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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

May, 1998

Program Activities

Program Announcements/RFAs

On February 25, 1998, NIDA issued a Program Announcement to encourage research on the Role of Limbic System and Brain Ontogeny in Drug Abuse (PA-98-032). This initiative is designed to support basic research into the fundamental mechanisms of development of the midbrain and basal forebrain structures that mediate the euphoric properties of drugs as well as understanding how drugs of abuse affect the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying nervous system development.

On February 25, 1998, NIDA and a number of other NIH components including the Office of Alternative Medicine, NCI, NHLBI, NIDR, NIAMS, NINDS and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research issued a joint Program Announcement on Acupuncture Clinical Trial Pilot Grants (PAS-98-033). This PA encourages pilot studies to establish the methodological feasibilty and strengthen the scientific rationale for proceeding to full-scale randomized clinical trials on the use of acupuncture to prevent, manage, or treat various symptoms or disorders.

On February 20, 1998, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Drug Abuse Prevention and Communications Research (DA-98-006). This RFA, funded with dollars transferred to NIDA from the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), will encourage scientists to submit applications to study the influences of the media on the onset and continuation of drug use, and the use of mass media and communications as a prevention intervention. The purpose of the program is to conduct research and produce results that can guide the design and development process of the national Youth Anti-Drug Media campaign over the next five years. These areas of research include: a) emotional and cognitive functioning and their relationship to message development; b) assessment of communications messages and strategies for specific youth audiences; c) relationship between knowledge about drugs and their effects, attitudes, perceptions of risk, and personal susceptibility, and drug using/refusal behaviors; and d) other areas of research on the influence of the public media--ie., television, radio, news, the internet, and entertainment, sports, films, music and fashion and how that affects drug use among youth. Grant proposals were due May 7, 1998 with eligible grants due for review by the National Advisory Council in September 1998.

Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

On April 1, 1998, NIDA released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for an openly competitive contract, funded by the Office of National Drug Control Policy, to assess the direct impact of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on youth and parents. The evaluation of the Campaign, which incorporated the advice and consultation of a group of research experts in evaluation, will be designed to be able to determine the extent to which changes in drug abuse-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors can be attributed to exposure to the media campaign.

The evaluation will do the following to measure major evaluation objectives:

  • Analyze data from existing and ongoing national surveys to assess prevalence rates of drug abuse and drug-related beliefs and attitudes;

  • Design and conduct new surveys of children aged 9-18 and parents of children aged 9-18;

  • Design and conduct new longitudinal surveys of linked panels of children and parents at 4 to 6 NIDA-designated sentinel sites to assess more in-depth relationships over time between exposure to the media and behavior/attitude change;

  • Monitor the media exposure of the target audiences using existing and ongoing tracking system(s) for measuring the number, placement, and type (paid/unpaid, print/electronic) of advertisements, target groups, and message content, both nationally and at sentinel sites; and

  • Design and develop a system for measuring community-based drug abuse prevention and other related activities at the sentinel sites.

The contract will produce campaign evaluation reports every six months throughout the five years. NIDA plans to award the contract in late September.

Phase I Clinical Trial of Cocaine Vaccine

The cocaine vaccine product developed by the ImmuLogic Pharmaceutical Corp., partially funded by two SBIR grants and a SPIRCAP (U19) award, was first administered to humans in a Phase I clinical trial, April 1998. This marks the first clinical study of a peripheral blocker and the first time a new molecular entity developed specifically for cocaine abuse/dependence treatment has been administered to humans.

