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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - May, 2004

Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

In October 2003, the Behavioral Treatment Development Branch released a Notice (NOT-DA04-002) calling for applications for Administrative Supplements to study the mechanisms of action of behavioral treatments in existing treatment studies. The Notice provided for support for developing, adding, or expanding on measures of the key ingredients, mediators, moderators, and mechanisms of behavioral treatment, as well as data analyses to clarify the mechanisms by which behavioral treatments produce their effects.

On March 9, 2004, NIDA reissued a Program Announcement entitled Collaborative Clinical Trials In Drug Abuse (PAR-04-073). The purpose of this announcement is to increase the collaboration of investigators at different sites in order to address critical issues in the treatment of substance-related disorders that require sample sizes greater than a single site can reasonably attain. This new announcement replaces PAR-01-039 in its entirety.

On May 3, 2004, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Epidemiology of Drug Abuse (PA-04-100). This announcement replaces PA-99-002, Epidemiologic Research on Drug Abuse, published in the NIH Guide October 2, 1998; PA-99-113, Drug Use and Related Adverse Behavioral and Social Consequences, published in the NIH Guide June 18, 1999; and PAR-99-168, Research on the Origins and Pathways to Drug Abuse. This new PA encourages a broad range of epidemiologic research on drug use, abuse and dependence. It highlights new areas for research that emphasize the vital public health role of epidemiologic research in drug abuse.

On April 30, 2004, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Developmental Centers for Translational Research on the Clinical Neurobiology of Drug Addiction (RFA-DA-05-003). Through this RFA, NIDA invites applications to support the development of translational research centers on the neurobiology of drug abuse that have a strong clinical/human neurobiology focus and the capability to integrate preclinical/animal studies that will serve to directly inform the direction of the clinical research. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: October 18, 2004; Application Receipt Date: November 17, 2004.

PAs/RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On February 12, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), issued a Program Announcement entitled Research on Rural Mental Health and Drug Abuse Disorders (PA-04-061). Though this PA, NIDA and NIMH invite grant applications for research that will ultimately lead to a reduction in the burden of mental illness and drug abuse in rural and frontier populations. The purpose of this PA is to stimulate research on mental health and/or drug abuse problems in rural and frontier communities that will: (1) enhance understanding of structural, cultural, and individual factors that may limit the provision and utilization of prevention and treatment services in these communities; and (2) generate knowledge to improve the organization, financing, delivery, effectiveness, quality and outcomes of mental health and drug abuse services for diverse populations in rural and frontier populations.

On February 24, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a Program Announcement entitled Pharmacotherapies for Comorbid Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders (PA-04-067). Through this PA, NIDA and NIAAA are seeking research grant applications on pharmacological treatment for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and a comorbid substance use disorder (SUD). Substance use disorder may include the abuse/dependence of heroin, prescription narcotics, cocaine, methamphetamine and other stimulants, hallucinogens, sedative hypnotics, marijuana and other substances of abuse. Alcoholic abuse/dependent patients may have a co-occurring nicotine dependence, but must also meet the criteria for other types of SUD.

On May 4, 2004, NIDA in collaboration with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled Characterization, Behavior and Plasticity of Pluripotent Stem Cells (PA-04-101). Stem cells appear to possess great plasticity, but the cellular mechanisms regulating their behavior and fate are not understood. If these mechanisms can be harnessed to obtain cell specifically required for therapy, diagnosis or drug discovery, it may be possible to restore function to tissues and organ systems that have been compromised by congenital disorders, developmental malfunction, age, injury, disease or drug exposure. Through this PA the participating Institutes invite applications for studies on the characterization, behavior and plasticity of human and non-human stem cells, regulation of their replication, differentiation, integration and function in the nervous system, and the identification and characterization of normal and tumor cells.

On May 5, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) issued a Program Announcement entitled Testing Tobacco Products Promoted to Reduce Harm (PA-04-103). The purpose of this PA is to stimulate multidisciplinary research on potential reduced-exposure tobacco products, both smoked and smokeless, through the interplay of basic, biological, and behavioral research, surveillance, and epidemiology. The tobacco industry is currently promoting some new products with claims that they are less harmful or less addictive because these products purportedly deliver lower amounts of toxic, carcinogenic, and/or addictive agents to the user compared with conventional products. However, to date, the scientific evidence is insufficient to evaluate whether these new products actually reduce the users' exposure or risk for tobacco-related diseases. Research studies funded through this PA should help to determine whether or not potential reduced-exposure tobacco products provide a truly less harmful alternative to conventional tobacco products, both on the individual and population levels.

