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The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States - 1992

Table 5.6

Economic Cost of Mortalities Due to Drug Abuse, for Various Discount Rates, 1992

Cause of Death, by ICD-9 Code ICD-9 Code Total Deaths Attributable to Drug Abuse Discounted Economic Impact
(millions of dollars)
Cause Percent Number 3% 4% 6%
Direct Primary Causes
Drug psychoses 292 13 100 13 6.7 5.9 4.7
Drug dependence 304 309 100 309 255.1 224.8 180.8
Nondependent abuse of drugs 305.2-305.9 777 100 777 618.8 544.6 437.1
Drug withdrawal syndrome in newborn 779.5 6 100 6 4.3 2.9 1.5
Accidental overdose of psychoactive drugs
Opiates and related narcotics E850.0 1,279 100 1,279 1,130.9 992.5 792.4
Aromatic analgesics, not elsewhere classified E850.2 69 100 69 36.7 32.2 25.9
Other non-narcotic analgesics E850.7 0 100 0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other E850.8 167 100 167 151.7 132.6 105.2
Unspecified analgesics and antipyretics E850.9 2 100 2 1.9 1.7 1.4
Barbiturates E851 21 100 21 13.3 11.6 9.3
Other sedatives and hypnotics E852 11 100 11 7.6 6.6 5.3
Tranquilizers E853 65 100 65 39.6 34.9 28.1
Other psychotropic agents (incl. antidepressants) E854 269 100 269 197.7 171.4 134.6
Other drugs acting on the central and autonomic nervous system E855 1,113 100 1,113 1,009.4 877.3 689.6
Agricultural and horticultural chemical and pharmaceutical preparations other than plant foods and fertilizers E863 18 100 18 9.9 8.4 6.3
Accidental Overdose of Drugs and Medicaments
Salicylates E850.1 56 100 56 23.5 20.5 16.3
Pyrazole derivatives E850.3 2 100 1 0.9 0.9 0.8
Antirheumatics E850.4 3 100 2 1.8 1.5 1.2
Other non-narcotic analgesics E850.5 79 100 79 60.8 53.5 42.9
Accidental poisoning by antibiotics E856 55 100 55 15.3 13.3 10.6
Accidental poisoning by other anti-infectives E857 5 100 5 3.1 2.7 2.2
Hormones and synthetic substitutes E858.0 18 100 18 5.7 5.1 4.2
Primarily systemic agents E858.1 44 100 44 21.3 18.2 14.0
Agents primarily affecting blood constituents E858.2 33 100 33 13.0 9.9 6.4
Agents primarily affecting cardiovascular system E858.3 218 100 218 16.8 14.9 12.2
Agents primarily affecting gastrointestinal system E858.4 3 100 3 1.0 0.9 0.8
Water mineral and uric acid metabolism drugs E858.5 75 100 75 13.6 11.8 9.4
Agents primarily acting on the smooth and skeletal muscles and respiratory system E858.6 8 100 8 3.7 3.1 2.4
Agents primarily affecting skin and mucous membrane, ophthalmological, otorhinolaryngological, dental drugs E858.7 7 100 7 1.0 1.0 0.9
Other specified drugs E858.8 1,328 100 1,328 1,133.0 993.6 792.5
Unspecified drug E858.9 1,021 100 1,021 855.1 749.6 597.3
Heroin, methadone, other opiates and related narcotics, and other drugs causing adverse effects in therapeutic use E935.0-E935.2
E937-E940
27 100 27 5.4 4.8 3.9
Injury Undetermined Whether Accidental or Purposely Inflicted
Analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics E980.0 491 100 491 404.7 355.0 283.4
Barbiturates E980.1 13 100 13 9.3 8.1 6.5
Other sedatives and hypnotics E980.2 8 100 8 6.0 5.3 4.2
Tranquilizers and other psychotropic agents E980.3 159 100 159 109.9 96.5 77.3
Other specified drugs and medicinal substances E980.4 478 100 478 405.1 352.9 278.6
Unspecified drug or medicinal substance E980.5 252 100 252 201.0 176.6 141.3
Other and unspecified solid and liquid substances E980.9 63 100 63 45.1 39.4 31.3
Homicide and injury purposely inflicted by other persons E960-E969 25,144 10 2,514 2,239.2 1,893.7 1,426.6
Other Causes
Tuberculosis 010-018 1,705 4.5 77 21.2 19.0 15.7
Hepatitis C See discussion 4,500 20 900 819.4 698.2 532.0
Hepatitis B See discussion 9,000 30 2,700 2,438.3 2,077.9 1,583.9
AIDS See discussion 33,566 32 10,737 8,958.2 7,849.1 6,254.3
Total 25,493 21,316.3 18,524.6 14,574.9

Sources: Attribution factors: Gottshalk et al. (1977); analysis by The Lewin Group, Chu et al (1993), Alter et al. (1990a); number of deaths: National Center for Health Statistics (1996b); NCHS Public Use ICD-9 Data Tape (age and gender distribution for deaths by ICD code for 1991); economic costs: Rice (1997), personal communication. Present discounted values for 3 percent were estimated based on values for 2 percent and 4 percent, respectively.
Notes: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.


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