NIDA'S New/Competing Awards Since May 1997

Abel, Marc S. --- Fuhs Chicago Medical School
Cocaine-induced Behavioral Sensitization and Seizures

Agar, Michael H. --- University of Maryland--Department of Anthropology
Trend Theory in Community Context

Alvarado, Rose --- University of Utah School of Medicine
NIDA Strengthening Washington, DC Families Grant

Andrews, Judy A. --- Oregon Research Institute
Social Influences on Child Substance Use and Attitude

August, Gerald J. --- University of Minnesota
Risk-focused Prevention Drug Abuse in Aggressive Youth

Baraban, Jay M. --- Johns Hopkins University
Psychotropic Drug Responsive Transcription Factors

Batki, Steven L. --- University of California at San Francisco
Iradipine Pharmacotherapy of Methamphetamine Dependence

Bayer, Barbara M. --- Georgetown University Medical Center
Lymphocyte Activity During Stress: Effects of Morphine

Bennett, Charles L. --- Lakeside VA Medical Center
Multicity Study of Quality of Care for HIV-related PCP

Berger, S. Paul --- University of Cincinnati
Pharmacotherapy of Cue-induced Cocaine Craving

Berman, L. Yemiliya --- New York University Medical Center
Opiate Peptides and Receptors in the FAT/FAT Mice

Bernstein, Edward --- Boston University
A Randomized Trial of the Brief Negotiated Interview

Bigelow, George E. --- Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus
Human Behavioral Pharmacology of Drug Abuse

Bigelow, George E. --- Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus
Pharmacological Modulation of Cocaine Effects

Booth, Brenda M. --- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Outcomes and Health Services in Drug Use Disorders

Booze, Rosemarie M. --- University of Kentucky Medical Center
Gender Differences in Cocaine Responsiveness

Bosron, William F. --- Indiana University School of Medicine
Cocaine, Heroin & Opioid Metabolism by Carboxylesterases

Boulter, James R. --- University of California at Los Angeles
Transgenic Approaches to Acetylcholine Receptor Function

Bradberry, Charles W. --- VA Medical Center
CNS Consequences of Chronic Cocaine Self-administration

Brecht, Mary-Lynn --- University of California at Los Angeles
Methamphetamine Abuse: Natural History, Treatment Effects

Butler, Stephen F. --- Innovative Training Systems
Development of an Addiction Severity Assessment Tool

Carr, Kenneth D. --- New York University Medical Center
CNS Opioid Mechanisms That Modulate Reward and Aversion

Castagnoli, Neal, Jr. --- Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Inhibition of Mao-A and Mao-B by Tobacco Alkaloids

Cheng, Li S. --- SRI International
Genetic Analysis of Smoking Behavior & Smoking Relapse

Cheng, Peter Y. --- Cornell University Medical College
ACTH Release by Dyn A: Role of NMDA Receptors

Chiauzzi, Emil --- Innovative Training Systems
Smart: An Alternative for Incarcerated Substance Abusers

Cinciripini, Paul M. --- University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Scheduled Smoking with Transdermal Nicotine

Cox, Brian M. --- Henry M. Jackson Foundation
Med Regulation of Opioid Systems

Crimmins, Susan M. --- National Development/Research Institute Inc.
Learning about Violence and Drugs among Adolescents

Deadwyler, Samuel A. --- Bowman Gray School of Medicine
Neurophysiological Analysis of Self-administration of Cocaine

Deadwyler, Samuel A. --- Bowman Gray School of Medicine
Hippocampus Correlates of Drug Abuse in Rats

Deren, Sherry --- National Development/Research Institute Inc.
High-risk Drug Use & HIV: Learning from the New York City Epidemic

Deutsch, Dale G. --- State University of New York
Anandamide: Chemistry and Biochemistry

Dow-Edwards, Diana L. --- State University of New York -- Health Science Center
Cocaine and Development: Neurobiological Perspectives

Dwoskin, Linda P. --- University of Kentucky
Development of Selective Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists

Engel, Jorgen A. --- Goteborg University Faculty of Medicine
Ethanol and Nicotine: Neurobiological Interactions

Ettenberg, Aaron --- University of California
Mechanisms of Opiate and Stimulant Drug Reinforcement

Falk, John L. --- Rutgers University
Cocaine, Caffeine and Nicotine: Oral Abuse and Behavior

Fiorentine, Robert --- UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center
Abuse-Distress Model of Drug Treatment Engagement