On April 2, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), issued a Program Announcement entitled Psychopharmacology of Widely Available Psychoactive Natural Products (PA-04-084). Under this PA, the participating NIH components invite research grant applications that characterize the chemistry, pharmacology and/or toxicology of acute and chronic exposure to psychoactive natural products, as well as the transition in the use of these products to licit or illicit drugs of abuse. For the purposes of this PA, psychoactive natural products are defined as fungus- or plant-derived products that are taken primarily for their effects on the central nervous system rather than for treatment, medicinal or therapeutic effects.

On January 15, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH issued an RFA entitled HIV/AIDS, Drug Use, and Highly Vulnerable Youth: Targeting Research Gaps (RFA-DA-04-012). Through this RFA, NIDA and NIMH invite innovative applications to address critical gaps in research on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and related health issues among highly vulnerable youth. For the purpose of this RFA, highly vulnerable youth are those children, adolescents, and young adults aged 10-24 years who are using or are at high risk for using drugs and who are (1) at high risk for HIV and other infectious diseases (2) living with HIV/AIDS and/or (3) affected by HIV/AIDS. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: February 17, 2004; Application Receipt Date: March 16, 2004.

On March 12, 2004, NIDA and NIMH issued an RFA entitled Molecular Markers and Mechanisms of HIV-Associated Dementia (RFA-MH-05-002). Through this RFA, NIMH and NIDA invite applications proposing to identify and characterize novel molecular and genetic markers associated with distinct stages of progression of HIV-associated nervous system disease in the context of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Research on the role of unique molecular and genetic markers in defining mechanisms of neuropathogenesis, host genetic susceptibility to development of central nervous system (CNS) disease, and response to treatment are also important areas of focus of this RFA. The use of state-of-the-art microarray technology, proteomics, molecular genetics, and neuroimaging techniques to define and characterize novel molecular and genetic markers associated with HIV-induced nervous system disease are encouraged. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: April 12, 2004; Application Receipt Date: May 11, 2004.

On April 9, 2004, NIDA in collaboration with NIMH and NIAAA, issued an RFA entitled Gene-Environment Effects and Epigenesis in Depression (RFA-MH-05-006). The goal of this RFA is to solicit applications to identify epigenetic mechanisms and characterize gene-environment interactions that produce vulnerability to depression. Novel approaches to gene discovery, the identification of epigenetic mechanisms, elucidation of environmental risk factors, characterization of the genetic aspects of response to environmental change, and the use of bimarkers and other intermediate phenotypes correlated with the clinical disorder are encouraged. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: June 16, 2004; Application Receipt Date: July 16, 2004.

On April 16, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Additional Genotyping for the Human Haplotype Map (RFA-HG-04-005). This RFA solicits applications for a cooperative agreement to augment the International HapMap Projects by supporting the genotyping of approximately 2.25 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome in 270 samples from 4 populations, at high quality and at a cost of about 1 cent per genotype. The data from this effort will contribute to the development of a map, called the HapMap, of the haplotype patterns in the human genome and of a set of SNPs that are informative about these patterns and the associations among the SNPs. The HapMap is expected to be a key resource that researchers will use to find genes that affect health, disease, and response to drugs and environmental factors. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: May 28, 2004; Application Receipt Date: June 25, 2004.

On April 27, 2004, NIDA, in Collaboration with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) issued an RFA entitled Enhancing State Capacity to Foster Adoption of Science-Based Practices (RFA-DA-05-002). This initiative is designed to strengthen State Agencies' capacity to support and engage in research that will foster statewide adoption of meritorious science-based policies and practices. Specifically, NIDA, with support from SAMHSA, will provide grants to State Agencies to conduct preliminary or pilot research that helps to create, implement, expand, and/or sustain a process of continuous science-based practice improvement in publicly supported drug abuse prevention and treatment programs. This initial research should serve as a foundation for more in-depth services research to be conducted subsequently by the State Agency and its collaborators to enhance continuous practice improvement in the prevention and treatment of drug abuse and to foster implementation of proven innovative therapeutic and management policies and practices. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: July 17, 2004; Application Receipt Date: August 17, 2004.

Other Program Activities

CTN Protocol Update
Wave 1 Protocols:

  • Five CTN studies have closed enrollment. A total of 5,583 patients have been screened with 2,705 of those enrolling in all the trials. Other studies as listed below are starting in the next few months.

