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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - May, 2010

Research Findings - Prevention Research

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers Reduces Permanent Placement Failures

The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers with histories of placement instability on permanency outcomes and to determine whether the intervention's effectiveness on these outcomes varied based on prior maltreatment experiences. Permanency outcomes for 52 children who had experienced 4 or more placements prior to study entry (n = 29 intervention condition (MTFC-P); n = 23 regular foster care condition (RFC)) were examined through 24 months post-study entry. Data for the present study came from a subset of children in a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the MTFC-P program. The sample for the larger study consisted of 117 3- to 5-year-old foster children entering new foster placements and 60 nonmaltreated community children from low-income families. The authors operationalized the concept of prior placement instability in the present study as a child having experienced four or more placements prior to study entry. This produced a sample of 52 children (27 boys and 25 girls; 23 RFC and 29 MTFC-P) for the present study. On average across the two study conditions, the children had experienced approximately six transitions (M = 5.79, SD = 1.66), and 12 children (23%) had experienced seven or more transitions prior to entering the study. Age at first placement ranged from birth to 5 years with a mean of 2.42 years (SD = 1.32). There was no significant difference in age at first placement between groups. The children were predominantly European Americans (90.4%), which was representative of the geographical region in which the study was conducted. There was no significant group difference in terms of child ethnicity. The results indicated no group differences in permanency attempt rates but more than double the rate of successful permanency attempts for the intervention condition. The findings indicated that systematic interventions have the potential to impact permanency outcomes among children with prior instability. Fisher PA, Kim HK, Pears KC. Effects of multidimensional treatment foster care for preschoolers (MTFC-P) on reducing permanent placement failures among children with placement instability. Children and Youth Services Review. 2009; 31: 541-546.

Two-year Follow-up of Computer Delivered Program for Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

This study examined the two-year follow-up impact of a computer-delivered program for preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Nine hundred and sixteen girls aged 12.76 +/- 1.0 years and their mothers were assigned to an intervention arm or to a test-only control arm. Intervention-arm dyads engaged in exercises to improve the mother-daughter relationship, build girls' substance use prevention skills, and reduce associated risk factors. Study outcomes were girls' and mothers' substance use and mediator variables related to girls' substance use risk and protective factors. The study was conducted between September 2006 and February 2009 with participants from greater New York City, including southern Connecticut and eastern New Jersey. At 2-year follow-up and relative to control-arm girls, intervention-arm girls reported lower relevant risk factors and higher protective factors as well as less past 30-day use of alcohol (p < 0.006), marijuana (p < 0.016), illicit prescription drugs (p < 0.03), and inhalants (p < 0.024). Intervention-arm mothers showed more positive 2-year outcomes than control-arm mothers on variables linked with reduced risks of substance use among their daughters (e.g., communication with their daughters, observance of family rituals, monitoring of their daughters' out-of-home activities) and mothers reported lower rates of weekly alcohol consumption (p < 0.0001). This computer-delivered prevention program for adolescent girls and their mothers was effective in changing girls' risk and protective factors in a positive direction, as well as in impacting both girls' and mothers' substance use behavior in desired ways. These findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among early adolescent girls. Schinke S, Fang L, Cole K. Computer-delivered, parent-involvement intervention to prevent substance use among adolescent girls. Prev Med. 2009; 49(5): 429-435.

Effectiveness of the BRAVE Intervention

This article examines the effectiveness of a career-oriented intervention for preventing involvement with alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATODs) and violence and for promoting resilient behavior among eighth-grade, African American middle school students (N = 178) through the implementation of the Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program. Students were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. Students in the intervention condition participated in the school-based BRAVE Program and the standard public school curriculum. Comparison students participated only in the standard curriculum. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and violent behavior were assessed for students at baseline, post-test, and one-year follow up (one year after baseline). Results revealed a beneficial effect of the intervention on participants frequency of use of alcohol (p < .04) and marijuana (p < .05), but no effect for violent behavior. Griffin J, Holliday R, Frazier E, Braithwaite R. The BRAVE (Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence) Program: Evaluation Findings for a career-oriented substance abuse and violence preventive intervention. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009; 20(3): 798-816.