Fischman, Marian W. --- Trustees of Columbia University
IV Cocaine Abuse Treatment: A Laboratory Model

Flay, Brian R. --- University of Illinois -- Chicago
Extension of Aban Aya Youth Project

Fleckenstein, Annette E. --- University of Utah
Methamphetamine and Dopamine Transporters

Fricker, Lloyd D. --- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Regulation of Neuropeptide-processing Enzymes

Gatley, S. John --- Associated Universities, Inc.
Estimation of Synaptic Dopamine Using PET and SPECT

Glick, Stanley D. --- Albany Medical College
Neuro-behavioral Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

Gutstein, Howard B. --- University of Michigan
The Role of ERK Signaling in Acute Opioid Tolerance

Hagan, Holly C. --- King County Department of Health
The Raven Study: Advancing HIV Prevention for IDUs

Hampson, Robert E. --- Bowman Gray School of Medicine
Cannabinoid Effects on Sensory Processing in Brain

Hansen, William B. --- Tanglewood Research, Inc.
Drug Prevention Mediating Variables Survey

Hanson, Glen R. --- University of Utah
Role of Neurotensin in Methamphetamine Effects

Hasin, Deborah S. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene
Prism: Comorbidity Diagnosis for Drug Abuse Treatment

Hauser, Kurt F. --- University of Kentucky
Role of Abused Opiate Drugs in Neural Development

Henriksen, Steven J. --- Scripps Research Institute
Electrophysiological Substrates of Opioid Abuse

Hook, Vivian Y. --- University of Calif at San Diego
Biosynthesis of Enkephalin Opioid Peptides

Hops, Hyman --- Oregon Research Institute
Young Adult Substance Use-- Predictors and Consequences

Houghten, Richard A. --- Torrey Pines Institute/Molecular Studies
Small Molecule Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin Receptor Ligands

Ho, Wenzhe --- Stokes Research Institute/Childrens Hospital
Opioids, Substance P, and HIV-1 Infection of Microglia

Jackson, Denise --- Northeastern University
Neurochemical Effects of Prenatal Cocaine in Rat Striata

Jarbe, Torbjorn U. --- Allegheny University of the Health Sciences
Exogenous and Endogenous Cannabinoids: A Comparison

Jarvik, Murray E. --- University of California -- Neuropsychiatric Institute
Selective Attention to Smoking Stimuli

Javitch, Jonathan A. --- Columbia University
Dopamine Transporter: Substrate & Cocaine Binding Sites

Jones, Reese T. --- University of California
Pharmacokinetics of Drugs of Abuse in Skin and Hair

Kanarek, Robin B. --- Tufts University
Actions of Opiate Drugs: Dietary Modulation

Kantak, Kathleen M. --- Boston University
Cognitive Aspects of Addiction-related Behavior

Kelley, Ann E. --- University of Wisconsin
Neural Mechanisms in the Nucleus Accumbens and Behavior

Kendall, Carl --- Tulane University
Adherence to HIV Therapies in Drug Users in New Orleans

Kilts, Clinton D. --- Emory University School of Medicine
Functional Anatomy of Drug Craving in Cocaine Addiction

Klein, Thomas W. --- University of South Florida
Cannabinoid Receptors on Immune Cells

Kosobud, Ann E. K. --- Indiana University
Functional Properties of VTA Neurons

Kosobud, Ann E. K. --- Indiana University
Circadian Anticipation as a Determinant of Drug Craving

Kosofsky, Barry E. --- Massachusetts General Hospital
Cocaine-altered Brain Growth: Dopamine Knockout Analysis

Kreek, Mary J. --- Rockefeller University
Addictive Drugs- Pharmacology and Physiology

Kuhar, Michael J. --- Yerkes Primate Research Center
Cart: A Novel Cocaine Regulated Neurochemical

Kuhn, Cynthia M. --- Duke University Medical Center
Gender Differences in Stimulant Action

