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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - May, 2004


NIDA Publications

Problems of Drug Dependence, 2003: Proceedings of the 65th Annual Scientific Meeting,
The College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc.
NIH Pub. No. 04-5492

This publication is the result of an annual meeting, and is comprised of comprehensive, up-to-date reviews of research in progress from many disciplines in drug abuse and drug dependence.

Research Report Series: Inhalant Abuse (Revised)
NIH Pub. No. 04-3818

This report is based on research on the use and prevalence of inhalants and presents information on the types of inhalants, the consequences of their use, who is abusing inhalants, and how to recognize inhalant abuse.


NIDA NOTES, Volume 18, Issue No. 5
NIH No. 04-4378

The Director's Column addresses the challenge of comorbid substance abuse and mental disorders and the need for a better understanding of the origins and progression of comorbidity. NIDA and the National Institute of Mental Health are supporting research to increase fundamental knowledge of these dual disorders, advance efforts to prevent their destructive combination, and treat those already afflicted. The lead story notes that stress in the absence of drug taking can trigger changes in dopamine-releasing cells in the brain's ventral tegmental area similar to those caused by addictive drugs, suggesting that stress may increase vulnerability to addiction. Other research findings report that hard-to-treat smokers may benefit from a medication that acts on dopamine and is used to treat Parkinson's disease. Other topics include a report on last year's Blending Conference, and a synopsis of the latest Science & Practice Perspectives.

NIDA NOTES, Volume 18, Issue No. 6
NIH 04-4378

The Director's Column in this issue notes that the medical consequences of drug abuse and addiction extend beyond the chemical pathways of the brain. Some of drugs' destructive impact is temporary, and patients' health improves after they receive treatment and stop using drugs. Whether the destruction is short-lived or chronic, however, the growing list of recognized health consequences of abuse and addiction underscores the fact that drug abuse is not just a brain disease that exists in medical isolation. Rather, its harm is evident throughout the body and requires the comprehensive attention of the medical community. This issue also examines research linking cocaine use with a compromised immune system response and could help explain the high incidence of infectious disease among drug abusers. Another article presents research findings that use of ecstasy (MDMA) may increase users' risk for cardiac valve disease.

NIDA INVEST Letter - April 2004 - This edition of the quarterly newsletter announces the agreement to collaborate on binational drug abuse research that was signed by NIDA, the Spanish National Plan on Drugs (PNSD), and the Spanish National Institute of Drug Research and Training (INIFD) at the U.S.-Spain Binational Workshop on Drug Abuse and Addiction Research held October 23-24, 2003, in Washington, D.C. The issue also features remarks by NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, M.D., calling for more international research collaboration on global health issues; a profile of NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellow Dr. Sergey Dvoryak, Ukraine; and a "From the Field" report by NIDA grantee Dr. Deni Carise, Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, discussing international collaboration on a new version of the Addiction Severity Index.

Revised Application Forms - NIDA INVEST Drug Abuse Research Fellowship - These forms have been updated to correspond with the most recent revisions to the Public Health Service Grant Application (Form 398), and are now available online in two formats: Adobe Acrobat PDF and MS Word. Access the forms on the NIDA web page ( by selecting "International" from the "Researchers and Health Professionals" menu, then following the links to "Fellowships and Other Research Opportunities," and "INVEST Research Fellowship."

During the months January - April, eight editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the progress of the protocols, committees, and node activity in the CTN.

Two brochures for CTN Protocol - Job Seekers Training for Patients with Drug Dependence (CTN-0020) were approved for distribution throughout the CTN and published.

A patient recruitment brochure was approved for CTN Protocol - Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Men in Drug Abuse Treatment (CTN-0018) and printed for distribution.

A patient recruitment brochure was approved for CTN Protocol - Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment (CTN-0019) and printed for distribution.

Two patient brochures for the CTN Protocol - Suboxone (Buprenorphine/Naloxone) Taper: A Comparison of Taper Schedules (CTN-0003) were translated into Spanish and distributed throughout the Network.


