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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

May, 1999

Program Activities

Program Announcements/RFAs

On April 29, 1999, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Clinical Research Education Programs in Drug Abuse and Addiction (PAR-99-093). This PA invites grant applications to support educational programs aimed at 1) developing the research skills of investigators who wish to focus on clinical, prevention, health services, or treatment issues in drug abuse or 2) developing a cadre of clinical drug abuse experts proficient in the use of research findings to develop or implement early detection, diagnosis, treatment or prevention interventions.

On March 31, 1999, numerous NIH components (including NIDA) and the CDC issued a Program Announcement entitled Research on Ethical Issues in Human Studies (PA-99-079) to solicit grant applications for support to conduct research on ethical issues that arise with research involving human participants.

On April 13, 1999, numerous NIH Institutes (including NIDA) issued a Program Announcement entitled Mentored Quantitative Research Career Development Award (PA-99-087) which is intended to support the career development of investigators with quantitiative scientific and engineering backgrounds outside of biology or medicine who have made a commitment to focus their research endeavors on behavioral and biomedical research (basic or clinical).

On April 20, 1999, NIDA, in conjunction with the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences issued a Program Announcemnt entitled Individual Predoctoral National Research Service Awards for M.D./Ph.D. Fellowships (PA-99-089). The purpose of the fellowship program described in this announcement is to help ensure that highly trained physician/scientists will be available in adequate numbers and in the appropriate research areas and fields to meet the Nation's mental health, drug abuse and addicion, alcohol abuse and alcoholism, and environmental health sciences research needs.

On March 5, 1999, numerous NIH components (including NIDA) issued an RFA entitled Technologies for Generation of Full-Length Mammalian cDNA (CA-99-005). The purpose of this RFA is to support the development of technologies that will facilitate the generation of a complete set of full-length human cDNAs as well as other mammalian cDNAs. Letter of Intent Receipt date for this RFA was April 6, 1999, and the Application Receipt date was May 13, 1999.

On March 5, 1999, numerous NIH Institutes (including NIDA) issued an RFA entitled Rat Genome Database (HL-99-013). The objective of this RFA is to establish a database that will collect, consolidate, and integrate data generated from ongoing rat genetic, genomic, and related research efforts, and to make these data widely available to the scientific community. Letter of Intent Receipt date for this RFA was April 1, 1999, and the Application Receipt date was April 26, 1999.

On March 8, 1999, numerous NIH components (including NIDA) issued an RFA entitled Centers for Dietary Supplements Research:Botanicals(OD-99-007). The major goal of this RFA is to foster multidisciplinary research in order to develop systematic evaluation of the safety and efficacy of botanicals. Letter of Intent Receipt date for this RFA was April 13, 1999, and the Application Receipt date was May 13, 1999.

On March 16, 1999, NIDA , in conjunction with the NIH Child Abuse and Neglect Workgroup, issued an RFA entitled Research on Child Neglect (OD-99-0006). This RFA solicits investigator-initiated applications for research on child neglect (contrasted to abuse) including but not limited to antecedents and consequences of neglect--socio-emotional and developmental neurobiology (mechanisms of stress system activation on brain anatomic and functional development, ages of vulnerability to neglect on brain development)--the processes and mediators of risk and protective factors, treatment, preventive interventions, and service delivery. Letter of Intent Receipt date for this RFA is June 15, 1999, and the Application Receipt date is September 14, 1999.

On March 31, 1999, NIDA, in conjunction with several other NIH Institutes, issued an RFA entitled Mouse Mutagenesis and Phenotyping: Nervous System and Behavior (MH-99-007). The purpose of this RFA is to establish facilities for large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping of nervous system functions and complex behaviors in the laboratory mouse. Neuroscience-focused mutagenesis and phenotyping facilities established by this RFA are expected to serve as a national resource by producing a bank of mouse strains that harbor a wide range of mutations affecting murine nervous system function and behavior. Data and biomaterials produced in projects supported under this RFA will be made widely available to the scientific community. Receipt date for this RFA is August 2, 1999, and the Application Receipt date is October 14, 1999.

Other Program Activities

Training Program in Medications Development for Drugs of Abuse

The Medications Development Division will award its first training grant ("Training Program in Medications Development for Drugs of Abuse, T32 DA07312, PS 140), beginning July 1, 1999, to Dr. Alexandros Makriyannis, a professor of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Connecticut. The program is designed to train four predoctoral and four postdoctoral trainees in the first year, with additional students and postdoctoral fellows being added to the program in subsequent years. The training will offer traditional medicinal chemistry, combined with high throughput and combinatorial approaches currently utilized in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the pharmacological and clinical aspects of drug development. The State of Connecticut recently built the Center for Drug Discovery at the University of Connecticut in support of the University's longstanding academic commitment to drug and alcohol abuse research. The collaborations which the Center has with Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Torrey Pines Institute, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pfizer, and other companies within the private sector who will make their laboratories available for training purposes, will provide a unique training opportunity for the students and postdoctoral fellows being trained under this grant.

