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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - February, 2004


NIDA Publications

Science & Perspectives Volume 2 Issue 1
NIH Pub. No. 03-5033

The second issue of NIDA's peer-reviewed journal for the drug abuse researchers and treatment providers highlights ways in which dialogue between scientific investigators and clinical practitioners is improving drug abuse treatment and research. An important goal of the journal is to inspire its readers to join the shared dialogue emerging from this partnership.

The first "Research Review" article proposes integrating substance abuse treatment with criminal justice supervision to achieve more economical use of resources as well as levels of monitoring appropriate to individual clients' drug use and criminal justice history. A second "Research Review" article presents the state of current knowledge about treating adolescents with comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders, and the author identifies gaps in knowledge, particularly with respect to psychiatric medications, for further investigation.

One of two "Clinical Perspectives" articles describes a New York State agency's efforts to treat nicotine addiction along with other drug abuse in an inpatient program. The other article illustrates how 12-step treatment works as part of a total addiction recovery program at one longstanding, community-based treatment facility in Ohio. Both articles offer recommendations on how other programs can adapt these approaches to their own treatment program and how additional research could lead to understanding and better treatment outcomes. Other sections of this issue include:

  • The article "Fishbowls and Candy Bars: Using Low-Cost Incentives to Increase Treatment Retention," which demonstrates that community programs need not invest large amounts of money in order to adopt contingency management and use it effectively with their clients;
  • "Graphic Evidence," which presents a striking visual representation of brain activity during cue-induced craving; and
  • A continuing education (CE) quiz for counselors, which offers the opportunity to earn two NAADAC-certified CE hours.

Research Report Series: Therapeutic Communities (Spanish)
NIH Pub. No. 04-4877(S)

Based on over 30 years of scientific inquiry and observation, this research report provides information on therapeutic communities and their role in treating drug addiction.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume I - June 2003
NIH Pub. No. 04-5364A

This report provides an ongoing assessment of drug abuse in major metropolitan areas of the United States with the purpose of keeping both public and private sector policymakers and researchers informed with current and accurate data.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume II - June 2003
NIH Pub. No. 04-5365A

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.


NIDA NOTES, Volume 18, Issue 2
NIH Pub. No. 03-4378

In the Director's Column, Dr. Nora Volkow discusses brain imaging techniques that provide new views of brain structure and activity, allowing researchers to watch small brain structures in minute detail and observe changes over fractions of seconds after drugs enter the brain's tissues. Noted is a new NIDA-National Institute of Mental Health initiative that will lead to a better understanding of the impact of drugs on the development and functioning of the human brain.

The lead story focuses on the use of perfusion MRI (pMRI), a new imaging technology that is simpler and less expensive to administer than PET, and has been used to confirm earlier PET scan evidence linking methamphetamine abuse to human brain damage. The pMRI images show blood-flow abnormalities that correlate with abusers' impaired response times in cognitive tests.

This issue also discusses research that found a multicultural version of a substance use prevention program to be at least as effective as culturally targeted versions. A research news article describes the three foci of NIDA's National Prevention Research Initiative: basic prevention research, transdisciplinary prevention research centers, and large-scale community prevention field trails. Other research news discusses last May's NIDA-sponsored symposium, "Foundations and Innovations in the Neuroscience of Addiction," which honored the late Dr. Roger M. Brown, as well as a symposium on the discovery, development, and delivery of smoking cessation medications at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. NIDA teamed with the National Cancer Institute and the Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to sponsor this symposium. The Bulletin Board features news on the seventh annual PRISM Awards, which Dr. Volkow attended. The Tearoff presents key elements of this fall's NIDA Goes Back to School Initiative, designed to convey the dynamism of science education-especially in the drug abuse and addiction field-to students and their parents, teachers, and school counselors.

NIDA NOTES, Volume 18, Issue 4
NIH Pub. No. 03-4378

In the Director's Column, Dr. Nora Volkow discusses decision-making and the addicted brain. Noted is addiction as an integrated process that may explain how drug exposure triggers changes throughout the brain, from initial intoxication and reinforcement through craving, to compulsive continued drug use despite destructive consequences. The emerging picture of addiction as a disease of compulsion and disrupted control suggests new possibilities for treatment.