Aung, AT., Hickman, N.J. and Moolchan, E.T., Health and Performance-related Reasons for Wanting to Quit: Gender Differences Among Teen Smokers. Substance Use and Misuse, 38(8), pp. 1095-107, 2003.

Barnes, A.J., Kim, I., Schepers, R., Moolchan, E.T., Wilson, L., Cooper, G., Reid, C., Hand, C. and Huestis, M.A. Sensitivity, Specificity and Efficiency in Detecting Opiate Use in Oral Fluid with the Cozart Opiate Microplate EIA and GC-MS Following Controlled Codeine Administration. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27, pp. 402-406, 2003.

Beatty, L.A., Wheeler, D. and Gaiter, J. HIV prevention research for African Americans: Current and Future Directions. Journal of Black Psychology, 30(1), pp. 40-58, 2004.

Beatty, L.A. Substance Abuse, Disabilities and Black Women: An Issue Worth Exploring? Co-published simultaneously in Women & Therapy, 26(3/4), 223-236 and Banks, M.E., and Kaschak, E. (Eds.), Women With Visible and Invisible Disabilities: Multiple Intersections, Multiple Issues, Multiple Therapies. New York: The Haworth Press, 2003.

Beatty, L.A. Changing Their Minds: Drug Abuse and Addiction in Black Women. Brown, D.R. and Keith, V. M. (Eds.), In and Out of Our Right Minds: The Mental Health of African American Women. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Chefer, V.I., Kieffer, B.L., and Shippenberg, T.S. Basal and Morphine-evoked Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Nucleus Accumbens of MOR- and DOR- knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci., 18(7), pp. 1915-1922, 2003.

Cone, E.J., Sampson-Cone, A.H., Darwin, W.D., Huestis, M.A. and Oyler, J.M. Urine Testing for Cocaine Abuse: Metabolic and Excretion Patterns following Different Routes of Administration, and Methods for Detection of False Negative Results. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27, pp. 386-401, 2003.

Dams, R., Murphy, C.M., Choo, R.E., Lambert, W.E., De Leenheer, A.P. and Huestis, M.A. LC-APCI-MS/MS Analysis of Multiple Drugs of Abuse, Methadone, and their Metabolites in Oral Fluid Following Protein Precipitation. Analytical Chemistry, 75, pp. 798-804, 2003.

Dams, R., Huestis, M.A., Lambert, W.E. and Murphy, C.M. Matrix Effect in Bio-Analysis of Illicit Drugs with LC-MS/MS Influence of Ionization Type, Sample Preparation, and Biofluid. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 14, pp. 1290-1294, 2003.

Dams, R., Murphy, C.M., Lambert, W.E. and Huestis, M.A. Urine Drug Testing for Opioids, Cocaine and Metabolites by Direct Injection Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Rapid Communications of Mass Spectrometry, 17, pp. 1665-1670, 2003.

Flanzer, J. Health Services Research: Drug Use and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37, pp. 439-444, 2003.

Glantz, M. D. and Colliver, J. D. (2002). Drug use, drug abuse, and heterogeneity. Bulletin on Narcotics, United Nations, Volume 54, Number 1, 45-59. (Published 2004).

Gustafson, R.A., Kim, I., Stout, P.R., Klette, K.L., George, M.P., Moolchan, E.T., Levine, B. and Huestis, M.A. Urinary Pharmacokinetics of 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol After Controlled Oral Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 28(3), pp. 160-167, 2004.

Gustafson, R.A., Moolchan, E.T., Barnes, A., Levine, B. and Huestis, M.A. Validated Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in Human Plasma Using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Positive Chemical Ionization. Journal of Chromatography B, 798, pp. 145-154, 2003.

Gustafson, R.A., Levine, B., Stout, P.R., Klette, K.L., George, M.P., Moolchan, E.T. and Huestis, M.A. Urinary Cannabinoid Detection Times Following Controlled Oral Administration of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol to Humans. Clinical Chemistry, 49, pp. 1114-1124, 2003.