Lee, Tong H. --- Duke University Medical Center
Dopamine Presynaptic Inhibition and Cocaine Treatment

Lehman, Wayne --- Texas Christian University
Drug Use in the Workplace: A Prevention Training Program

Lemos, Jose R. --- University of Massachusetts/Department of Physiology
Mechanisms of Opioid Action on Peptide Release

Leventhal, Bennett L. --- American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists
AACAP Physician Scientist Program in Substance Abuse

Levin, Frances R. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene
Methylphenidate Treatment for Cocaine Abuse and ADHD

Levin, Frances R. --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene
Treatment of Adult ADHD in Methadone Patients

Liddle, Howard A. --- University of Miami
Center for Treatment Research on Adolescent Drug Abuse

Lockridge, Oksana --- University of Nebraska Medical Center
Rapid Detoxification of Cocaine by Butyrylcholinesterase

Lowy, Franklin D. --- Montefiore Medical Center
Staphylococcal Colonization and Diseases in Drug Users

Luther, Suniya S. --- APT Foundation, Inc.
Relational Parenting Therapy for Opioid Abusing Mothers

Mackie, Kenneth P. --- University of Washington
Neuronal Cannabinoid Receptor: Function & Regulation

Malcolm, Robert J. --- Medical University of South Carolina
Amlodipine Treatment for Cocaine Dependence

Mash, Deborah C. --- University of Miami
CNS Mechanisms in Cocaine Related Sudden Death

Mc Evoy, Joseph P. --- Duke University Medical Center
Smoking, Schizophrenia, and Atypical Antipsychotics

Mc Ginnis, Marilyn Y. --- Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Effects on Brain & Behavior

Mckay, Dennis B. --- Ohio State University
Adrenal Nicotinic Receptors and Catecholamine Secretion

Mckay, James R. --- University of Pennsylvania
Studies of Aftercare for Substance Abusers

Mendelson, Wallace B. --- University of Chicago
The Preoptic Area and Pharmacologic Sleep Induction

Metzger, David S. --- University of Pennsylvania
Effectiveness of Multi-site NEP in Preventing HIV & HBV

Milby, Jesse B. --- University of Alabama
Sustaining Abstinence in Dually Diagnosed Homeless

Miller, Bonnie C. --- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Characterization of Opioid Receptors on T Cell Subsets

Miller, Leslie M. --- William Marsh Rice University
Medicinal Mysteries from History

Milner, Teresa A. --- Cornell University Medical College
Ultrastructural Interactions of Opioids in Hippocampus

Montague, P. Read --- Baylor College of Medicine
Computational Substances of Addiction and Reward

Montoya, Isaac D. --- Affiliated Systems Corporation
Employment Dynamics in Response to Welfare Reform

Nelson, Suchitra S. --- Case Western University
Iron Deficiency Anemia in Cocaine Exposed Children

O'Leary, Daniel S. --- University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics
Acute Marijuana Effects on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow

O'Malley, Karen L. --- Washington University
Modulation of Dopamine Autoreceptor Function by Cocaine

Owens, Samuel M. --- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Antibody-based Therapy for Methamphetamine Abuse

Parsons, Loren H. --- Scripps Research Institute
Cocaine Reward and 5-HT-1b Receptors: Neural Mechanisms

Pasternak, Gavril W. --- Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Synthesis and Pharmacology of Novel Opiate Ligands

Paterlini, Maria G. --- University of Minnesota
Modeling of Chemokine Receptors with Ligands and HIV

Pechnick, Robert N. --- Louisiana State University Medical Center
Neuroendocrine Effects of Self-administered Cocaine

Peterson, Phillip K. --- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Modulation of Cell-mediated Immune Function by Opiates

Picciotto, Marina R. --- Yale University School of Medicine
A Transgenic Approach to Nicotine's Effect on Cognition

Pincus, Harold A. --- American Psychiatric Association
Drug Abuse Research Scholars Program in Psychiatry