The lead article examines NIDA-supported research exploring the disrupted and destructive decision-making that characterizes drug abuse and addiction. Research has begun to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms by which drugs disrupt the "thinking" regions of the frontal brain and lead to harmful decisions. Researchers evaluated substance abusers' decision making through use of a computerized card game involving short- and long-term gain or loss. By revealing different degrees of decision-making impairment, the research may hold clues for treatment and help select appropriate therapeutic approaches.

This issue also discusses emerging research findings with ketamine, a fast-acting, potentially lethal, general anesthetic that, when injected, poses new disease risks for homeless and other street-involved youths. Another article presents research findings on a D3 receptor antagonist that blocked cocaine reward in rats and offers promise for future medications to help control addictive behavior. Also addressed is twins research that found early marijuana use to be linked to increased risk of progression to other illicit drug use and possibly to drug abuse or dependence. The Bulletin Board notes the award of the HHS Honor for Distinguished Service to the Buprenorphine Work Group, comprising representatives from NIDA, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The Tearoff announces the release of the second edition of the highly regarded Preventing Drug Use Among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Accompanying this edition is an In Brief companion piece for quick reference.


  • During the months September - December, eight editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the progress of the protocols, committees, and node activity in the CTN.
  • Two patient brochures and one clinician brochure for the Basic Strategic Family Therapy protocol (CTN-0014) were approved and distributed throughout the Network.
  • Two patient brochures for the Smoking Cessation protocol (CTN-0009) and one patient brochure for the MET Pregnant protocol (CTN-0013) were translated into Spanish and distributed throughout the Network.


NIDA INVEST Letter, Fall 2003
The main article in this issue focused on the NIDA International Forum, held June 13-19, 2003, in Miami, Florida. The NIDA International Forum has grown from 65 participants representing 26 countries in 2001 to 180 participants from 49 countries and territories in 2003. Presenters from international drug abuse organizations summarized findings on global changes in drug abuse patterns, and a panel discussion highlighted NIDA-supported international research collaborations in Thailand and Russia. A special workshop on publishing scientific papers in international journals focused on organizing a scientific paper, meeting a journal's criteria before the peer-review stage, and responding to referees' comments. In the column, "From the Field," Dr. George Woody summarized his experiences conducting international collaborative research with colleagues in Brazil and Russia. An insert announced the new Distinguished International Scientist Collaboration Awards for U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents that support 1- to 3-month research visits by veteran NIDA researchers to their collaborators in other countries. Other stories reported on the NIDA Southern Africa Initiative Meeting held June 1-3, 2003 in Cape Town, South Africa, graduation ceremonies for the 2002-2003 Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellows, and plans for the 2004 NIDA International Forum.

NIDA INVEST Letter, Winter, 2004
The main article in this issue reported on the third U.S. - Russia Binational Workshop, Pharmacotherapies for Addiction: Basic and Clinical Science, cosponsored September 28 - October 1, 2003, in St. Petersburg, Russia by NIDA and Pavlov Medical University. Participants focused on the role of preclinical and clinical research findings in developing effective pharmacological and behavioral drug abuse treatments, drug policies, prevention programs, and service delivery mechanisms. In a ceremony opening the workshop, Pavlov Medical University awarded an honorary doctorate to NIDA grantee Dr. George Woody, University of Pennsylvania, in recognition of his decade of work on collaborations with investigators at Pavlov to improve substance abuse treatment and reduce HIV transmission. The feature article examined the expansion of the unique binational collaboration between NIDA and the Dutch Addiction Program, which announced funding for four new collaborative research projects September 27, 2003, during the Third Binational Workshop on Drug Abuse and Addiction in Amsterdam. Other stories included an interview with former NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellow Olga Toussova, and the "From the Field" column written by Dr. James Inciardi, University of Delaware, and Hilary Surratt, University of Delaware.



