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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

September, 2000

Program Activities

New PAs/RFAs


On June 27, 2000 NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Molecular Genetics of Drug Addiction Vulnerability (PA-00-115). This PA seeks investigator-initiated applications for research projects that identify chromosomal loci and genetic variations in genes that are associated with increased vulnerability to addiction or dependence on stimulants (e.g., cocaine and amphetamine), narcotics (e.g., opiates), nicotine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cannabis, hallucinogens, and/or multiple drugs of abuse in human beings.

PAs With Other NIH Components

On June 15, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued Program Announcements entitled Basic and Translational Research in Emotion (R01) (PA-00-105) and Basic and Translational Research in Emotion: Small Grants (PA-00-106). The purpose of these PAs is to invite research grant applications to expand basic research on the processes and mechanisms involved in the experience and expression of emotion.

On June 27, 2000, NIDA, in conjunction with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), issued a Program Announcement entitled Developmental Psychopharmacology (PA-00-114) soliciting grant applications to study the possible clinically significant effects that various psychotropic medications may have on the brain when administered during the developing phase that spans from birth to early adulthood. The main goal is to generate data that are relevant to the clinical use of psychotherapeutic medications in children and adolescents with respect to safety and/or efficacy within dose ranges, schedules, and routes of administration that are usually employed therapeutically. The ultimate purpose is to increase our knowledge of the safety and effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments administered to children and adolescents.

On June 29, 2000, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components, issued Program Announcements entitled Innovations in Biomedical Information Science and Technology: Phased Innovation Award (R21/R33) (PA-00-117) and Innovations in Biomedical Information Science and Technology: SBIR/STTR Initiative (PA-00-118). Through these PAs participating Institutes and Centers of NIH invite applications for innovative research in biomedical information science and technology to promote the progress of biomedical research. There exists an expanding opportunity to speed the progress of biomedical research through the power of computing to manage and analyze data and to model biological processes. The NIH is interested in promoting research and developments in biomedical information science and technology that will support rapid progress in areas of scientific opportunity in biomedical research.

On June 29, 2000, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Planning Grants: National Program of Excellence in Biomedical Computing (PRE-NPEBC) (PAR-00-102). Through this announcement participating components of the NIH invite applications for P20 planning grants that lead to the establishment of National Programs of Excellence in Biomedical Computing. Subsequent to this PA, a series of solicitations will be issued by participating NIH Institutes and Centers to invite applications for National Programs of Excellence in Biomedical Computing (NPEBC) awards.

On July 25, 2000, NIDA, in conjunction with several other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled National Research Service Awards for Individual Predoctoral Fellows (PA-00-125). This is a revision and expansion of PA-99-017 that was published in the NIH Guide on November 19, 1998 and will remain active for three years. This program will provide predoctoral training support for doctoral candidates that have successfully completed their comprehensive examinations or the equivalent by the time of award and will be performing dissertation research and training.

RFAs With Other NIH Components

On May 24, 2000, NIDA and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) issued an RFA entitled Research on Depression Comorbid With Externalizing Problems in Children (MH-01-002). The purpose of this RFA is to solicit research grant award applications for research on early identification of depression (Dysthymic Disorder and/or Major Depressive Disorder) comorbid with disruptive behavior problems or disorders (persistent antisocial behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, and conduct disorder) in children under 12 years of age in pre-school, school, pediatric care, and other settings - and for intervention research designed to treat or prevent these comorbid conditions.

Other Program Activities

Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Centers Update

On June 14, 2000, Dr. Jaylan Turkkan reported to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) National Advisory Board (NCAB) on NIDA's support and activities in nicotine and tobacco use research, including the creation of and progress on the Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Centers (TTURC). On June 29 and 30, 2000 the TTURC Principal Investigators, co-investigators, Mr. Richard Millstein, NIDA Deputy Director and other NIDA staff, NCI staff, staff of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and members of the newly appointed Consultation Committee to the TTURCs met for their second retreat, held in Alexandria, Virginia. Consultation Committee Members for the TTURC are: Gary E Swan, Ph.D., SRI International; John "Kim" Worden, Ph.D., University of Vermont; Kathleen T. Brady, M.D., Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina; Ellen R. Gritz, Ph.D., UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center; Denis J. Prager, Ph.D., Strategic Consulting Services; Richard R. Clayton, Ph.D., University of Kentucky; Tom Glynn, Ph.D., American Cancer Society; and Michael Goldstein, M.D., Bayer Institute for Communication. The TTURC investigators discussed the potential for cross-center collaborative projects in genetics, cultural research, neuroimaging, cost-effectiveness, and policy-related research in tobacco use. A third retreat is scheduled in San Diego, CA for late January 2001.