NIDA/Somerset Pharmaceuticals CRADA

NIDA and Somerset Pharmaceuticals have executed a Letter of Intent for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to conduct clinical testing of selegilene in both immediate release and transdermal patch formulations, as a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

Buprenorphine Office-Based Study

The Medications Development Division is conducting a Buprenorphine Office-Based Study. This is an open label study that will be conducted in six states (San Antonio, Texas; New York, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Tampa, Florida; Los Angeles, California; and Seattle, Washington). A total of six hundred patients will be enrolled. Investigator meetings have been held in Seattle and New York. An investigator meeting is slated for mid-May in Los Angeles. The trial is scheduled to start enrolling patients in the 2nd Quarter of 1999. The study will evaluate opiate abuse treatment using buprenorphine/naloxone in settings other than the traditional narcotic treatment programs. Information will be obtained to: 1) assess the safety of expanding buprenorphine/naloxone treatment to an adolescent population; 2) develop and test materials, for physicians, that will be useful in training courses by professional societies, and 3) allow labeling changes for induction, maintenance and detoxification regimens using buprenorphine/naloxone in 600 patients.

Amantadine and Disulfiram Reviews

The Medications Development Division held a consultant review of two medications and clinical data (Amantadine and Disulfiram) on April 26 preparatory to future clinical development plans. Data on these two compounds was developed by NIDA P-50 Medications Development Center grantees.

Lofexidine Meeting

On April 7, MDD and Britannia Pharmaceuticals/Forum Products participated in an end of Phase II meeting with the FDA regarding lofexidine, an alpha adrenergic agonist for the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Comments were received regarding the lofexidine development plan.

NIDA/IRP Summer Research Program for Students

Since 1986, the IRP has had a summer research program for students. During the summer of 1998, a total of 41 students representing 35 high schools, colleges, and medical and graduate schools participated in the program through either the NIH Summer Internship Program or the Minority Research and Training Program. Each student participant was assigned to work with an IRP scientist on a research project. The students' training program is individually developed and includes directed readings, tutorials, attendance at seminars, and actual laboratory experience under the direction of the scientist. The culmination of the summer program is the students' presentation of their research at the NIH Student Poster Session held at the Bethesda campus in early August. Because of outstanding contributions and effort, some students will be co-authors on published papers or abstracts. The NIH Summer Internship Program is coordinated by Dr. Stephen Heishman, and the Minority Research and Training Program is coordinated by Dr. Jean Cadet and Ms. Mary Affeldt.

NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Awards Since February 1999

Avants, Sandra A. --- Apt Foundation
Reducing HIV Risk in Methadone-Maintained Patients

Bannon, Michael J. ---Wayne State University School of Medicine
Cocaine Binding Dopamine Transporter: Molecular Biology

Bellack, Alan S. ---University of Maryland
The Process of Change in Drug Abuse by Schizophrenics

Berridge, Craig W. --- University of Wisconsin
Neurochemistry of Amphetamine Induced Arousal

Bickel, Warren K. --- University of Vermont
Impulsivity in Drug Dependence: Delay Discounting

Bidlack, Jean M. --- University of Rochester
Partial Opioids: Potential Treatments for Cocaine Abuse

Biglan, Anthony --- Oregon Research Institute
Low-Cost Prevention of Conduct Disorders

Booth, Robert E. --- University of Colorado
HIV Risk in Drug Users: Relapse and Maintenance Behavior

Brook, David --- Mount Sinai School of Medicine
AIDS Risk: Puerto Rican IDU Fathers and Their Children

Cadoret, Remi J. --- University of Iowa-College of Medicine
Gene-Environment Interaction in Etiology of Drug Abuse

Caine, Barak S. --- Mclean Hospital
Cocaine Self-Administration in Dopamine 'Knockout' Mice

Calloway, Michael --- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Predictors of SA - MH Program Linkages

Carroll, Frank I. --- Research Triangle Institute
Development of Ligands for Nicotinic Receptors

Chavkin, Charles --- University of Washington
Models of Opioid Receptor Desensitization Mechanisms

Chow, Sherry H. --- University of Arizona
Direct Nose-Brain Drug/Peptide Transport

Cicero, Theodore J. --- Washington University
Opiate-Endocrine Interactions-Developmental Aspects