Brief Multiple Behavior Intervention for College Students has Sustained Effects on 12-month Follow-up

This study examined whether 3-month outcomes of a brief image-based multiple behavior intervention on health habits and health-related quality of life for college students were sustained at 12-month follow-up without further intervention. A randomized control trial was conducted with 303 undergraduates attending a public university in southeastern US (average age 19.2). Participants were randomized to receive either a brief intervention (a brief tailored consultation and fitness goal plan) or usual care control (print materials from a trained fitness specialist). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month data were collected during fall of 2007. Repeated-measures MANOVAs were used to evaluate baseline and 12-month data to test whether positive outcomes at 3 months were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. A significant omnibus MANOVA interaction effect was found for health-related quality of life, p = 0.01, with univariate interaction effects showing fewer days of poor spiritual health, social health, and restricted recent activity, p's < 0.05, for those receiving the brief intervention. Significant group by time interaction effects were found for driving after drinking, p = 0.04, and moderate exercise, p = 0.04, in favor of the brief intervention. Effect sizes typically increased over time and were small except for moderate size effects for social health-related quality of life. This study found that 3-month outcomes from a brief image-based multiple behavior intervention for college students were partially sustained at 12-month follow-up. Health-related quality of life effects, moderate exercise and driving after drinking effects were maintained. However, effects on alcohol use, marijuana use, and amount of sleep were not sustained over time. The findings from this study are critical to understanding the degree to which short-term brief intervention outcomes are sustained, and whether or not boosters may be needed to bolster specific behavioral degradations over time. Werch C, Moore M, Bian H, DiClemente C, Huang I, Ames S, Thombs D, Weiler R, Pokorny S. Are effects from a brief multiple behavior intervention for college students sustained over time? Prev Med. 2010; 50(1-2): 30-34.

Protective Families are Less Protective for Youth in High-risk Environment

This study used data from a sample of 6th to 12th grade students (N = 48,641, 51% female), nested in 192 Pennsylvania schools, to determine if the influence of family-based protective factors varied across different school contexts. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of individual-level family protective factors, relative to school-level aggregates of the same factors, on recent (past 30 days) use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Cross-level interactions indicated that the effect of the student's level of family protection, relative to other students in their school, differed depending on the aggregated school level of family protection. The results suggested that the benefit of belonging to a well-functioning family was more influential for students attending schools characterized by higher-than-average aggregated levels of protection compared to students attending schools of lower-than-average protection. Thus, family-level factors offered less protection for students in relatively high-risk school contexts. These results were consistent with a protective-reactive interaction and suggest that a thorough understanding of adolescent substance use must consider the complex interplay among adolescents, their families, and their social environments. Cleveland MJ, Feinberg ME, Greenberg MT. Protective families in high- and low-risk environments: implications for adolescent substance use. J Youth Adolesc. 2010; 39(2): 114-126.

Marijuana Use Among Teens Can Be Reduced with Parental Monitoring

Parental monitoring is commonly recognized as an important protective factor against risky adolescent behaviors. In this meta-analytic review, associations of adolescents' perceptions of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use were collected and quantified across 25 independent samples from 17 empirical studies involving 35,367 unique participants. Applying a random-effects model, the average magnitude of effect was r = -.21. The association was significantly stronger in female-only samples and when parental monitoring was defined purely in terms of parental knowledge of the child's whereabouts, activities, and relations. Cross-sectional (r = -.23) and longitudinal studies (r = -.10) disclosed significant effect sizes. To assess publication bias, a file-drawer analysis indicated that 7,358 studies of nil effect size would be necessary to render the association of parental monitoring and reduced marijuana usage nonsignificant. This review suggests that parents are far from irrelevant, even when it comes to an illegal and often secretive behavior on the part of their adolescent children. Information derived from this quantitative synthesis may prove useful in marijuana-based prevention programs and campaigns targeting parents, and might offer insight on how to alleviate a risky behavior that is all too common at an important transitional stage between childhood and adulthood. Lac A, Crano WD. Meta-analytic review reveals the reliable linkage of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana Use. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2009; 4(6): 578-586.