The Methamphetamine Clinical Program

To implement the recommendations of the Methamphetamine Addiction Treatment Think Tank (MATTT) meeting held in January 2000, a process was started to establish a group of sites to conduct clinical trials for methamphetamine dependent patients. Five sites have been selected where the epidemic is currently concentrated, two in the Midwest (Des Moines, Iowa, and Kansas City, Kansas), and the other three are Los Angeles, San Diego, CA, and Honolulu, HI. The first medication study protocol is finalized (bupropion) and was sent to local IRBs for review. This study is projected to start in October 2000. Additionally, selegiline will be studied first in inpatient clinical pharmacology studies at UCLA and UCSF for safety interactions with amphetamine. Following these studies, and if safety is not an issue, selegiline will be advanced to outpatient studies following completion of the bupropion study. Plans are underway to obtain lobeline from a pharmaceutical manufacturer to study its safety profile with amphetamine and ultimately also advance it to outpatient studies.

Clinical Research Efficacy Screening Trial (CREST-I) Study

On April 26, 2000 a group of outside consultants reviewed the data from each NIDA/VA Medications Development Research Unit (MDRU) in their CREST studies (three medications each and an unmatched placebo). Out of the 15 medications reviewed three medications were shown to give positive signals in these screening pilot studies. Reserpine (an antihypertensive medication) gave the strongest signal while cabergoline (dopamine agonist) and hydergiene (a brain metabolic and blood flow enhancer) gave weak signals. The recommendations of the consultants were to follow up with larger phase II studies on these medications.

Clinical Research Efficacy Screening Trial (CREST-II) Study

Similar to CREST-I, the second phase of rapid drug screening started following the completion of CREST-I. This second round involves eight different medications. The estimated completion time for these studies is November 2000. The data from these trials will be analyzed and reviewed by consultants by January/February 2001.

Cocaine Clinical Trials Operations

This network of four academic clinical sites has been established to replace the old MDRU sites to conduct clinical trials for cocaine addiction. These are UCLA, University of Cincinnati, Medical University of South Carolina, and University of Texas at San Antonio. The contract is in place with two other supporting contracts with TRI and KAI for data management. Eight protocols have been submitted for the sites to study, three are phase one interaction studies (Modafnil, Metyrapone, Tolcapone) one phase IIa study (Ondansteron) and two phase IIb studies (resperpine and cabergoline). These studies are projected to start in October 2000.

GBR 12909

The report from the Phase I (healthy volunteer) study is complete and will be reviewed by consultants in September 2000 in planning for a cocaine interaction study. The study showed 30-40% dopamine transporter occupancy at the 100mg dose level. Based on primate data showing equivalent levels of occupancy at doses reducing cocaine self-administration, this may be clinically meaningful in cocaine treatment.


The final protocol for this safety cocaine interactions study has been submitted to FDA for review and is on line to start in January 2001.

Methylphenidate in Cocaine Dependant Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder

An open label feasibility study showed a promising effect of methylphenidate in decreasing cocaine use in this co-morbid subgroup. NIDA has awarded a grant for Dr. Frances Levin to further study methylphenidate in this subgroup in a large double blind study. This study is approximately half way through completion.


The selegiline IR study has been completed and data are currently being analyzed. The VA Cooperative Studies Program review committee and their central IRB have approved the phase III 300 subject Selegiline Transdermal System study protocol. The protocol was sent out to local investigators for review by local IRBs and was also submitted to FDA for review. This study is projected to start by November 2000.

Lofexidine for Heroin Withdrawal Study

This phase III multisite study protocol was recently reviewed and approved by the VACSP central IRB, and will be reviewed by the VA CSP review committee. Following this review the protocol will be reviewed by the local sites IRBs as well as the FDA. Projected date to start this study is January 2000.

Desipramine in Cocaine Dependence

The Clinical/Medical Branch will follow the collective opinion of consultants that NIDA should further evaluate the concept of a desipramine therapeutic window in a phase II study. The protocol is near completion and will be submitted through the Clinical Trials Operations contract mechanism. Projected start date is March 2001.