Cochrane, Carolyn E. --- Medical University of South Carolina
Career/Training in Drug Abuse Research

Comer, Sandra D. --- Research Foundation Mental Hygiene, Inc.
Buprenorphine Abuse by Humans: Laboratory Studies

Compton, Wilson M. --- Washington University
Over-the-Counter Syringe Purchase in Five Communities

Connors, Barry W. --- Brown University
Nicotinic Mechanisms in Sensory Neocortex

Cook, Royer F. --- ISA Associates Inc.
A Workplace CD-ROM Drug Prevention Program for Parents

Derrick, Brian E. --- University of Texas
Associative LTP of Area CA3 in the Hippocampus In Vivo

Deutsch, Howard M. --- Georgia Institute of Technology
Preclinical Development of Drugs for Stimulant Abuse

Duncan, Gary --- University of North Carolina-Office of Grants and Contracts
Elementary School Neuroscience Literacy

El-Bassel, Nabila --- Columbia University
HIV Risk and Partner Violence: Men on Methadone

Ellickson, Phyllis I. --- Rand Corporation
HIV Risk, Drugs, and Violence

Elliot, Diane I. --- Oregon Health sciences University
School-Based Drug Use Prevention for Girl Athletes

Epstein, Jennifer A. --- Cornell University-/Weill Medical College
Predictors of Adolescent Drug Use among Inner-city Youth

Evins, Eden A. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia

Fields, Howard I. --- University of California
Neural Substrate of Opiate Analgesia

Fisher, Philip A. --- Oregon Social Learning Center
Indian Wellness Preventive Intervention Project

France, Charles P. --- Louisiana State University Medical Center
Behavioral Pharmacology of Opioids

France, Charles P. --- Louisiana State University School of Dentistry
Discriminative Effects of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal

Freeborn, Donald K. --- Kaiser Foundation Hospitals
Drug Abuse Treatment Costs of Medicaid Clients in an HMO

Frost, James J. --- Johns Hopkins University
Brain Opioid Receptors and Cognition in Cocaine Abuse

Galanter, Marc --- New York University School of Medicine
Network Therapy Development, Stage II with Buprenorphine

Gallagher, Joel P. --- University of Texas Medical Branch
CRF Mechanisms and Cocaine

Gariti, Peter --- University of Pennsylvania
Combining a Smoke Ending Aid with Behavioral Treatment

Geyer, Mark A. --- University of California-San Diego
Monoamine and Hallucinogen Effects on Rodent Behavior

Ghasemzadeh, Mohammadhossein B. --- Washington State University
R03: Glutamate Receptor and Chronic Cocaine

Glassco, William S. --- Virginia Commonwealth University
Synthetic Exploration of Central Nicotinic Receptors

Glennon, Richard A. --- Virginia Commonwealth University
Chemical/Behavioral Studies on Hallucinogenic Agents

Goeders, Nicholas E. --- Louisiana State University Medical Center School of Medicine
Environmental Influences on Cocaine Self-Administration

Gollub, Randy I. --- Massachusetts General Hospital East
FMRI of Cocaine Effects in Cocaine Abusing Schizophrenic

Griffiths, Roland R. --- Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Benzodiazepines Use/Abuse: Effects on Memory Mechanisms

Hagan, Holly C. --- Seattle-King County Public Health Department
Hepatitis C in IDUs: Epidemiology and Prevention

Hammond, Donna I. --- University of Chicago
Effect of Inflammatory Nociception on Medullary Neurons

Harris, Debra S. --- University of California
Effects of Cortisol on Human Methamphetamine Response

Hogue, Aaron T. --- Fordham University
Family Change Mechanisms in Adolescent Drug Use Therapy

Hughes, John R. --- University of Vermont and State Agricultural College
Evaluation of a Cigarette Substitute

Inciardi, James A. --- University of Delaware
HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction among Drug-Involved Probationers

Inturrisi, Charles E. --- Cornell University Medical College
Glutamatergic Systems in Pain and Opioid Action

Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna --- Washington University
Psychotic and Analgesic Actions of NMDA Antagonists

Johnson, Bankole A. --- University of Texas Health Science Center
Cocaine Brain Effects and Neuroimaging

Johnson, Kenneth M. --- University of Texas Medical Branch
Neurochemical Pharmacology of Phencyclidine

Kalyuzhny, Alexander E. --- University of Minnesota
Opioid-GABA Interactions and Antinociception

Kaplan, Howard B. --- Texas A&M University
Drug Abuse and Other Deviant Adaptations to Stress

