A. Basic Sampling Theory
and Sampling Designs
- Cochran, W.G. Sampling Techniques, 3rd ed. Toronto:
The classic text on sampling techniques presents a comprehensive
account of sampling theory as it has been developed for use in sample
surveys. It contains illustrations to show how the theory is applied
in practice, and exercises to be worked by the students. Emphasis
was placed on mathematical proofs of sampling theory. A fair amount
of mathematical and statistical skills in the readers are presupposed
by the author.
- Hájek, J. Sampling From a Finite Population.
New York: Marcel Dekker, 1981.
The monograph presents approaches and results in finite
population sampling, along with useful approximations. It is supplemented
by theoretical considerations and numerical calculations. The book
is divided into three sections. Part I deals with basic concepts,
featuring a dialogue between the Bayesian and robust approaches. Part
II gives a detailed anatomy of methods of sampling and sample correction.
Part III evaluates methods of estimation and proposes a general approach
- Hedayat, A.S., & Sinha, B.K. Design and Inference
in Finite Population Sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
The book is an introduction to design and inference
in survey sampling for students at the senior or graduate level in
statistics. Practitioners of survey sampling would also find the theoretical
results in the book useful to their work. It starts with a discussion
on probability sampling and inference in finite population sampling,
followed by descriptions of various kinds of estimators and sampling
designs. The last three chapters of the book deal with special topics
in sampling: the superpopulation approach to inference in finite population
sampling; randomized response; small area estimation, nonresponse
problems and resampling techniques.
- Kish, L. Survey Sampling. New York: John Wiley
& Sons, 1965.
This is a classic text on survey sampling. It is written
for social scientists who need to conduct surveys. The book provides
a working knowledge of practical sampling methods. Necessary working
formulas and underlying assumptions are given. Readers will also find
a variety of examples, with computations laid out in detail. The book
consists of three parts. Part 1 deals with the fundamentals of survey
sampling, such as basic sampling theory and some commonly used designs.
Part 2 discusses special problems and techniques in survey sampling.
The author discusses issues like area sampling, multistage sampling
and sampling from imperfect frames. Part 3 discusses biases and nonsampling
errors, as well as some issues of inference from survey data.
- Krishnaiah, P.R., & Rao, C.R. Handbook of Statistics,
Vol. 6 (Sampling). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers,
The volume is devoted to the theory and practice of
sample surveys. Various authors contributed chapters on the following
special topics: Historical account of random sampling methods; overview
of survey sampling; optimality of sampling strategies; cost-efficiency
of simple random sampling; role of randomization in inference; systematic
sampling; repeated sampling over time; theoretical aspects of inference
in finite population; interpenetrating subsamples; analysis of contingency
tables compiled from survey data; various methods of variance estimation
in sample surveys; methodology of ratio and regression estimation;
special survey techniques in environmental and ecological studies;
sampling methods in marketing research; methods for controlling and
estimating observational errors in sample surveys; new problems in
the design of sample surveys.
- Levy, P.S., & Lemeshow, S. Sampling of Populations:
Methods and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
As with earlier editions, this edition was written for
the practicing statistician and for researchers who work with complex
sample survey data. Thus, important formulas are highlighted and the
procedures for drawing a sample are presented step-by-step. Because
of its emphasis on self-learning, the book remains an excellent choice
for individuals who want to learn how to analyze complex sample survey
data and who find heuristic demonstrations and small hand-worked examples
to be informative. The authors also illustrate how one can use SUDAAN
and STATA to obtain estimates and standard errors for various sampling
- Levy, P.S., & Lemeshow, S. Sampling for Health
Professionals. Belmont, CA: Lifetime Learning Publications, 1980.
The book is designed as a reference for the working
statistician. It is also a primary text for a course in sample survey
methods that emphasizes applications rather than theory. The book
covers basic sampling theory and have chapters describing various
sampling designs, such as systematic sampling and two-stage cluster
sampling. For each type of sampling designs, the author describes
how to set up the design, estimation of population parameters, sampling
distribution of estimates. It also discusses costs, feasibility, statistical
problems, and measurement problems in connection with a proposed sample
- Kasprzyk, D., Duncan, G.J., Kalton, G., & Singh,
M.P. Panel Surveys. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
This volume contains 22 invited papers presented at
the symposium "The International Symposium on Panel Surveys"
held in 1986. The book is organized into the following sections: (1)
Issues in the Design of Panel Surveys; (2) Collection and Design Issues;
(3) Statistical Design and Estimation; (4) Database Management; (5)
Sources of Nonsampling Error; (6) Panel Conditioning; (7) Estimation
of Cross-Sectional and Change Parameters; and (8) Modeling Consideration.
Further, the chapters within each section are of three typesproviding
a general review of a topic related to panel surveys, presenting results
related to methodological issues common to panel surveys, or presenting
current research on panel survey problems.
- Skinner, C.J., Holt, D., & Smith, T.M.F., eds.
Analysis of Complex Surveys. New York: Wiley, 1989.
The edited book resulted from two research programs
on "The Analysis of Data from Complex Surveys" held in the
United Kingdom between 1977 and 1985 and the conference was attended
by a number of international researchers with expertise in complex
surveys. The book was divided into three parts: (1) aggregated analysisstandard
errors and significance tests; (2) aggregrated analysispoint
estimation and bias; and (3) disaggregated analysismodeling
structured populations. The author pointed out that "typical
readers" of the book would be researchers who wish to apply statistical
methods to survey data and who are familiar with those methods to
the level of Bishop et al. (1975), for contingency table analysis,
or Draper and Smith (1981) for regression analysis. A background in
survey sampling to the level of a text such as Cochran (1977) is also
B. Sampling Members from Rare Populations
- Thompson, S.K. Sampling, New York: John Wiley
& Sons, 1992.
The book covers the basic and standard sampling design
and estimation methods and, in addition, gives special attention to
methods for populations that are inherently difficult to sample, elusive,
rare, clustered, or hard to detect. It is intended as a reference
for scientific researchers and others who use sampling and as a textbook
for a graduate or upper-level undergraduate course in sampling.
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