Indian Health Research Centers

NIDA has agreed to fund substance abuse related projects that are approved through an RFA to establish Indian Health Research Centers issued through the Indian Health Service and NIGMS. Support for this initiative was recommended by the Native American/Alaska Native Work Group convened by the Special Populations Office. Kathy Etz, DESPR, Arnold Mills, DESPR, Richard Harrison, OEA and Lula Beatty, SPO, are NIDA staff who are working on the implementation of this activity.

National Hispanic Science Network on Drug Abuse

The Special Populations Office released an RFC to develop a National Hispanic Science Network on Drug Abuse in June 2000. Award of the contract is expected to be made by November 2000.

Summer Research with NIDA

For the fourth consecutive year, the Special Populations Office sponsored the Summer Research with NIDA program. Through placements with NIDA extramural investigators, 32 minority high school and undergraduate students were able to gain valuable research experience.

NIH Summer Internship Program

Scientists at the NIDA IRP selected 11 students to participate in the NIH Summer Internship Program (high school through graduate school). Students spent 8-10 weeks at NIDA working with scientists on various research projects and attending seminars at NIDA and NIH. The internship culminated in the NIH Student Poster Day held at the Clinical Center in Bethesda on August 3, 2000, where more than 300 students presented their research findings. Dr. Stephen Heishman is the NIDA coordinator of the NIH program.

NIDA's New and Competing Awards Since April 2000

Abrams, David B. --- Miriam Hospital
Nicotine Dependence: Risk & Recovery Over Generations

Al'absi, Mustafa N. --- University of Minnesota
Nicotine Withdrawal & Responses To Psychological Stress

Amass, Leslie --- Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Contingency Management for Real-Life Drug Treatment

Ananthan, Subramaniam --- Southern Research Institute
Novel Nonpeptide Ligands for the Opioid Receptors

Anglin, M. Douglas --- University of California, Los Angeles
Drug Abuse Treatment: Process, Outcomes, & Social Policy

Atkinson, J. Hampton --- University of California
Better Antiretroviral Adherence: HIV+ Amphetamine Users

Barker, Eric L. --- Purdue University
Molecular Analysis of Endogenous Cannabinoid Transport

Battaglia, George --- Loyola University Chicago
SSRI Treatment of Prenatal Cocaine-Induced 5HT Deficits

Beauvais, Frederick --- Colorado State University
Drug Use Among Young Indians: Epidemiology & Prediction

Bickel, Warren K. --- University of Vermont
Improving Combined Buprenorphine-Behavioral Treatment

Billy, John O. --- Battelle Centers Public Health
Contextual Effects On Adolescent Drug Involvement

Booth, Robert E. --- University of Colorado
Intervention To Reduce Injection Drug Use

Booze, Rosemarie M. --- University of Kentucky Medical Center
HIV/Cocaine Neurotoxicity In Females

Cadoret, Remi J. --- University of Iowa College of Medicine
Gene-Environment Interaction In Etiology of Drug Abuse

Caldwell, Linda L. --- Pennsylvania State University
Leisure Education Prevention Program for Junior High

Campbell, William B. --- Medical College of Wisconsin
Biochemistry of Anandamide, An Endogenous Cannabinoid

Catalano, Richard F. --- University of Washington
Etiology of Substance Use In Australia/USA

Caton, Carol L. --- NY York State Psychiatric Institute
Service Needs In Early Psychosis and Drug Use

Cepeda-Benito, Antonio --- Texas A & M University
Nicotine Tolerance: Associative and Nonassociative

Chelonis, John J. --- University of Arkansas
Effects of Prenatal Cocaine On Behavioral Plasticity

Cherek, Don R. --- University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston
Drugs of Abuse and Human Aggressive Behavior

Chitwood, Dale D. --- Research & Sponsored Program
Intervention Among Heroin Sniffers-Prevent IV Drug Use

Coussons-Read, Mary E. --- University of Colorado
Effects of Morphine on Pulmonary Influenza Infection

Covey, Lirio S. --- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Maintenance Treatment for Prevention of Smoking Relapse

Cunningham, Kathryn A. --- University of Texas Medical Branch
Neurobehavioral Pharmacology of Stimulants

Cunningham-Williams, Renee M. --- Washington University
Issues In Gambling and Comorbid Drug Abuse

Dansereau, Donald F. --- Texas Christian University
Cognitive Enhancements for Treatment of Probationers