Kelley, Ann E. --- Wisconsin Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Opioid Systems in Ventral Striatum and Food Reward

Kharasch, Evan D. --- University of Washington
Opioids in Cancer Pain and Drug Abuse: Optimizing Therapy

Kidorf, Michael S. --- Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Community-Based Intervention at Needle Exchange Sites

Kinnunen, Taru --- Harvard School of Dental Medicine
Exercise and Nicotine Replacement for Female Smokers

Knuepfer, Mark M. --- Saint Louis University
Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine

Kolesnikov, Yuri A. --- Sloan-Kettering Institute-Cancer Research
Opioid and Non-Opioid Mechanism(s) of Neuropathic Pain

Koob, George F. --- Scripps Research Institute
Neuronal Substrates of Cocaine Reward

Kuhar, Michael J. --- Emory University
Mechanisms of Drugs of Abuse

Kuhn, Donald M. --- Wayne State University
The Neurotoxicity of Amphetamines and Related Stimulants

Langenbucher, James W. --- Rutgers State University of New Jersey
Neuroadaptive Clinical Models of Drug Dependents

Lennox, Richard D. --- Piedmont Research Institute, Inc.
The Impact of State Continuum-of-Care Mandates

Levine, Allen S. ---VA Medical Center
The Effect of Sucrose and/or Fat Ingestion on Opiods

Levin, Edward D. --- Duke University
Attention as a Target of Intoxication

Lindberg, Iris --- Louisiana State University Medical Center
Opioid Peptide Synthesizing Enzymes

Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan --- Temple University School of Medicine
Regulation of Kappa Opioid Receptors

Lluedtke, Robert R. --- University of North Texas Health Science Center
Therapeutics for Cocaine Dependence: Natural Products

Lukas, Scott E. --- Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center
Medication Development for Cocaine Abuse: CDP-Choline

Mackler, Scott A. --- VA Medical Center
Nac-1, a Cocaine-Regulated MRNA in the Rat Brain

Makriyannis, Alexandros --- University of Connecticut
Dopamine Transporter Ligands as Cocaine Medications

Malison, Robert T. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Advanced Training in Spectrum/PET Neuroreceptor Imaging

Margolin, Arthur --- Substance Abuse Treatment Center
Optimizing Auricular Acupuncture for HIV+ Drug Abusers

Marks, Michael J. --- University of Colorado
Alpha-Conotoxin MII: A Selective Nicontinic Receptor Problem

Marshall, John F. --- University of California-Irvine
Methamphetamine Abuse and Cortical Cell Injury

Martin, Billy R. --- Temple University School of Medicine
College on Problems of Drug Dependence Meeting

Masson, Carmen I. --- University of California-San Francisco
Prevention of Infectious Disease in Injection Drug Users

McCance-Katz, Elinore --- Montefiore Medical Center
Opioids and HIV Medications-interactions in Drug Abusers

Mendelson, John --- University of California
Clinical Pharmacology of Methamphetamine Stereoisomers

Meyer, Jerrold S. --- University of Illinois-@uc-Department of Veterinary Biosciences
Receptors for Abused Drugs: Development and Plasticity

Morgenstern, Hal --- University of California-Los Angeles
Marijuana Use and the Risks of Lung and Other Cancers

Morrow, Kathleen M. --- Brown University
Reducing HIV Risk in Substance Abusing Women: A Pilot

Murphy, Sheigla ---Institute for Scientific Analysis
An Ethnography of Victimization, Pregnancy and Drug Use

Musto, David F. --- Yale University
American Women and Substance Abuse 1865-1980

Najavits, Lisa M. --- Mclean Hospital
The Efficacy of Psychosocial Therapies for Drug Abuse

Napier, Celeste T. --- Loyola University Chicago
Opioids and the Physiology of the Ventral Pallidum

Neaigus, Alan --- National Development and Research Institute
Non-Injecting Heroin Users, New Injectors and HIV Risk

Nemoto, Tooru --- University of California-San Francisco
HIV-Related Behaviors in Hard to Reach High Risk Men

Nestler, Eric J. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Molecular Studies of Opiate and Cocaine Action in Brain

Olsen, George D. --- Oregon Health Sciences University
Mortphine-6 Glucuronide: Development of Breathing Control

Page, John B. --- University of Miami School of Medicine
Drug Use and Gang Activity among Haitian Youths

Perlman, David C. --- Beth Israel Medical Center
TB Screening and Prevention in Active Users

Porreca, Frank --- Arizona Health Sciences Center
Bifunctional Opioid/CCK Ligands for Pain

Proudfit, Herbert K. --- University of Illinois
Pharmacologic Studies of CNS Pain Molulatory Systems