    Protocol CTN-0004 (Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) is actively enrolling at one site. A total of 480 participants have enrolled in this study so far. Three of the five participating sites have reached their targeted enrollment of 100 clients. This study is expected to close in the 3rd Quarter 2004.
Wave 2 Protocols:
  • Protocol CTN 0003 (Bup/Nx: Comparison of Two Taper Schedules) began enrollment June 30th. This study will be carried out at 11 sites across 8 nodes. Nine of the eleven sites are actively enrolling. The targeted enrollment is 480 participants. Participation is at 20% of the targeted enrollment.
  • Protocol CTN 0008 (Baseline Survey) has been actively collecting survey information in all 17 Nodes since January 2002.
  • Protocol CTN 0009 (Smoking Cessation Treatment With Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs) started enrolling April 9, 2003. This study will be carried out at 12 Community Treatment Programs across 7 Nodes. The targeted enrollment is 864 participants. The enrollment to date is about 12% of the target figure. Ten of the twelve sites are active at this time.
  • Protocol CTN 0010 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults) began enrollment in July 2003. This is the first adolescent protocol in the CTN. This study will be carried out at 5 CTP sites across 4 nodes. The targeted enrollment is 240 adolescent/young adult participants. All five sites are actively enrolling. Enrollment is at 13% of the targeted number.
  • Protocol CTN 0011 (A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities) has closed enrollment at all four sites, and is completing follow-ups.
  • Protocol CTN 0012 (HIV/AIDS, Hep C, and Infections Screening in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs) was approved for implementation. This was initiated and data has begun to be collected.
  • Protocol CTN 0013 (Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome in Pregnant Substance Abusers) started enrollment in October 2003. This study will be carried out at 5 sites across 3 Nodes. The targeted enrollment is 200. The enrollment is at 5% of the total target. One site now has 7 randomized participants. Enrollment at the program is up over the last month at the highest amount in 11 years. Another site has 5 randomized participants. More sites are looking to begin recruitment of test cases shortly.
  • Protocol CTN 0021 (Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) began enrollment in November 2003. This is the first Spanish only protocol in the CTN. It will be conducted at 6 bi-lingual sites across 5 nodes and has a target enrollment of 480 patients.
Wave 3 Protocols: The third wave of protocols is progressing and some are already implemented.
  • Protocol CTN 0014 (Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers (BSFT)) has been approved by NIDA. Therapist training and implementation will take place in waves. The first wave of sites has finished protocol training. Pilot family cases are completed at two sites and being recruited for therapist training at four additional sites. BSFT will be implemented at 14 sites across 10 nodes plus Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico site is actively participating on the conference calls and is scheduled for a site visit. This intervention is the first CTN study to target adolescents and their families. Enrollment is expected to begin in the third quarter of 2004.
  • Protocol CTN 0015 (Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial) began implementation in March 2004. This study will be carried out at 8 sites across 7 Nodes. The targeted enrollment is 480. This study began enrollment in January of this year. By March, all but one site had begun. As of March 30th, a total of 29 participants had been randomized. The weekly implementation calls have been instrumental in helping sites to brainstorm solutions for a variety of issues (such as boosting recruitment, or scheduling weekly assessments). Interestingly, the rate of sub-threshold PTSD among the population of women screened is turning out to be about near 9%, which is just under the percentage predicted by the protocol.
  • Protocol CTN 0016 (Patient Feedback: A Performance Improvement in Outpatient Settings) began in January 2004. This is a feasibility study being conducted at 6 sites across 5 Nodes. Data is currently being collected at all sites. The study is on target for data collection to end during the summer of this year.
  • Three HIV protocols CTN 0017 (HIV and HCV Risk Reduction Intervention in Drug Detoxification and Treatment Settings), CTN 0018 (HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Groups for Men in Methadone Maintenance or Drug Free Outpatient Programs), and CTN 0019 (HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Groups for Women in Methadone Maintenance or Drug Free Outpatient Programs) are being finalized. They will be carried out at numerous sites across the Network. It is expected that these will start enrolling in April or May 2004.
  • Protocol CTN 0020 (Job Seekers Training for Patients with Drug Dependence) is conducting training for therapists at the present time. It is expected to begin recruitment by June 2004. This study will be carried out at 16 sites across 8 Nodes. The target enrollment is 1,200 participants.
Wave 4 Protocols: These are still being revised and approved.
  • These protocols include: CTN 0022 (Family Management Skills for Drug Involved Women in Treatment), CTN 0023 (12-Step Facilitation as an Intervention to Increase 12-Step Involvement and Improve Outcomes Among Substance Dependent Individuals), CTN 0024 (Reducing HIV Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in Community Based Substance Abuse Programs), CTN 0025 (Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT)), and CTN 0026 (Treatment of Depression in Adult Substance Abusers with Escitalopram).
  • A CTN genetics Special Interest Group has formed and Dr. Thomas Crowley from Rocky Mountain Node is the Chair. NIDA DNBR staff, Drs. Jonathan Pollack and Joni Rutter are the NIDA liaisons for these activities. A face-to-face meeting of this group has been scheduled for the May CTN Steering Committee meeting. It is anticipated this group should develop a strategic plan for how to use the CTN to expand NIDA's genetic research application.

NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since September 2003

Adinoff, Bryon H. -- University of Texas South West Medical Center/Dallas
Limbic Sensitivity In Cocaine Addiction

Alexander, James F. -- University of Utah
Mechanisms of Effective Family Change In High Risk Youth

Andrews, Judy A. -- Oregon Research Institute
Early Predictors of Child and Adolescent Substance Use

Barres, Ben A. -- Stanford University
Role of Glia In the Formation of Functional Synapses

Beals, Janette -- University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Chronic Stressors and Drug Abuse In 2 Indian Populations

Belousov, Andrei B. -- Tulane University of Louisiana
Cholinergic Regulation In the Hypothalamus

Bernstein, Edward -- Boston Medical Center
Brief Intervention To Reduce STDs In ER Drug Users

Bourgois, Philippe -- University of California San Francisco
The Logics for HIV Risk Among Homeless Heroin Injectors

C'de Baca, Janet -- Behavioral Health Research Center-Southwest
Randomized Interventions With Substance-Using Kids

Caggiula, Anthony R. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Effects of Self-Administered Versus Noncontigent Nicotine

Clatts, Michael C. -- National Development & Research Institutes
HIV Risk & Migration - Young Yi Minority - Sichuan China

Couceyro, Pastor R. -- Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine & Science
CART Peptide Modulation of Stimulant Reward

Cunradi, Carol B. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Neighborhoods, Drug Use & Violence

Davis, Thomas P. -- University of Arizona
Blood-To-CNS Drug Uptake In Pain/Rheumatoid Arthritis

Deutsch, Dale G. -- State University New York Stony Brook
Evidence Against An Anandamide Transporter

Drobes, David J. -- H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute
Brief Intervention For Smokers: Cue Reactivity & Smoking

Eberwine, James H. -- University of Pennsylvania
Proteomics of Morphine Responses of the Basal Ganglia

Eddington, Natalie D. -- University of Maryland Baltimore Professional School
Benztropine Analogs, Cocaine Abuse Pharmacotherapies

Eipper, Elizabeth A. -- University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry
GDP/GTP Exchange Factors: Nucleus Accumbens Plasticity

Eisch, Amelia J. -- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas
Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis By Opiates

Farmer-Dougan, Valeri A. -- Illinois State University
Effects of DA D1 and D2 Agonists on Reward Sensitivity

Forrester, Janet E. -- Tufts University, Boston
Nutritional Status In HIV Hispanic Drug Abusers

Fricker, Lloyd D. -- Yeshiva University
Peptidomics of Cocaine and Amphetamine Abuse

Galea, Sandro -- New York Academy of Medicine
The Neighborhood Environment and Drug Use In NYC

Galloway, Matthew -- Wayne State University
High Field MRS Assessment of Stimulant Exposure In Rats

Gebhart, Gerald F. -- University of Iowa
Mediators and Modulation of Nociception

Grella, Christine E. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Gender Differences In A Follow-Up Of Opiate Users In California

Hammond, Donna L. -- University of Iowa
Opioid Mechanisms of Analgesia

Hawkins, J. David -- University of Washington
Substance Use and the Consolidation of Adult Roles

Heil, Sarah H. -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Early Abstinence's Effect On Later Abstinence In Smokers

Ho, Wenzhe -- Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Drug Abuse, Substance P and HIV

Johnson, Kenneth M. -- University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Neurochemical Pharmacology of Phencyclidine

Kelley, Ann E. -- University of Wisconsin, Madison
Corticostriatal-Hypothalamic Circuitry and Food Reward

Ko, Jane L. -- Seton Hall University
Molecular Basis of Mu-Opioid Receptor Gene Regulation

Koob, George F. -- Scripps Research Institute
Neuronal Substrates of Cocaine Reward

Lauder, Jean M. -- University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Cannabinoids In Early Sea Urchin Development