Dobs, Adrian S., MD --- Johns Hopkins University
Gonadal Hormones on Body Composition, HIV and Drug Use

Dovovan, Stephen J. --- Columbia University of the Health Sciences
Pharmacology of Addiction Risk Factors

Duncan, Terry E. --- Oregon Research Institute
Social Context and Adolescent Substance Use Development

Edwards, Robert H. --- University of California, San Francisco
Presynaptic Mechanisms of Neural Plasticity

Ellickson, Phyllis L. --- RAND
Consequences of Prior Drug Use for Young Adults

Ennett, Susan T. --- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The Context of Adolescent Substance Use

Erickson, Carlton K. --- University of Texas at Austin
Drug Abuse Education for Professionals

Fleckenstein, Annette E. Ph.D. --- University of Utah
Drug Abuse and Regulatory Enzymes of Biogenic Amines

Foltin, Richard W. --- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Anorectic Drugs: Abuse & Behavioral Mechanisms of Action

Foltin, Richard W. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene
Cocaine's Effects Across the Menstrual Cycle

Friedman, Alfred S. --- Belmont Center for Comp Treatment
Effects of Drug Abuse on Young Black Adult Functioning

Friedman, Samuel --- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
Networks, Norms and HIV/STI Risk Among Youth

Friedman, Samuel --- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
Community Vulnerability and Responses to IDU-Related HIV

Gelernter, Joel E. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Genetics of Opioid Dependence

Gibb, James W. --- University of Utah
Neurochemical Alterations By Designer Drugs

Gnegy, Margaret E. --- University of Michigan Medical School
Pharmacology of Dopamine Release By Amphetamine

Gomez, Felipe, Ph.D. --- University of Michigan
Conditioned Corticosterone and Drugs of Abuse

Green, Alan I. --- Massachusetts Mental Health Center
Cannibus and Schizophrenia: Clozapine Vs Risperidone

Greene, Ross W. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
Prevention of Substance Abuse In High-Risk ADHD Children

Grigson, Patricia S. --- Pennsylvania State University
Drugs of Abuse, Reward Comparison, and the Thalamus

Gruen, Rand J. --- New York University Medical Center
Amphetamine, GABA Transmission, and Behavior

Halpern, John H. --- McLean Hospital
Cognitive Effects of Substance Use In Native Americans

Haney, Margaret --- New York State Psychiatric Institute
THC and Marijuana: Effects In Individuals With HIV/AIDS

Hauser, Kurt F. --- University of Kentucky Medical Center
Opioids and Central Nervous System Vulnerability To HIV

Helstrom, Amy W. --- University of Colorado, Boulder
A Smoking Intervention For Juvenile Offenders

Henriksen, Steven J. --- Scripps Research Institute
Methamphetamine and AIDS: Toxic Interactions In Animals

Hienz, Robert D. --- Johns Hopkins University
Effects of Abused Drugs on Perception: An Animal Model

Hienz, Robert D. --- Johns Hopkins University
Drug Dependence and HIV/AIDS: A New Biobehavioral Model

Hiroi, Noboru --- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Intracellular Molecules of Nicotine Addiction

Hone, Robert W. --- Red Hill Studios
The Science of Drugs

Hough, Lindsay B. --- Albany Medical College
Histaminergic Mechanisms of Antinociception

Howlett, Allyn C. --- University of Vermont
ICRS Symposium on the Cannabinoids

Hruby, Victor J. --- University of Arizona, Tucson
Novel Non-Peptide Opioid Ligands for Pain

Hughes, John R. --- University of Vermont
Nicotine Dependence & Tobacco Use Research

Hurwitz, Barry E. --- University of Miami
Drug Abuse, HIV, Selenium Supplementation, and CVD Risk

Iacono, William G. --- University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Twin Study of ADHD, CD, and Substance Abuse

Jansson, Lauren M. --- Johns Hopkins University
Methadone, Buprenorphine and Fetal Development

Johns, Josephine M. --- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Cocaine and Maternal Neglect: Intergenerational Effects

Kadden, Ronald M. --- University of Connecticut Health Center
Contingency Management for Marijuana Dependence

Kalivas, Peter W. --- Medical University of South Carolina
Cocaine Opioids and Drug Abuse

Kandel, Denise B. --- Columbia University
Nicotine Dependence Among US Youths

Kauer, Julie A. --- Office of Research Administration
Glutamate Synapses In Sensitization to Drugs of Abuse