Perceptions of Parents' Alcohol Use and Permissibility of Teen Alcohol Use Predicts College Students' Drinking Behaviors

This study examined the impact of parental modeled behavior and permissibility of alcohol use in late high school on the alcohol use and experienced negative drinking consequences of college students. Two-hundred ninety college freshmen at a large university were assessed for perceptions of their parents' permissibility of alcohol use, parents' alcohol-related behavior, and own experienced negative consequences associated with alcohol use. Results indicate that parental permissibility of alcohol use is a consistent predictor of teen drinking behaviors, which was strongly associated with experienced negative consequences. Parental modeled use of alcohol was also found to be a risk factor, with significant differences across the gender of the parents and teens. For example, the effect of paternal acceptability differed by gender, such that high levels of paternal acceptability appeared to function as a weak protective factor for male students and as a moderate risk factor for female students. The effect of maternal modeled drinking behavior also differed by gender, such that maternal drinking was riskier for women. Preventive efforts for college students' drinking should consider the impact of parents on student behavior. Abar C, Abar B, Turrisi R. The impact of parental modeling and permissibility on alcohol use and experienced negative drinking consequences in college. Addict Behav. 2009; 34(6-7): 542-547.

Intermediate Effects of a Community Preventive Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Use of Harmful Legal Products

This study describes preliminary results from a preventive intervention to reduce the use of Harmful Legal Products (HLPs) such as inhalants and over the counter drugs, among 5th through 7th grade students in three Alaskan rural communities. The intervention had two primary components, an environmental strategy (ES) to reduce access to HLPs at home, in schools, and from retail outlets and a school-based curriculum intended to enhance knowledge about HLP use and problems and improve refusal skills and assertiveness (ThinkSmart). Pretest surveys were given in classrooms in each school, the ES and ThinkSmart interventions were fielded, then a posttest was given one year later. Data were collected from 5th, 6th and 7th grade students in all schools in all three communities assessing knowledge of HLP risks, use of refusal skills, assertiveness, peer attitudes and use of HLPs, perceived availability of HLPs, and intent to use and avoid use of HLPs in the future. The student survey was administered to 336 students in wave 1 and 286 students in wave 2. Of those students who had parental consent to participate in the survey, approximately 90% completed the survey at each wave. A simple pretest - post-test no control design enabled preliminary tests of program effects on intermediate variables related to HLP use. Evidence was found for significant increases in knowledge about HLP use and risks and decreases in perceived availability of HLP products in the home and at school. The results of this study provide encouragement to pursue mixed environmental and school-based strategies for the reduction of HLP use among young people in these Alaskan rural communities. The absence of a control group by which to assess preliminary effects on intermediate variables should lend some skepticism to these observed program effects. Gruenwald P, Johnson K, Shamblem S, Ogilvie K, Collins D. Reducing adolescent use of harmful legal products: intermediate effects of a community prevention intervention. Subst Use Misuse. 2009; 44 (14): 2080-2098.

A Model for Mindfulness-based Parenting Interventions

This paper introduces a model of mindful parenting as a framework whereby parents intentionally bring moment-to-moment awareness to the parent-child relationship. This is done by developing the qualities of listening with full attention when interacting with their children, cultivating emotional awareness and self-regulation in parenting, and bringing compassion and nonjudgmental acceptance to their parenting interactions. First, the theoretical and empirical literature on mindfulness and mindfulness-based interventions are outlined. Next, an operational definition of mindful parenting as an extension of mindfulness to the social context of parent-child relationships is presented. Implications of mindful parenting for the quality of parent-child relationships, particularly across the transition to adolescence are discussed, along with the literature on the application of mindfulness in parenting interventions. Finally, an example of the integration of mindful parenting into a well-established, evidence-based family prevention program is presented, with recommendations for future research on mindful parenting interventions. Duncan L, Coatsworth J, Greenberg M. A model of mindful parenting: implications for parent-child relationships and prevention research. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2009; 12(3): 255-270.