Lester, Robin A. -- University of Alabama at Birmingham
Subunit-Specific Regulation/Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

Levin, Edward D. -- Duke University
Adolescence: A Sensitive Period For Nicotine Addiction

Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan -- Temple University
Cellular Pharmacology of Kappa Opioid Receptor

Mackie, Kenneth P. -- University of Washington
Neuronal Cannabinoid Receptor: Function and Regulation

Martin, Billy R. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Inhalation of Drugs of Abuse

Mayes, Linda C. -- Yale University
Cocaine-Exposed Children & ERP Studies of Neurocognition

Mcfarland, Krista M. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

Miller, Gregory M. -- Harvard University (Medical School)
Trace Amine Receptors In Non Human Primates

Mintzer, Miriam Z. -- Johns Hopkins University
Benzodiazepine Use/Abuse: Effects On Memory Mechanisms

Mumford, Elizabeth A. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Smokeless Tobacco: Epidemiology and Policies

Mundel, Peter -- Yeshiva University
Synaptopodin: Biogenesis & Plasticity of Spine Apparatus

Mustard, Julie A. -- Ohio State University
D1-Like Dopamine Receptors In Learning and Behavior

Nader, Michael A. -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Chronic Stress and Cocaine Abuse In Female Monkeys

Parsons, Jeffrey T. -- Hunter College
Patterns and Contexts of Club Drug Abuse

Peterson, Phillip K. -- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Dynorphin and Glial Cell Immunomodulation

Pisacane, Kerry M. -- Johns Hopkins University
Gender Differences In Consequences of Teenage Drug Use

Quintero, Gilbert A. -- University of New Mexico, Albuquerque
The Social Context of Collegiate Prescription Drug Abuse

Ramsay, Douglas S. -- University of Washington
Nitrous Oxide, Individual Differences, and Conditioning

Razdan, Raj K. -- Organix, Inc.
Anandamide -- Structure/Activity Relationships

Richtand, Neil M. -- University of Cincinnati
Role of D3 Dopamine Receptor In Behavioral Sensitization

Rosenberg, Robert L. -- University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Agonist-Driven Conformational Changes In nAChRs

Rudnick, Gary -- Yale University
Neurotransmitter Transport

Selley, Dana E. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Transduction Mechanisms of Opioid Agonist Efficacy

Sipe, Jack C. -- Scripps Research Institute
FAAH Gene Mutations: Risk Factors In Drug Use/Addiction

Smith, James E. -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Neurobiological Parameters of Cocaine Reinforcement

Song, Zhao-Hui -- University of Louisville
Structure and Function of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor

Standifer, Kelly M. -- University of Houston
Cellular Mechanisms of Orl1 Regulation and Cross Talk

Stanger, Catherine -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Preventing Problems Among Children of Substance Abusers

Sterk, Claire E. -- Emory University
Current Smokers: A Phenomenological Inquirt

Storr, Carla L. -- Johns Hopkins University
Drug Use & Latent Structure of Adolescent Mental Health

Thayer, Stanley A. -- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
HIV Neurotoxicity-Mechanism & Modulation By Cannabinoids

Von Zastrow, Mark E. -- University of California, San Francisco
Membrane Trafficking of Opioid Receptors

Vuchinich, Rudy E. -- University of Alabama at Birmingham
Intertemporal Choice Dynamics In Drug Abuse Prevention

Wang, Jia B. -- University of Maryland Baltimore Professinal School
MOR Phosphorylation In Opioid Tolerance and Dependence

Waterhouse, Barry D. -- Drexel University College of Medicine
Locus Coeruleus Function and Methylphenidate Action

Watkins, Linda R. -- University of Colorado at Boulder
Methods Development For Studying Dorsal Spinal Cord Glia

Weinberg, Guy -- University of Illinois at Chicago
TZD Treatment of Cocaine Toxicity

Weiss, Friedbert -- Scripps Research Institute
Novel Treatments for Cocaine Dependence

Whitbeck, Leslie B. -- University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Shonga Ska: Sacred Horse Society Drug Prevention Program

Widom, Cathy S. -- University of Medical/Dental NJ, Newark
Child Abuse and Neglect, Chronic Stress, and Drug Abuse

Wiley, Jenny L. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Developmental Pharmacology of Cannabinoids

Worley, Paul F. -- Johns Hopkins University
Analysis of a Novel Cocaine Induced Immediate Early Gene

Zhang, Heping -- Yale University
Statistical Methods In Genetic Studies of Substance Use


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