Kellam, Sheppard G. --- Society for Prevention Research
Society For Prevention Research Annual Conference

Knowles, James A. --- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Genetic Risk Factors for Nicotine Addiction

Kosten, Thomas R. --- American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry
11th - 15th Annual Meetings and Symposia

Kozikowski, Alan P. --- Georgetown University Medical School
Chemical and Pharmacological Studies of Cocaine Analogs

Kuhn, Donald M. --- Wayne State University School of Medicine
Neurotoxic Amphetamines Radical & 5HT Neurons

Lama, Juan, Ph.D. --- La Jolla Institute for Allergy/Immunology
Role of CD4 Downmodulation During HIV Infection

Lane, Scott D. --- University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston
Marijuana Effects On Basic Behavioral Mechanisms

Lang, Annie --- Indiana University
Processing PSAs: Production Pacing, Emotion, and Arousal

Lappi, Douglas A. --- Advanced Targeting Systems
A Tool to Study the Diverse Behavioral Effects of Galanin

Latkin, Carl A. --- Johns Hopkins University
The Long-Term Impact of A Network Outreach Intervention

Lau, Chyan E. --- Rutgers University
Stimulant Abuse Behavior and Pharmacokinetics

Levin, Frances R. --- Columbia University Health Sciences Division
Treatment of Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Comorbidity

Liddle, Howard A. --- University of Miami
Adolescent Susbtance Abuse Treatment Conference

Lipton, Jack W. --- Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center
Oxidant Stress and Cocaine-Induced Brain Injury In Utero

Lundy, Allan C. --- Thomas Jefferson University
Accuracy of ASI Reports of Cocaine Use at Follow-Up

Mach, Robert H. --- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Development of D3 Antagonists To Treat Cocaine Addiction

Mackinnon, David P. --- Arizona State University
Analysis of Team-Based Substance Abuse Prevention

Madden, Pamela A. --- Washington University
The Genetics of Vulnerability to Nicotine Addiction

Magura, Stephen Ph.D. --- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
Group Motivational Intervention In Drug Abuse Treatment

Makris, Angela --- University of Kentucky College of Medicine
The Effects of Modafinil on Food Intake In Humans

Marcus, Marsha D., Ph.D. --- Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic
Bupropion and Weight Control for Smoking Cessation

Markham, Richard B. --- Johns Hopkins University
Drug Abuse and Resistance to Antiretroviral Therapy

Markou, Athina --- Scripps Research Institute
Neurobiology of Nicotine Reward and Withdrawal

Marvizon, Juan-Carlos G. --- University of California, Los Angeles
Spinal Neurokinin and Opioid Release In Nociception

Matsumoto, Rae R. --- University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Sigma Ligands for the Treatment of Cocaine Overdose

Mazure, Carolyn M. --- Yale University
Yale IWHR Scholar Program On Women and Drug Abuse

Mccarson, Kenneth E. --- University of Kansas Medical Center
Nociceptive Sensory Regulation of Neurokinin Receptors

Mcfarland, Bentson --- Oregon Health Sciences University
Drug Courts and Medicaid Managed Behavioral Health Care

Meisch, Richard A., MD --- University of Texas Health Sciences Center
Polydrug Abuse: Reinforcing Effects of Drug Combinations

Moore, Steven D. --- Center for Image Processing In Education
Visualizing Addiction: Imaging for Secondary Science Education

Morrissey, Joseph P. --- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Impacts of Managed Care on Substance Abuse Service Linkages

Musto, David F., MD --- Yale University
Previous American Drug Experience & Future Perspectives

Nader, Michael A. --- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Dopamine D2 Receptors In Primate Models of Cocaine Abuse

Napier, T. Celeste, Ph.D. --- Loyola University
Opioids and the Physiology of the Ventral Pallidum

Nestler, Eric J. --- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Neurotrophic Factors and Drugs of Abuse

Nunes, Edward V. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene
Opiate Dependence: Combined Naltrexone/Behavior Therapy

Oetting, Eugene R. --- Senior Research Administrator, Sponsored Programs
The Tri-Ethnic Center For Prevention Research

Page, J. B. --- University of Miami
HIV Infection Potential /IDU-Related Injection Materials

Perkins, Kenneth A. --- University of Pittsburgh
Sex Differences In Nicotine Reinforcement: Human/Animal

Petry, Nancy M. --- University of Connecticut Health Center
Vouchers Vs. Prizes: Contingency Management

