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Integrating the Science of Addiction Into Psychiatric Practice was a special research-based program track between NIDA and APA, and was presented at APA’s 157th Annual Meeting. Recent epidemiologic studies show that between 30 and 60 percent of drug abusers have concurrent mental health diagnoses. The nearly 30 NIDA-supported sessions featured in this track, including 7 major lectures, addressed an array of topics linked to mental illness and drug abuse. These topics included stress, trauma, and drug abuse; obesity and addiction; smoking and comorbid mental disorders; and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug use.

ADHD Subtypes and Subgroups at Risk for Substance Use Disorders
During this section of the program, presenters discussed relationships between childhood and adolescent ADHD and substance use disorders.

ADHD Subtypes and Subgroups at Risk for Substance Use Disorders
Naimah Weinberg, M.D.

Subtypes of ADHD Youth at Risk for Substance Abuse
Timothy E. Wilens, M.D.

Childhood ADHD, Comorbidity, and Risk for Late-Adolescent Drug Abuse
Ken C. Winters, Ph.D.

Developmental Twin Studies of Relations Between Substance Use and ADHD
James J. Hudziak, M.D.

Variability in Risk for Substance Use and Disorder Among Children Diagnosed with ADHD
Brooke S.G. Molina, Ph.D.

Behavioral and Cognitive Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use in Children with ADHD
Jeffrey M. Halperin, Ph.D.

Long-Term Followup of Childhood ADHD: Development of Adult Substance Abuse
F. Xavier Castellanos, M.D.

Anticraving Medication: A New Class of Psychoactive Medication?
This part of the program focused on the newly emerging phenomenon of medications that suppress drug cravings, thus improving the outcome of addiction therapies.

Charles P. O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D.

Signal Integration in the Brain
The presenter in this portion of the program discussed the molecule DARPP-32, which plays an essential role in mediating the actions and interactions of numerous neurotransmitters, therapeutic agents, and drugs of abuse in many brain regions.

Paul Greengard, Ph.D.

Behavioral Treatments for Drug Dependence
In this section, researchers presented several behavioral counseling methods for treating substance abuse and their rates of efficacy.

Durability of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Efficacy for Substance Abusers
Bruce J. Rounsaville, M.D.

HIV Risk Reduction and Substance Abuse Treatment
George E. Woody, M.D.

Low-Cost Contingency Management in Community Settings
Nancy M. Petry, Ph.D.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Naltrexone for Cocaine Dependence
Joy M. Schmitz, Ph.D.

Behavioral Family Counseling and Naltrexone Compliance for Male Opioid-Dependent Patients
William S. Fals-Stewart, Ph.D.

Conceptual and Methodological Flaws in the Evaluation of Addiction Treatment
This presentation focused on major inconsistencies between how addictions are classified (that is, as a chronic illness) and whether or not current methodologies address the implications of such a classification. The presenter urged the re-evaluation of findings from prior addiction treatment studies and suggested a significant underestimation of the potential effectiveness of addiction treatments.

A. Thomas McLellan, Ph.D.

Consequences and Treatment of Marijuana Abuse
Presentations in this section focused on effects of marijuana abuse such as cognitive deficits, psychosocial impairments, effects on motor function, and consequences of fetal marijuana exposure compared to in-utero exposure to cigarettes.

Cognitive Toxicity of Cannabis: The Devil Is in the Confounding Variables
Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.

Cognitive Effects in Adolescents Exposed Prenatally to Marijuana or Cigarettes
Peter A. Fried, Ph.D.

Effects of Chronic Marijuana Use and THC on Brain Function in Humans: An fMRI Study
Alan S. Bloom, Ph.D.

Behavioral and Treatment Research on Marijuana Withdrawal and Dependence
Alan J. Budney, Ph.D.

The Endogenous Cannabinoids and the Control of Drug Craving
Presenter: Billy R. Martin, Ph.D. (CDD Director: Alexandros Makriyannis, Ph.D.)

Drug Abuse Treatment Issues in Women
This section of the program focused on how certain factors affect drug addiction and treatment, such as gender, PTSD, depression, partner violence, and pregnancy.

Gender Differences in Treatment Needs, Services, Utilization, and Outcomes
Karol A. Kaltenbach, Ph.D.

Treatment Issues in Drug-Dependent Women with Comorbid Depression
Rajita Sinha, Ph.D.

Trauma and PTSD: Issues in the Treatment of Drug-Dependent Women
Denise Hien, Ph.D.

Drug-Dependent Women with Partner Violence: Treatment Issues
Brenda A. Miller, Ph.D.

Drug Treatment Issues in Drug-Dependent, Pregnant Women
Hendree E. Jones, Ph.D.

Functional Brain Imaging of Addiction
Researchers in this portion of the program discussed the generalized circuitry for processing motivationally salient stimuli, and focused on neurotransmitter systems thought to mediate some of the responses to drugs of abuse.

Neuropsychiatric Implications of Mapping Reward/Aversion Circuitry
Hans C. Breiter, M.D.