Volume 99, Issue 1, Page 141, January 2004
Dr. M. Patricia Needle, IP, has a Note in this issue of Addiction, which is published by the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs. Dr. Needle outlines the contributions made by some of the 100 scientists from more than 40 nations that have participated in one of NIDA's three international research training and professional development exchange programs: the NIDA INVEST Research Fellowship, the NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellowship, and the NIDA Distinguished International Scientist Collaboration Award.

A Special Issue of the Journal of Urban Health (80(4), suppl. 3, December 2003) was released on "HIV Acquisition and Transmission Among Drug -Using Populations: Future Research Strategies." Editors of the Special Issue, which was made possible by NIDA, include Jacques Normand and Elizabeth Lambert of CAMCODA, and David Vlahov of the New York Academy of Medicine. It includes a variety of papers by NIDA grantees on different aspects of the changing epidemiology of HIV among drug users and their sex partners, strategies for HIV prevention, and discussions of new and emerging research gaps and questions to shape the next generation of HIV interventions for drug-using populations in both domestic and international settings.

Aung, A.T., Hickman, N.J. and Moolchan, E.T., Health and Performance-related Reasons for Wanting to Quit: Gender Differences among Teen Smokers. Substance Use and Misuse, 38(8), pp. 1095-1107, 2003.

Brown, P.L., Wise, R.A. and Kiyatkin, E.A., Brain Hyperthermia is Induced by Methamphetamine and Exacerbated by Social Interaction, J Neurosci, 23, pp. 3924-3929, 2003.

Durston, S., Tottenham, N.T., Thomas, K.M., Davidson, M.C., Eigsti, I-M., Yang, Y., Ulug, A.M. and Casey, B.J.. Differential Patterns of Striatal Activation in Young Children with and without ADHD. Biol Psychiatry, 53, pp. 871-878, 2003.

Elliot, E.E, Sibley, D.R. and Katz, J.L. Behavioral Effects of Cocaine in Dopamine D5 Receptor Knockout Mice. Psychopharmacology, 169, pp. 161-168, 2003.

Feng, H., Gu, H., Silbersweig, D.A. Stern, E. and Yang, Y. Single-Shot MR Imaging Using Trapezoidal-Gradient Based Lissajous Trajectories. IEEE Med. Imaging. 22, pp. 925-932, 2003.

Funk, D., Li, Z., Shaham, Y. and LÉ, A.D. Effect of Blockade of Corticotropin-releasing Factor Receptors in the Median Raphe Nucleus on Stress-induced c-fos mRNA in the Rat Brain. Neuroscience, 122, pp.1-4, 2003.

Gerdeman, G.L., Partridge, J.G., Lupica, C.R. and Lovinger, D. M. It Could be Habit Forming: Drugs of Abuse and Striatal Synaptic Plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences, 26, pp. 184-192, 2003.

Gustafson, R.A., Levine, B., Stout, P.R., Klette, K.L., George, K.P., Moolchan, E.T. and Huestis, M.A., Urinary Cannabinoid Detection Times Following Controlled Oral Administration of Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol to Humans. Clinical Chemistry, 49(7), pp. 1114-1124, 2003.

Gustafson, R.A., Moolchan, E.T., Barnes, A., Levine, B. and Huestis, M.A.. Validated Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in Human Plasma using Solid Phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Positive Chemical Ionization. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci., 798(1), pp. 145-154, December 5, 2003.

Henningfield, J.E., Moolchan, E.T. and Zeller, M., Reducing Addiction and Other Tobacco-Caused Diseases in the Young: Biological, Public Health and Regulatory Issues. Tobacco Control,12 Suppl 1, pp. I14-I24, 2003.

Hoffman, A.F., Oz, M., Caulder, T. and Lupica, C.R. Functional Tolerance and Blockade of Long-term Depression at Synapses in the Nucleus Accumbens after Chronic Cannabinoid Exposure. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 4815-4820, 2003.

Hoffman, A.F., Riegel, A.C., and Lupica, C.R. Functional Localization of Cannabinoid Receptors and Endogenous Cannabinoid Production in Distinct Neuron Populations of the Hippocampus. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18, pp. 524-534, 2003.

