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Research Report Series - Therapeutic Community



What is a
therapeutic community?


The therapeutic community (TC) for the treatment of drug abuse and addiction has existed for about 40 years. In general, TCs are drug-free residential settings that use a hierarchical model with treatment stages that reflect increased levels of personal and social responsibility. Peer influence, mediated through a variety of group processes, is used to help individuals learn and assimilate social norms and develop more effective social skills.

TCs differ from other treatment approaches principally in their use of the community, comprising treatment staff and those in recovery, as key agents of change. This approach is often referred to as "community as method." TC members interact in structured and unstructured ways to influence attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors associated with drug use.

Photograph of an Outreach Center

Many individuals admitted to TCs have a history of social functioning, education/vocational skills, and positive community and family ties that have been eroded by their substance abuse. For them, recovery involves rehabilitation -- relearning or re-establishing healthy functioning, skills, and values as well as regaining physical and emotional health. Other TC residents have never acquired functional life-styles. For these people, the TC is usually their first exposure to orderly living. Recovery for them involves habilitation -- learning for the first time the behavioral skills, attitudes, and values associated with socialized living.

In addition to the importance of the community as a primary agent of change, a second fundamental TC principle is "self-help." Self-help implies that the individuals in treatment are the main contributors to the change process. "Mutual self-help" means that individuals also assume partial responsibility for the recovery of their peers -- an important aspect of an individual's own treatment.


How beneficial are
therapeutic communities
in treating drug addiction?


For three decades, NIDA has conducted several large studies to advance scientific knowledge of the outcomes of drug abuse treatment as typically delivered in the United States. These studies collected baseline data from over 65,000 individuals admitted to publicly funded treatment agencies. They included a sample of TC programs and other types of programs (i.e., methadone maintenance, out-patient drug-free, short-term inpatient, and detoxification programs). Data were collected at admission, during treatment, and in a series of followups that focused on outcomes that occurred 12 months and longer after treatment.

These studies found that participation in a TC was associated with several positive outcomes. For example, the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), the most recent long-term study of drug treatment outcomes, showed that those who successfully completed treatment in a TC had lower levels of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol use; criminal behavior; unemployment; and indicators of depression than they had before treatment.


Who receives treatment
in a therapeutic community?


TCs treat people with a range of substance abuse problems. Those treated often have other severe problems, such as multiple drug addictions, involvement with the criminal justice system, lack of positive social support, and mental health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and antisocial and other personality disorders).

For example, in DATOS, which tracked 2,345 admissions to residential TC treatment between 1991 and 1993, two-thirds of admissions had a criminal justice status (e.g., on probation, on parole, or pending trial) at admission, and about a third had been referred to treatment from the criminal justice system. Nearly a third of admissions were women, and nearly half were African American. Sixty percent had prior drug abuse treatment experience.

Pre- and posttreatment self-reported changes among those in long-term residential TCs


Index

Letter from the Director

What is a therapeutic community?

How beneficial are therapeutic communities in treating drug addiction?

Who receives treatment in a therapeutic community?

What is the typical length of treatment in a therapeutic community?

What are the fundamental components of therapeutic communities?

How are therapeutic communities structured?

How is treatment provided in a therapeutic community?

Can therapeutic communities treat populations with special needs?

How else can therapeutic communities be modified?

Resources and References

 

Therapeutic Community Research Report Cover



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