Development Process for a Mindfulness-based Parenting Intervention

The purpose of the present study was to conduct a small pilot study to test the acceptability of a new model for family-focused drug prevention programs for families of early adolescents. An existing evidence-based behavioral intervention, the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP), was adapted to include concepts and activities related to mindfulness and mindful parenting (an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships). The foundation for this innovative intervention approach stems from research on the effects of mind-body treatments involving mindfulness meditation and the function of stress and coping in relation to parenting and parent well-being. One group of families (n=5 families; 9 adult participants), recruited through a local school district, participated in a seven-week pilot of this mindfulness-enhanced version of SFP. Results of a mixed-method implementation evaluation suggest that the new intervention activities were generally feasible to deliver, acceptable to participants, and perceived to yield positive benefits for family functioning and parent psychological well-being. The next phase of this research will involve curriculum refinement based upon results of this initial study, and a larger pilot efficacy trial. Duncan L, Coatsworth J, Greenberg M. Pilot study to gauge acceptability of a mindfulness-based, family-focused preventive intervention. J Prim Prev. 2009; 30(5): 605-618.

Indiscriminate Friendliness among Foster Children

The willingness to approach and interact with unfamiliar adults in a familiar fashion (e.g., making personal comments to, initiating physical contact with, and being willing to leave with the adult) is a pattern of behavior that has been noted in children who have had early adverse care experiences such as maltreatment and the absence of a consistent caregiver. This behavior has been variously called indiscriminate friendliness. Indiscriminate friendliness is well documented in children adopted internationally following institutional rearing but is less studied in maltreated foster children. Precursors and correlates of indiscriminate friendliness were examined in 93 preschool-aged maltreated children residing in foster care and 60 age-matched, nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. All children were between 3 and 6 years of age. The foster care (FC) and community control (CC) groups did not differ on mean child age, gender, or ethnicity. Mean age at baseline assessment was 4.45 years in the FC group and 4.33 years in the CC group. Boys made up 52% of the FC group and 53% of the CC group. Measures included parent reports, official case record data, and standardized laboratory assessments. Foster children exhibited higher levels of indiscriminate friendliness than nonmaltreated children. Inhibitory control was negatively associated with indiscriminate friendliness even after controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Additionally, the foster children who had experienced a greater number of foster caregivers had poorer inhibitory control, which was in turn associated with greater indiscriminate friendliness. The results indicate a greater prevalence of indiscriminate friendliness among foster children and suggest that indiscriminate friendliness is part of a larger pattern of dysregulation associated with inconsistency in caregiving. Pears KC, Bruce J, Fisher PA, Kim, HK. Indiscriminate friendliness in maltreated foster children. Child Maltreat. 2010; 15(1): 64-75.

Distribution of Risk Exposure among High Risk Young Children

This descriptive study examined the distribution of risk factors in a sample that was selected on the basis of existing potential for difficult child behaviors. Specifically, the study focused on whether exposure to risk factors was distributed equally across different contexts of ethnicity, locality, and child gender. Participants included 731 mother-child dyads, with a 2-year-old child, recruited from WIC Programs in rural, suburban, and urban localities, who were participating in a randomized prevention trial of a brief family-based intervention for toddler-age children at risk for behavior problems linked to later drug use. Cumulative risk indices were constructed using neighborhood, family, and individual risk factors. The findings generally revealed that African American children and children in urban localities were exposed to higher numbers of risk factors and cumulative risk in relation to other ethnic children and localities. On the other hand, Caucasian children expressed higher levels of vulnerabilities to risk for internalizing behaviors than did other children. The results highlight the importance to prevention research of understanding differences in context-specific rates of risk exposure and vulnerability. Wilson M, Hurtt C, Shaw D, Dishion T, Gardner F. Analysis and influence of demographic and risk factors on difficult child behaviors. Prev Sci. 2009; 10(4): 353-365.

Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression

This study examined the longitudinal relationship of childhood predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who were involved in a larger study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd grade were compared to adolescent self-reported depression. Regression analyses were conducted with each risk factor separately and combined, while also examining gender and the gender x risk factor interaction. Results showed that individual level characteristics such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior were predictive of later depression. Gender differences were found among the longitudinal risk factors for depression. Mazza JJ, Abbott RD, Fleming CB, Harachi TW, Cortes RC, Park J, Haggerty KP, Catalano RF. Early predictors of adolescent depression: a 7-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Early Adolescence. 2009; 29(5): 664-692.

Comparing Self Report and Biological Assessment of Drug Use in Young Adults Attending Electronic Music Dance Events

Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs in both east coast and west coast locations. The relationship between self-reports and drug presence in oral fluid was determined for cocaine, marijuana, and amphetamine. For approximately 85% of participants, self-report responses regarding 48 hour drug use matched the results of the biological assay. Among those whose reports did not match their assays, there were twice as many who said they did not use drugs recently but tested positive as those who said they did use drugs but tested negative. Notably, forty-one percent of the participants with drugs detected in their oral fluids reported no use in the last 48 hr. The underreporting was greatest for cocaine (67%) and amphetamines (52%). This research suggests that a substantial portion of drug users will deny use. Johnson M, Voas R, Miller B, Holder H. Predicting drug use at electronic music dance events: self-reports and biological measurement. Eval Rev. 2009; 33(3): 211-225.

The Power of Drugs, the Nature of Support, and their Impact on Homeless Youth

The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths' perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 drug-using homeless youth, aged 17-25. The results provided insight into the lives of these youth. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasure/enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Suggested strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music. This inquiry provides useful insight into understanding the motivation of homeless youth for using drugs and strategies that may be helpful for intervention and prevention. Hudson A, Nyamathi A, Slagle A, Greengold B, Griffin D, Khalilifard F, Gedzoff D, Reid C. The power of the drug, nature of support, and their impact on homeless youth. J Addict Dis. 2009; 28(4): 356-365.

Review of Truancy Intervention Programs: Challenges and Innovations to Implementation

School truancy, particularly in primary and secondary schools, represents a serious issue deserving attention in communities across the nation. Unfortunately, with few exceptions, truancy has not received significant attention by criminologists. The authors provide a general review of the key issues learned from implementation of various truancy reduction programs in the United States. Highlighted are several model truancy programs in various settings, their effectiveness, and the challenges they faced during the implementation process. The programs highlighted include school-based, community-based and school- and community-based, court-based programs, and programs offered in other settings. The authors summarize challenges that present obstacles to implementing successful truancy programs. These challenges included program barriers related to funding and staffing. Additional challenges identified include family mobility, which makes it difficult to maintain contact information on students and parents and continued engagement of families; ineffective communication and/or cooperation among program staff, parents, and school or community officials; different definitions of truancy used by programs; and, lack of a continuum of care. Finally, the authors describe efforts that are underway in Hillsborough County, Florida, in implementing an effective continuum of service for truant youth and their families. The authors discuss enhancements to the Hillsborough County Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC) Truancy Intake Center (TIC), which include an increased number of truant youth being brought to the truancy center, where their psychosocial problems, including school issues, can be identified; follow-up involvement in in-home intervention services; and for youth attending schools with neighborhood accountability boards (NABs), longer-term case management and referral services. Descriptive data on 883 truant youth processed at the TIC during the 2007-2008 school year are presented. The youth averaged younger than 14 years of age and most were in grades seven through nine (77%). Nearly 30% of the youth had an arrest record including at least one felony arrest, and of the youth who completed the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ), 23% reported moderate to higher level of drug involvement in the past year. Dembo R, Gulledge LM. Truancy intervention programs: challenges and innovations to implementation. Crim Justice Policy Rev. 2009; 20(4): 437-456.

