: Methodologic Initiatives

Odum, Amy -- University of New Hampshire
Effects of Drugs In An Animal Model of Relapse

Orwin, Robert G. -- Westat, Inc.
Specialized Treatment for Women and Children

Perrine, M. W. -- Addiction Research Institute
Drugs, Alcohol, and Driving: Prevalence and Crash Risk

Pickett, Kate E. -- University of Chicago
Patterns of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy

Polgar, Michael -- Washington University
Families As Partners In Homeless Drug Abuse Services

Porrino, Linda J. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Neurobiological Correlates of Cocaine Abuse

Potts, Geoffrey F. -- Rice University
ERP Studies of Neural Systems of Salience Evaluation

Powell, Jane H. -- Goldsmiths College
Smoking Cessation, Reward Motivation And Impulsivity

Pricheps, Leslie S. -- NYU School of Medicine
Biobehavioral Heterogeneity of Crack Cocaine Dependence

Quick, Michael W. -- FASEB
New Perspectives In Transporter Biology-FASEB Conference

Quick, Michael W. -- University of Alabama at Birmingham
GABA Transporters: Trafficking and Regulation

Richards, Jerry B. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Drug Abuse and Impulsivity : Tests of Animal Models

Riley, William T. -- Pics, Inc.
Computerized Scheduling of Nicotine Nasal Spray

Risinger, Robert C. -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Neural Substrates of Human Cocaine Self-Administration

Robinson, Terry E. -- University of Michigan
Neural Basis of Behavioral Sensitization

Robinson, Terry E. -- University of Michigan
The Influence of Drugs of Abuse on Neuronal Morphology

Roffman, Roger A. -- University of Washington
Reaching and Motivating - Change In Teen Marijuana Smokers

Roll, John M. -- Friends Research Institute
Adolescent Smoking Cessation

Rollins, Douglas E. -- University of Utah
Disposition of Drugs of Abuse In Hair

Rowlett, James K. -- Harvard Medical School
Nonhuman Primate Model of Benzodiazepine Relapse

Rush, Craig R. -- University of Kentucky
GABA Agonists As Pharmacotherapies For Cocaine Abuse

Sayette, Michael -- University of Pittsburgh
Affective and Cognitive Processes In Smoking Craving

Schoffelmeer, Anton N. -- Free University
Gene Expression Patterns During Heroin Seeking Behavior

Schwarzschild, Michael A. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
A2a Adenosine Receptors In Psychostimulant Sensitization

Schweitzer, Paul P. -- Scripps Research Institute
Cannabinoids and Central Neuronal Activity

Sealfon, Stuart C. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Interdisciplinary Training In Drug Abuse Research

Seeman, Philip -- University of Toronto
Receptors Mediating Drug Dependence

Segal, David S. -- University of California, San Diego
Behavioral Characterization of Acute and Chronic Amphetamine

Shapshak, Paul -- University of Miami School of Medicine
Gene Expression In HIV Associated Dementia Brain

Shibusawa, Tazuko -- Columbia University
HIV Risk Among Older African American/Latino Drug Users

Shimamura, Arthur P. -- University of California
Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex In Regulating Emotion

Siegal, Harvey A. -- Wright State University
Crack and Health Service Use: A Natural History Approach

Siegel, Shepard -- McMaster University
Associative Contributions To Drug Tolerance

Simon, Eric J. -- New York University
Effects of Morphine and Analogues on Cell Metabolism

Sirevaag, Erik J. -- Washington University
Behavioral Genetics of Nicotine Dependence

Slotkin, Theodore A. -- Duke University Medical Center
Fetal and Adolescent Nicotine Effects on CNS 5ht Systems

Smagin, Gennady N. -- Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Neurochemistry of Cocaine Reinforcement

Stein, Michael D. -- Rhode Island Hospital
Midcareer Investigator Award In Substance Abuse Research

Stella, Nephi -- University of Washington School of Medicine
Cannabinoid Signaling System In Microglial Cell

Sterk, Claire -- Emory University
Young Adults and Drug Use: Careers and Familiar Factors

Stevens, Craig W. -- Oklahoma State University
Functional Evolution of Opioid Receptors

Stitzel, Jerry A. -- University of Michigan Medical Center
Identification of Functional Nachr Variants In Mice

Striley, Catherine W. -- Washington University
Culture In Congruence and Substance Treatment Access

Tashkin, Donald P. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Pulmonary Effects of Habitual Use of Marijuna

Traynor, John R. -- University of Michigan
Opioid Receptor Mechanisms

Tseng, Leon F. -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Role Of Endogenous Opioid Peptides In Opioid Addiction

Tsibulsky, Vladimir -- University of Cincinnati
Measurement of Priming and Satiety Thresholds In Mice

Wagstaff, John D. -- Cognetix, Inc.
Cgx-1160, A Non-Opioid, Broad-Spectrum Analgesic

Weeks, Margaret R. -- Institute for Community Research
HIV Prevention In High Risk Drug Use Sites: Project Rap

Weisner, Constance M. -- University of California, San Francisco
Integrated Drug and Medical Care-Cost and Effectiveness

Williams, Jill M.-- University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey
Nicotine Dependence Treatment In Psychiatric Comorbidity

Williams, Mark L. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston
A Test of Peer Delivered Self-Efficacy Intervention

Winder, Danny G. -- Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Regulation of LTP By GI-Linked Receptors

Wong, Frank Y. -- George Washington University
Substance Use/HIV In 3 DC Southeast Asian Communities

Woods, James H. -- University of Michigan Medical School
BCHE As A Cocaine Antagonist

Worley, Paul F. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Effector Ieg, Homer and Drug Addiction

Wyrick, David L.-- Graduate School of Education
School-Based Use of the Posit

Zvartau, Edwin E. -- Pavlov Medical University
Intravenous Self-Administration In Drug-Naive Mice

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