Ikemoto, S., Involvement of the Olfactory Tubercle in Cocaine Reward: Intracranial Self-administration Studies, J Neurosci, 23, pp. 9305-9311, 2003.

Ikemoto, S., Intermittent Microinjection Method in Freely-moving Rats and its Application to Neuropharmacology, Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 121, pp. 264-267, 2003.

Ikemoto, S., Witkin, B.M. and Morales, M. Rewarding Injections of the Cholinergic Agonist Carbachol into the Ventral Tegmental Area Induce Locomotion and c-Fos Expression in the Retrosplenial Area and Supramammillary Nucleus, Brain Res, 969, pp. 78-87, 2003.

Katz, J.L., Chausmer, A.L., Elmer, G.I., Rubinstein, M., Low, M.J. and Grandy, D.K. Cocaine-induced Locomotor Activity and Cocaine Discrimination in Dopamine D4 Receptor Mutant Mice. Psychopharmacology, 170, pp. 108-114, 2003.

Kim, I., Barnes, A.J., Schepers, R., Moolchan, E.T., Wilson, L., Cooper, G., Reid, C., Hand, C. and Huestis, M.A., Sensitivity and Specificity of the Cozart Microplate EIA Cocaine Oral Fluid at Proposed Screening and Confirmation Cutoffs. Clinical Chemistry, 49(9), pp. 1498-1503, 2003.

Kiyatkin, E.A. and Mitchum, R.D., Jr., Fluctuations in Brain Temperature During Sexual Interaction in Male Rats: an Approach for Evaluating Neural Activity Underlying Motivated Behavior, Neuroscience, 119, pp. 1169-1183, 2003.

Kiyatkin, E.A. and Brown, P.L., Fluctuations in Neural Activity During Cocaine Self-administration: Clues Provided by Brain Thermorecording, Neuroscience, 116, pp. 525-538, 2003.

LÉ A.D., Wang, A., Harding, S., Juzytsch, W. and Shaham, Y. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Self-Administration and Reinstates Alcohol Seeking in Rats. Psychopharmacology, 168, pp. 216-221, 2003.

Lee, E.M., Malson, J.L., Moolchan, E.T. and Pickworth, W.B. Smoking Topography: Validity and Reliability in Dependent Smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 5(5), pp. 673-679, 2003.

Lu, L., Grimm, J.W., Shaham, Y. and Hope, B.T., Molecular Neuroadaptations in the Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area During the First 90 Days of Forced Abstinence From Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats, J Neurochem, 85, pp. 1604-1613, 2003.

Lu, L., Shepard, J., Hall, S.F. and Shaham, Y. Effect of Environmental Stressors on Opiate and Psychostimulant Reinforcement, Reinstatement and Discrimination in Rats: A Review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, pp. 457-491, 2003.

Malson, J.L., Lee, E.M., Watson, C., Polzin, G., Murty, R., Moolchan, E.T. and Pickworth, W.B. Clove Cigarette Smoking: Biochemical, Physiological, and Subjective Effects. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 74(3), pp. 739-745, 2003.

Moolchan, E.T., Aung, A.T. and Henningfield, J.E. Treatment of Adolescent Tobacco Smokers: Issues and Opportunities for Exposure Reduction Approaches. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 70(3), pp. 223-232, 2003.

Moolchan, E.T., Berlin, I., Robinson, M.L. and Cadet, J.L. Characteristics of African American Teen Smokers who Request Cessation Treatment: Implications for Addressing Health Disparities. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 157, pp. 533-538, 2003.

Pbert, L., Moolchan, E.T., Muramoto, M., Curry, S., Winickoff, J.P., Lando, H.A., Ossip-Klein, D., Prokhorov, A.V., DiFranza, J. and Klein, J.D. The State of Office-based Interventions for Youth Tobacco Use. Pediatrics, 111(6 Pt 1), pp. e650-660, 2003.

Pickworth, W.B., O'Hare, E., Fant, R.V. and Moolchan, E.T. EEG Effects of Conventional and Denicotinized Cigarettes in a Spaced Smoking Paradigm. Brain and Cognition, 53, pp.75-81, 2003.