Influence of Alcohol Use Expectancies on Risky Sex Outcomes

Higher levels of alcohol use have consistently been related to higher rates of sexual risk taking; however, it is not clear whether this relationship is causal. This study examined the concurrent and predictive associations among alcohol use-related sexual enhancement expectancies, drinking alcohol before engaging in sex, and casual sex during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these associations differed for men and women. Data came from 590 men and women who were interviewed 3 times at 6-month intervals after high school. Growth curve analyses indicated that alcohol-related sexual enhancement expectancies were related to casual sex indirectly through drinking before sex but did not predict change in either of these behaviors. However, increases in drinking before sex predicted increases in casual sex over time. The findings provide some support for prevention programs that focus on alcohol-related sexual expectancies to reduce sexually transmitted illnesses among emerging adults. White H, Fleming C, Catalano R, Bailey J. Prospective associations among alcohol use-related sexual enhancement expectancies, sex after alcohol use, and casual sex. Psychol Addict Behav. 2009; 23(4): 702-707.

Adolescent Alcohol Expectancies Predict Adult Alcohol Use

Alcohol expectancies are strong concurrent predictors of alcohol use and problems. The current study addressed their unique power to predict from adolescence to midlife. Longitudinal data from the ongoing national British Cohort Study 1970 (N = 2146, 59.8% female) were used to predict alcohol use and misuse in the mid-30s by alcohol expectancies reported in adolescence. Individuals born in 1 week in April 1970 were assessed at birth with a 96.7% response rate and in ongoing follow-ups using a multi-method, multi-informant approach. Hierarchical ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression analyses were used to predict concurrent (age 16) and future (ages 26 and 35) alcohol use, and hierarchical logistic regression analyses predicted lifetime and past year alcohol misuse (assessed at age 35). Cohort members with more positive alcohol expectancies at age 16 reported greater alcohol quantity concurrently, increases in alcohol quantity relative to their peers between ages 16 and 35, and a higher likelihood of lifetime and previous year alcohol misuse at age 35, independent of gender, social class in family of origin, age of alcohol use onset, adolescent delinquent behavior and age 16 exam scores. Alcohol expectancies were strong proximal predictors of alcohol use and predicted relative change in alcohol use and misuse across two decades into middle adulthood. The findings are important for understanding early determinants of adult drinking patterns and for identifying potential opportunities for intervention. Patrick M, Wray-Lake L, Finlay A, Maggs J. The long arm of expectancies: adolescent alcohol expectancies predict adult alcohol use. Alcohol. 2010; 45(1): 17-24.

Trends in Adolescent Environmental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors across Three Decades

Since the Environmental Movement began, adolescents' views have been largely ignored in studies of public opinion. This article presents findings from a descriptive analysis of trends in the environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of high school seniors from 1976 to 2005. The authors used data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, a national survey of high school seniors conducted annually since 1976 (Johnston, Bachman, & O'Malley, 2006; see also The sample is selected using a multistage random sampling from public and private high schools across the nation. The datasets contain sample weights which were used to ensure that results are representative of American high school seniors. The sample size of nearly 100,000 provided sufficient statistical power for detecting even weak relationships. Time trends for all items considered readily reached statistical significance in ordinal logistic models treating year as a categorical variable and controlling for respondents' sex, race, parental education, and educational aspirations (x2 > 500, df = 29, p < .001). Across a range of indicators, environmental concerns of adolescents show increases during the early 1990s and declines across the remainder of the three decades. Declining trends in reports of personal responsibility for the environment, conservation behaviors, and the belief that resources are scarce are particularly noteworthy. Across all years, findings reveal that youth tended to assign responsibility for the environment to the government and consumers rather than accepting personal responsibility. Recent declines in environmental concerns for this nationally representative sample of youth signal the need for a renewed focus on young people's views and call for better environmental education and governmental leadership. Wray-Lake L, Flanagan CA, Osgood DW. Examining trends in adolescent environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors across three decades. Environ Behav. 2010; 42(1): 61-85.


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