Raso, Victor A. --- Boston Biomedical Research Institute
Vaccine to Elicit Catalytic Anti-Cocaine Antibodies

Rayport, Stephen G. --- Columbia University
Psychostimulant Sensitization at the Synaptic Level

Rebec, George V. --- Indiana University
Neuropharmacology of Drugs of Abuse: Amphetamine

Renshaw, Perry F. --- Mclean Hospital
Magnetic Resonance, EEG and Behavior after Cocaine

Ricaurte, George A. --- Johns Hopkins University
Studies of Substituted Amphetamine Neurotoxicity

Richter, Anke --- Research Triangle Institute
Extended Economic Impact Assessment of AIDS Intervention

Rosenberg, Gary --- Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Drug Use: Generational Transmission in Minority Youth

Rose, Jed E. --- Duke University Medical Center
Scaling the Reinforcing Value of Cigarette Smoke

Roy, Sabita --- VA Medical Center
Role of Mu-Opioid Receptor in Immune Function

Rubenstein, John I. --- University of California
NKX Homeobox Gene Regulation of Ventral CNS Development

Sadee, Wolfgang --- University of California-San Francisco
Opioid Receptor Regulation

Schenk, James O. --- Washington State University
Drugs of Abuse and Dopamine Release and Reuptake

Sharp, Burt M. --- University of Tennessee
Interaction between Nicotine and Stress

Siggins, George R. --- Scripps Research Institutes
Morphine-like Brain Peptides--Cellular Neurobiology

Simon, Eric J. ---New York University Medical Center
Biochemical Research on Opioid Receptors

Simon, Eric J. ---New York University Medical Center
30th Annual International Narcotics Research Conference

Singer, Merrill --- Hispanic Health Council
Syringe Access and HIV Risk

Smith, James E. --- Bowman Gray School of Medicine
Center for Neurobiological Investigation of Drug Abuse

Sorg, Barbara A. --- Washington State University
Cortical Regulation of Sensitization

Spealman, Roger D. --- Harvard Medical School
Behavior Controlled by Drug Injections

Szapoznik, Jose --- University of Miami
Structural Ecosystems Treatment with Drug using Minority Youth

Tashkin, Donald P. --- UCLA Department of Medicine
Pathophysiologic Consequences of Smoked Substance Abuse

Thayer, Stanley A. --- University of Minnesota
HIV Neurotoxicity: Mechanism and Modulation Y Canabinoids

Vezina, Paul --- University of Chicago
Glutamate and the Self Administration of Amphetamines

Waldron, Holly B. --- University of New Mexico
Resistant Adolescent Substance Abusers in Treatment

Weber, Richard J. --- University of Illinois
Neuroendocrine-Immune Correlates of Self-Administered Heroin

Wilcox, George I. --- University of Minnesota
Spinal Mechanisms of Opioid Tolerance

Wilens, Timothy E. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
Long-Term Drug Abuse in ADHD

Williams, Mark I. --- Nova Research Company
Condom Use Among Drug Users Receiving Antiretrovirals

Wilson, Marlene A. --- University of South Carolina
Gender Differences in the Brain and Behavior

Wilson, William H. --- Duke University Medical Center
Early Use of Marijuana and Brain Morphology and Function

Winkleby, Marilyn A. --- Stanford University School of Medicine
High Risk Teen Tobacco Use Prevention through Advocacy

Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A. --- Mclean Hospital
Residual Cognitive Effects of Cannabis: An FMRI Study

Yu, Xiao-Fang --- Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health
Viral Determinants of Disease Progression in HIV+IDUs

Zacny, James P. --- University of Chicago
Behavioral Effects of Opioids in Volunteers

Zahniser, Nancy R. --- University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Cocaine Sensitization and the Dopamine Transporter

Zarkin, Gary A. --- Research Triangle Institute
Benefits of Treatment Services

Review Activities

Staff Development

In January 1999, Drs. Teresa Levitin, and William C. Grace presented at the NIH Peer Review Oversight Group to discuss a model for web based training of reviewers. This training model was developed in conjunction with Drs. Marina Volkov and Susan Coyle of OEPR, and the web pages are currently under construction.

In March 1999, Dr. Mark Swieter, Scientific Review Administrator, completed reviews for applications for the Human Brain Project, a government-wide initiative designed to encourage and support investigator-initiated neuroinformatics research that will lead to new digital and electronic tools for all domains of brain and behavioral research reflecting normal and disease states across the lifespan. Participating agencies include 10 institutes of the NIH (including NIDA), the National Library of Medicine, the Fogarty International Center, the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Office of Naval Research, and the Department of Energy.

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