Pineda, Jaime A. --- University of California
Neurocognitive Etiology of Addiction-related Behavior

Polich, John M. --- Scripps Research Institute
Marijuana CNS Effects in Low- and High-risk Adults

Porreca, Frank --- University of Arizona
Opioid and Non-opioid Actions of Dynorphin in Pain

Prather, Paul L. --- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Opioid Control Mechanisms of Signal Transduction

Prendergast, Michael --- UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center
TC Treatment for Prisoners: Long-term Outcomes & Costs

Ramsay, Douglas S. --- University of Washington
Individual Differences and Addictive Vulnerability

Razdan, Raj K. --- Organix Inc.
Anandamide: Structure-activity Relationships

Ringwalt, Christopher --- Research Triangle Institute
School Based Drug Prevention Program

Robertson, Hugh D. --- Cornell University Medical College
Modulation of Opioid & NMDA Receptor MRNA by Ribozymes

Rohde, Paul D. --- Oregon Research Institute
Psychiatric Disorders and the Natural History of Smoking

Rothenberg, Richard B. --- Emory University School of Medicine
Validity of Drug Users' Information on Network Contacts

Schafer, William --- University of California at San Diego
Genetic Analysis of Nicotine Adaptation in C Elegans

Schensul, Jean J. --- Institute for Community Research
Pathways to High-risk Drug Abuse among Urban Youth

Segal, David S. --- University of Califonia at San Diego School of Medicine
Behavioral Pharmacology of Acute and Chronic Amphetamine

Segre, Mariangela --- University of Illinois --Veterinary Pathobiology
Is An Anti-cocaine Idiotypic Vaccine Feasible?

Semple, William E. --- Case Western Reserve
Brain and Attention in Substance Abusers with PTSD

Simon, Eric J. --- New York University Medical Center
29th Annual International Narcotic Research Conference

Smith, Robert F. --- George Mason University
An Animal Model of Adolescent Drug Progression

Soderberg, Lee S. --- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Immunotoxicity of Abused Nitrite Inhalants

Sokoloff, Pierre --- Institute de La Sante et De La Recherche
Synthesis & Evaluation of D3r Ligands for Cocaine Abuse

Solbrig, Marylou V. --- University of California
CNS Viral Injury and Vulnerability to Opiate Drug Abuse

Svikis, Dace S. --- Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Brief Intervention for Drug Use in Pregnant Women

Swan, Gary E. --- SRI International
Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine in Twins

Tancer, Manuel E. --- Wayne State University School of Medicine
HT/DA System Interaction in Psychostimulant Drug Effects

Taylor, Bradley K. --- University of California at San Francisco
Pain, Opioid Analgesia and Blood Pressure Control

Taylor, Jane R. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Cognitive Dysfunction after Chronic PCP, THC and Cocaine

Taylor, Jane R. --- Yale University School of Medicine
Cocaine Sensitization and Conditioned Reinforcement

Thomas, David L. --- Johns Hopkins University
HIV, Drug Use and Hepatitis C Pathogenesis

Triffleman, Elisa G. --- Central Treatment Unit
Psychotherapy of PTSD in Substance Dependent Patient

Tyor, William R. --- Medical University of South Carolina
Cocaine Effects on HIV Encephalitis in Scid Mice

Urban, Mark O. --- University of Iowa
Supraspinal Modulation of Hyperalgesia

Uretsky, Norman J. --- Ohio State University
Pertussis Toxin and Effects of Psychostimulant Drugs

Vaccarino, Anthony L. --- University of New Orleans
Tolerance to Morphine Analgesia: Biobehavior Factors

Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar --- University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Calcium Signaling by Hippocampal Nicotinic Receptors

Vorhees, Charles V. --- Children's Hospital Research
Developmental Methamphetamine-induced Cognitive Deficits

Wagner, John J. --- North Dakota State University
Dynorphin Opioid Peptide Actions in the Hippocampus

Wechsberg, Wendee M. --- Research Triangle Institute
Woman-focused HIV Prevention with African Americans