Henningfield, J.E., Moolchan, E.T. and Zeller, M., Reducing Addiction and Other Tobacco-caused Diseases in the Young: Biological, Public Health and Regulatory Issues. Tobacco Control,12, Suppl 1, pp. I14-I24, 2003.

Huestis, M.A. Marijuana. In B. Levine, Principles of Forensic Toxicology, 2nd Edition, AACC Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 229-244, 2003.

Jayanthi, S., Deng, X., Noailles, P.A., Ladenheim, B., and Cadet, J.L. Methamphetamine Induces Neuronal Apoptosis Via Cross-talks Between Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria-dependent Death Cascades. FASEB J. 18(2), pp. 238-251, 2004.

Kacinko, S.L., Barnes, A.J., Kim, I., Moolchan, E.T., Wilson, L., Cooper, G.A., Reid, C., Baldwin, D., Hand, C.W. and Huestis, M.A. Performance Characteristics of the Cozart RapiScan Oral Fluid Drug Testing System for Opiates in Comparison to ELISA and GC/MS Following Controlled Codeine Administration. Forensic Science International, 141, pp. 41-48, 2004.

Kaftarian, S., Robertson, E., Compton, W., Watts Davis, B. and Volkow, N. Blending Prevention Research and Practice in Schools: Critical Issues and Suggestions. Prevention Science, 5(1), pp. 1-3, 2004.

Kaftarian, S.J. and Robertson, E.B. What Do Schools Really Think About Prevention Research? Connection, 6, June 2003.

Katz, J.L. and Higgins, S.T. What is Represented by Vertical Shifts in Self-administration Dose-response Curves? Psychopharmacology, 171, pp. 360-361, 2004.

Kim, I., Barnes, A.J., Schepers, R., Moolchan, E.T., Wilson, L., Cooper, G., Reid, C., Hand, C., and Huestis, M. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Cozart Microplate EIA Cocaine Oral Fluid at Proposed Screening and Confirmation Cutoffs. Clinical Chemistry, 49, pp. 1498-1503, 2003.

Kolbrich, E.A., Kim, I., Barnes, A.J., Moolchan, E.T., Wilson, L., Cooper, G.A., Reid, C., Baldwin, D., Hand, C. and Huestis, M.A. Cozart RapidScan Oral Fluid Drug Testing System: An Evaluation of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Efficiency for Cocaine Detection Compared to ELISA and GC/MS Following Controlled Cocaine Administration. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27, pp. 407-411, 2003.

Lee, E.M., Malson, J.L., Moolchan, E.T. and Pickworth, W.B., Smoking Topography: Validity and Reliability in Dependent Smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 5(5), pp. 673-679, 2003.

Lu, L., Hope, B.T. et al. The Cystine-glutamate Transporter in the Accumbens: A Novel Role in Cocaine Relapse. Trends in Neurosciences, 27(2), pp. 74-76, 2004.

Malson, J.L., Lee, E.M., Watson, C., Polzin, G., Murty, R., Moolchan, E.T. and Pickworth, W.B., Clove Cigarette Smoking: Biochemical, Physiological, and Subjective Effects. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 74(3), pp. 739-745, 2003.

Moolchan E.T. Adolescent Menthol Smokers: Will They Be a Harder Target for Cessation? Nicotine and Tobacco Research-Supplement on Menthol: Setting the Research Agenda, 6 Suppl 1, S93-S95, 2004.

Moolchan, E.T., Berlin, I., Robinson, M.L. and Cadet, J.L. Characteristics of African American Teen Smokers who Request Cessation Treatment: Implications for Addressing Health Disparities. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 157, pp. 533-538, 2003.

Moolchan, E.T., Aung, A.T. and Henningfield, J.E. Treatment of Adolescent Tobacco Smokers: Issues and Opportunities for Exposure Reduction Approaches. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 70(3), pp. 223-232, 2003.