Polich, John M. --- The Scripps Research Institute
Marijuana CNS Effects In Low- And High Risk--Supplement

Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
Amphetamine-Mediated Phosphorylation and Gene Expression

Reggio, Patrici H. --- Kennesaw State University
Molecular Determinants for Cannabinoid Activity

Reith, Maarten E. --- University of Illinois College of Medicine
Dopamine Transporters and Ions, Substrates, Blockers

Ridenour, Ty A. --- Washington University
Drug Use Liability: Investigating Competing Models

Robles, Rafaela R. --- Universidad Central Del Caribe
Puerto Rico Drug Abuse Research Development Program

Robles-Sotelo, Elias --- University of Arkansas
Delay Discounting & Impulsiveness In Methadone Patients

Roddy, Juliette K. --- Office of Research & Sponsored Programs
An Economic Analysis of Cigarette Smoking

Ruth, James A. --- University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Mechanisms of Drug Deposition In Hair

Salvemini, Daniela --- Metaphore Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics for Management of Pain

Santisteban, Daniel --- University of Miami
Developing A Culturally Rooted Adolescent Family Therapy

Sherman, Steven J. --- Indiana University
Social Psychological Factors In Teen and Adult Smoking

Simon, Eric J. --- New York University School of Medicine
31st Annual International Narcotics Research Conference

Smith, Mark --- Davidson College
Age-Related Differences In Opioid Sensitivity

Smith, Miles P. --- Zebra Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Polypharmacophore Model for Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

Snyder, Solomon H. --- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Neurotransmitter Receptors

Sparber, Sheldon B. --- University of Minnesota
Prenatal Cocaine-Acute & Delayed Functional Toxicity

Spielberg, Freya --- Harborview Medical Center
Counseling Strategies to Reduce HIV Risk Among IDU

Stephan, Megan M. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Functions of Membrane Spans In the Serotonin Transporter

Stewart, David G. --- Children's Hospital & Regional Medical Center
Ready: School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

Strauss, Shiela M. --- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
HVC Service Innovations In Drug Treatment Programs

Tallarida, Ronald J. --- Temple University School of Medicine
Synergism and Medications Development for Drug Abuse

Taylor, Ethan W. --- University of Georgia
Selenoproteins, Nf-Kb, And HIV Disease In IV Drug Users

Todorovic, Slobodan M. --- Washington University
Multiple Classes Of Ca2+ Channels - Sensory Transmission

Toll, Lawrence R. --- SRI International
Biochemical Studies of Opiate Efficacies

Tompkins, Christopher --- Brandeis University
Development of Case Rates For Substance Abusers

Trussell, Laurence O., Ph.D. --- OHRC & Vollum Institute
Gordon Conference on Synaptic Transmission

Tsoh, Janice Y. --- University of California, San Francisco
Treating Chinese Smokers With Interactive Expert Systems

Van Haaren, Frans --- University of Florida
Impulsivity: Precursor to and Sequel of Toxicant Exposure

Vaughan, Mary S. --- University of Iowa
Gender Differences In Health Services Utilization

Vlahov, David --- New York Academy of Medicine
Evaluating Supervised HAART In Late Stage HIV In IDUs

Waldron, Holly B. --- University of New Mexico
Drug Use & HIV Risk: Treatment of Hispanic & Anglo Youth

Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H. --- University of Washington
Preventing Conduct Problems, Promoting Social Competence

Weiss, Friedbert --- Scripps Research Institute
Novel Methods to Explore Mechanisms of Cocaine Abuse

Wessendorf, Martin W. --- University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Brainstem Circuits In Opiate Analgesia

Williams, John T. --- Oregon Health Sciences University
Cocaine: Effects on Single Neurons

Wolf, Marina E. --- Chicago Medical School
Glutamate Transmission and Amphetamine Sensitization

Worley, Paul F. --- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Analysis of A Novel Cocaine-Induced IEG

Wu, Li T. --- Research Triangle Institute
Substance Use & Dependence Problems Among the Uninsured

Xian, Hong --- Washington University
Smoking Cessation: The Role of Withdrawal & Dependence

Yamamoto, Bryan K. --- Case Western Reserve University
Methamphetamine Toxicity and Corticostriatal Glutamate

Yantis, Steven G. --- Johns Hopkins University
Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control Revealed By fMRI

Zhang, Heping --- Yale University School of Medicine
Statistical Methods for Correlated Substance Use Data

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