Werling, Linda L. --- George Washington University
Molecular Mechanisms of PCP and Sigma Drug Action

Wessinger, William D. --- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Dextromethorphan: Stimulus Properties & Pharmacokinetics

West, Mark O. --- Rutgers University
Cocaine's Effects on Movement-related Striatal Firing

Whitbeck, Leslie B. --- Iowa State University
Mille Lacs Family Alcohol and Drug Prevention Project

Worley, Paul F. --- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
IEG Homer and Drug Addiction Effector

Wu, Ping --- Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene Inc.
Adolescent Use of Alcohol and Drug Treatment Services

Xie, Xiang-qun --- University of Connecticut
NMR/computer Modeling for Cannabinoid Ligand Design

Yeomans, David C. --- University of Illinois
Nociceptor-selective Analgesia

Zadina, James E. --- Tulane University School of Medicine
Neurobiology of Endomorphis

Zhou, Renping --- Rutgers University
EPH Molecules in Otogeny of Brain Reward Circuits

Review Activities

Career Development Scientific Review Group

The first meeting of the career development review group to assess training, career development, fellowship, and related development applications from across all NIDA scientific areas met in April. Dr. Mark Swieter served as the Scientific Review Administrator (SRA). This meeting placed the entire spectrum of NIDA supported science together in one meeting, united by the theme of career development. Feedback suggests that it was a very successful meeting. It is anticipated that this group will become a standing committee.

Staff Development

As part of its ongoing series of staff development activities, OEPR sponsored a seminar for NIDA staff on the new review criteria of Significance, Approach, Innovation, Investigator, and Environment, which were applied in this review cycle. Drs. Teresa Levitin and William Grace led a discussion of the new criteria, the steps NIDA has taken to ensure that reviewers understand and use the new criteria, and the likely impacts of the new criteria.

OEPR developed and hosted another staff development workshop on "Working with the Center for Scientific Review" to prepare NIDA and NIMH staff for likely changes resulting from the integration of the review of some scientific areas into the CSR structure. Senior management and review staff from CSR, along with a project officer from another NIH Institute, presented methods of enhancing communication and cooperation with CSR. NIDA's Receipt and Referral Officer, Dr. Rita Liu, presented on coordination of receipt and referral activities with CSR. Drs. Levitin, Liu, and Grace organized the program and led the discussion, and the success of this workshop has been noted at the NIH Review Policy Committee and the NIH Extramural Scientist Training and Development Committee, which is developing plans to present similar training based on this workshop.

Dr. William Grace assisted the NIH Office of Extramural Programs by serving as a facilitator for case studies presentations on two occasions. He facilitated a group for the Extramural Scientist Administrator Seminar Series and then served as a facilitator and panel member for an NIH-wide Core Topics/Case Studies training session. These case studies present actual events from NIH files that address complex issues in review administration, program management, and application of extramural policy.

Updates on Review Policies and Procedures

Dr. Teresa Levitin presented an update on changes in review policies and procedures to a NIDA sponsored meeting of the African American Researchers and Scholars Group on March 6. Similar presentations were made to other groups, including representatives from Historically Black Colleges and Universities at the Drug Abuse Research Technical Assistance Project (March 9, Dr. Grace), the NIDA INVEST and Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellows (March 13, Dr. Levitin), and the Hispano/Latino Researchers and Scholars Group (March 16, Drs. Levitin and Grace).

New Policies

The NIH has informed the extramural community of a new policy requiring the appropriate inclusion of children in NIH sponsored research. The policy becomes effective for applications received after the October 1, 1998 receipt date. Plans are being made for training all extramural staff on this new policy. The policy may be found at:

The NIH has informed the extramural community that any investigator-initiated application requesting more than $500,000 in direct costs in any year, with the exception of those submitted in response to specific announcements with specific budget guidelines, must receive prior approval from a receiving Institute or Center. This policy is effective June 1, 1998 and may be found at:

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