Moron, J., Zakharova, I., Merrill, G., Wang, J.B., Hope, B., Lafer, E.M., Lin, Z.C., Javitch, J.A, Galli, A., and Shippenberg, T.S. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Dopamine Transporter Surface Expression and Dopamine Transport Capacity. J Neuroscience 23(24), pp. 8480-8488, 2003.

Oz, M., Zakharova, I., Dinc, M., and Shippenberg, T.S. Cocaine Inhibits Cromakalim-activated K+ Currents in Follicle-enclosed Oocytes. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol., 369(2), pp. 252-259, 2004.

Oz, M., Shippenberg, T.S. and Kaminski, R.M. Effects of Extracellular pH on the Dynorphin inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Synapse. 52(2), pp. 84-88, 2004.

Pbert, L., Moolchan, E.T., Muramoto, M., Curry, S., Winickoff, J.P., Lando, H.A., Ossip-Klein, D., Prokhorov, A.V., DiFranza, J. and Klein, J.D. The State of Office-based Interventions for Youth Tobacco Use. Pediatrics, 111(6 Pt 1), pp. e650-660, 2003.

Pope, H.G., Jr., Gruber, A.J., Hudson, J.I., Cohane, G., Huestis, M.A., and Yurgelun-Todd, D. Early-onset Cannabis Use and Cognitive Deficits: What is the Nature of the Association? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 69, pp. 303-310, 2003.

Preston, K.L., Epstein, D.H., Davoudzadeh, D., and Huestis, M.A. Methadone and Metabolite Urine Concentrations in Patients Maintained on Methadone. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27, pp. 332-341, 2003.

Raje, S., Cao, J., Newman, A.H., Gao, H. and Eddington, N. Evaluation of the Blood Brain Barrier Transport, Population Pharmacokinetics and Brain Distribution of Benztropine Analogs and Cocaine Using in vitro and in vivo Techniques. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 307, pp. 801-808, 2003.

Riddle, R. and Pollock, J.D. Making Connections: The Development of Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons. Brain Res Dev Brain Res., 147(1-2), pp. 3-21, December 30, 2003.

Sokolov, B.P., Schindler, C.W., and Cadet, J.L. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Chronic Methamphetamine Increases Fighting in Mice. 77(2), pp. 319-326, 2004.

Wise, R.A. Dopamine and Food Reward: Back to the Elements. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol., 286(1), R13, 2004.

Xu, L., Kulkarni, S.S., Izenwasser, S., Katz, J.L., Kopajtic, T., Lomenzo, S.A., Newman, A.H. and Katz, J.L. Synthesis and Monoamine Transporter Binding of 2-(diarylmethoxymethyl)-3_-aryltropane derivatives. J. Med. Chem. 47, pp. 1676-1682, 2004.

Special Issue: Role Prenatal Drugs of Abuse on Neuronal Development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 147(1-2), Guest Editor, Richard Smeyne, December 30, 2003.

Dr. Arnaldo R. Quinones, CCTN Medical Officer, is co-author of the publication: "The NEAT Study: A 48 Week Open-Label Study to Compare the Antiviral Efficacy and Safety of GW433908 Versus Nelfinavir in Antiretroviral Therapy-Na•ve HIV-1 Infected Patients," Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 35(1), pp. 22-32, January 1, 2004.

A Special Issue of Prevention Science (Vol. 5, No.1, March 2004) titled "Blending Research and Practice in Schools" was edited by Drs. Shakeh Kaftarian, Elizabeth Robertson and Wilson Compton of DESPR. This Special Issue includes a variety of articles by NIDA grantees, which were presented at a conference in April of 2003 titled "What Do Schools Really Think About Prevention Research? Blending Research and Reality" sponsored by DESPR. Articles explore the: 1) necessity for innovative research designs and methodologies which could have direct bearing on the value and applicability of research-based practices; 2) importance of building the capacity of practitioners for a successful implementation of research-based programs in real-life settings; and 3) dynamic tension between fidelity of implementation and program adaptation.


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