Schepers, R.J., Oyler, J.M., Joseph, R.E., Cone, E.J., Moolchan, E.T. and Huestis, M.A. Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Pharmacokinetics in Oral Fluid and Plasma Following Controlled Oral Methamphetamine Administration to Human Volunteers. Clinical Chemistry, 49(1), pp. 121-132, 2003.

Shalev, U., Marinelli, M., Baumann, M., Piazza, P.V. and Shaham, Y. The Role of Corticosterone in Food Deprivation-induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in the Rat. Psychopharmacology, 168, pp. 170-176, 2003.

Shaham, Y., Shalev, U., Lu, L., de Wit, H. and Stewart, J. The Reinstatement Model of Drug Relapse: History, Methodology and Major Findings. Psychopharmacology, 168, pp. 3-20, 2003.

Shalev, U., Robarts, P., Shaham, Y. and Morales, M. Selective Induction of c-Fos Immunoreactivity in the Prelimbic Cortex During Reinstatement of Heroin Seeking Induced by Acute Food Deprivation in Rats. Behavioral Brain Research, 145, pp. 79-88, 2003.

Singleton, E.G., Anderson, L.M. and Heishman, S.J. Reliability and Validity of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire and Validation of a Craving-induction Procedure Using Multiple Measures of Craving and Mood. Addiction, 98, pp. 1537-1546, 2003.

Woods, A.S., Moyer, S.C., Wang, H.Y. and Wise, R.A., Interaction of Chlorisondamine with the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, J Proteome Res, 2, pp. 207-212, 2003.

Zangen, A. and Shalev, U. Nucleus Accumbens Beta-endorphin Levels are not Elevated by Brain Stimulation Reward but do Increase with Extinction, Eur J Neurosci, 17, pp. 1067-1072, 2003.

Zhan, W., Gu, H., Xu, S., Silbersweig, D.A., Stern, E., and Yang, Y. Circular Spectrum Mapping for Intravoxel Fiber Structures Based on High Angular Resolution Apparent Diffusion Coefficients. Magn. Reson. Med., 49, pp. 1077-1088, 2003.

Compton, W.M., Glantz, M. and Delany, P. Addiction As A Chronic Illness-Putting the Concept into Action. Evaluation and Program Planning, 26(3), pp. 353-354, 2003.

Fletcher, B.W., Broome, K.M., Delany, P.J., Shields, J. and Flynn, P.M. Patient and Program Factors in Obtaining Supportive Services in DATOS. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 25, pp. 165-175, 2003.

Fletcher, B.W. The National Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS). Offender Substance Abuse Report, Vol. III(5), pp. 65-66, 72-75, 2003.

Brook, D.W., Brook, J.S., Rosen, Z., De La Rosa, M., Montoya, I.D. and Whiteman, M. Early Risk Factors for Violence in Colombian Adolescents. Am J Psychiatry., 160(8), pp. 1470-1478, 2003.

Bjork, J.M., Grant, S.J. and Hommer, D. Cross-Sectional Volumetric Analysis of Brain Atrophy in Alcohol Dependence: Effects of Drinking History and Comorbid Substance Use Disorder . American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, pp. 1-8, 2003.

Melissa Racioppo, Ph.D., of the Behavioral Treatment Development Branch, DTR&D, wrote an article entitled "Is Treatment on This Plane?" published in the November/December 2003 issue of Family Therapy Magazine, a publication of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

Khalsa, J.H. and Royal, W. Do Drugs of Abuse Impact on HIV Disease? J. Neuroimmunol., 147(1-2), pp. 6-8, 2003.

Khalsa, J.H., Francis, H.I., and Mazin R. Bloodborne and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Drug Abusers in the United States, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Spain. Clin Inf Dis., 37 suppl 5: S331-S337, December 15, 2003.

Jag H. Khalsa, Ph.D., of CAMCODA, participated as the agency representative in the preparation of a report released in September 2003 entitled "Federal TB Task Force Plan in Response to the Institute of Medicine Report, Ending Neglect: The Elimination of TB in the United States".


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