Endogenous Opioid Neurotransmission: Interfacing with Reward and Stress Regulation
Jon-Kar Zubieta, M.D., Ph.D.

Chronic Effects of Drug Use and HIV
Linda Chang, M.D.

Neurobiological Substrates of Stimulant Action and Reward
Elliot A. Stein, Ph.D.

Genetic and Environmental Factors Contributing to Vulnerability to Addiction
This group presented research on the identification of genes that could indicate a susceptibility to drug abuse and addiction.

Using Twin Data To Identify Alternative Drug Abuse Phenotypes
Ming T. Tsuang, M.D., Ph.D.

Common and Specific Genetic Factors in the Development of Substance Dependence
Laura J. Bierut, M.D.

Addiction Molecular Genetics: Remarkably Converging Results
George R. Uhl, M.D., Ph.D.

Using the Systems Biology of Motivation for Genetic Studies in Psychiatry
Gregory P. Gasic, Ph.D.

Genetic and Environmental Factors Modulate Cocaine Abuse in Monkey Models
Michael A. Nader, Ph.D.

Moving the Targets: The Neurobiology of Addiction
This part of the program focused on the neurobiological consequences of repeated drug abuse; possible long-term changes in circuitry for behavior, psychological function, and motivation; and elements of the brain reward system implicated in the development of addiction.

Neuroadaptation in Addiction: The Extended Amygdala and Brain Reward System
George F. Koob, Ph.D.

Neural Circuitry of Relapse
Peter W. Kalivas, Ph.D.

Drugs, Neuroplasticity, and Addiction
Terry E. Robinson, Ph.D.

How Do Drugs of Abuse Rewire the Motivational Circuitry?
Marina E. Wolf, Ph.D.

Obesity: Lessons Learned from Addiction
During this section of the program, researchers discussed how findings pertaining to addiction may be beneficial in understanding the neurobiologic etiology of obesity and eating disorders.

Genetic, Motivational, and Metabolic Factors Modulate the Neural Drive To Maintain Body Weight
Barry Levin, M.D.

Cortico-Striatal-Hypothalamic Networks and Motivation for Food: Integration of Cognition, Reward, and Energy
Ann E. Kelley, Ph.D.

Food and Drug Cravings: Metaphor or Common Mechanisms?
Marcia L. Pelchat, Ph.D.

Common and Diverging Neurobiological Features of Feeding and Drug Self-Administration in Humans
Dana M. Small, Ph.D.

Obesity and Addiction: Neuroimaging Studies
Gene-Jack Wang, M.D.

Smoking and Comorbid Mental Disorders
In this segment, researchers focused on the reward dysfunction hypothesis and how this process relates to mental disorders (such as schizophrenia and depression) and smoking.

Psychiatric Comorbidity of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence: An Epidemiologic Perspective
Naomi Breslau, Ph.D.

The Neurobiology of Nicotine Dependence and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders
George F. Koob, Ph.D.

Nicotine-Dependence Treatment in Individuals with Schizophrenia
Douglas M. Ziedonis, M.D.

Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Smokers with Depression
Richard A. Brown, Ph.D.

Stress and Relapse to Substance Use Disorders
This researcher focused on how stress plays into substance use, abuse, and relapse, and discussed neurobiological connections between the changes produced by stress and the changes produced by both short-term and long-term substance use.

Kathleen T. Brady, M.D., Ph.D.

The Epidemiology and Treatment of Psychiatric Comorbidities
This portion of the program centered on current research on the patterns of comorbidity between mental, addictive, and medical disorders. Antecedent psychopathology and subsequent addictive disorders in youth and the fundamentals of the epidemiology of comorbid addictive and psychiatric disorders were discussed.

Epidemiology of Comorbid Psychiatric and Addictive Disorders
Presenter: Kevin Conway, Ph.D. (Senior Investigator: Kathleen Ries Merikangas, Ph.D.)

Comorbidity of Psychiatric and Addictive Disorders in Children
Joseph Biederman, M.D.

Depression in Hepatitis C Patients and Interferon Treatment
Paul J. Thuluvath, M.D.

Research Advances in HIV Care
Joel E. Gallant, M.D.

Treatment of Chronic Pain in Recovering Addicts
In this section, researchers presented studies of aberrant drug-related behaviors in patients with AIDS, cancer, and nonmalignant pain and the difficulties associated with assessing and treating addicts who suffer from pain.

Pain Assessment and Issues in Screening
Russell K. Portenoy, M.D.

Assessing Aberrant Drug-Taking Behaviors in Medically Ill Patients with Pain
Steven D. Passik, Ph.D.

The Development and Treatment of Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia
Walter Ling, M.D.

Prescribing Pain Medication for Recovering Addicts with Chronic Pain
Richard L. Brown, M.D.

Principles of Pain Treatment in Addictive Disorders
Seddon R. Savage, M.D.

Why Does the Human Brain Become Addicted?
This researcher discussed how dysfunction in inhibitory control systems decreases the addict’s ability to refrain from seeking and consuming drugs, and ultimately results in the compulsive drug intake that characterizes the disease.

Nora D. Volkow, M.D.

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