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NIDA Home > Publications > Director's Reports > September, 2008 Index    

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2008



Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On June 26, NIDA issued a PA entitled Medications Development for Polydrug Addiction Treatment (R01) (PAS-08-186). Through this FOA, NIDA is seeking medication discovery and development research grant applications focused on the treatment of patients who are simultaneously addicted to multiple substances, including alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and/or prescription drugs. Novel proposals for clinical or preclinical testing of potential medications, as well as relevant animal model development and medicinal chemistry efforts are encouraged. This FOA will utilize the NIH Research Projects (R01) grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PAS-08-187, that encourages applications under the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant mechanism.

On June 26, NIDA issued a PA entitled Medications Development for Polydrug Addiction Treatment (R21) (PAS-08-187). Through this PA, NIDA is seeking medication discovery and development research grant applications focused on the treatment of patients who are simultaneously addicted to multiple substances, including alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and/or prescription drugs. Novel proposals for clinical or preclinical testing of potential medications, as well as relevant animal model development and medicinal chemistry efforts are encouraged. This FOA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PAS-08-186, that encourages applications under the NIH Research Projects (R01) grant mechanism.

On July 25, 2008, NIDA issued a PA entitled Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research (R01) (PA-08-217). The purpose of this FOA is to encourage Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to advance the science of drug abuse and drug-related HIV prevention through 1) the development of novel prevention approaches, 2) the testing of novel and adapted prevention intervention approaches 3) the elucidation of processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions, and 4) the development of new methodologies suitable for the design and analysis of prevention research studies. Programs of research are intended to provide pathways toward the discovery of population-level approaches for the prevention of drug abuse and dependence, drug-related problems (such as interpersonal violence, criminal involvement, and productivity loss), and drug related illness (such as comorbid drug and mental health problems or comorbid infections including HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C). This FOA will utilize the NIH Research Project Grant (R01) award mechanism and runs in parallel with FOAs of identical scientific scope, PA-08-218 and PA-08-219, that solicit applications under the Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21) and Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanisms, respectively.

On July 25, 2008, NIDA issued a PA entitled Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research (R21) (PA-08-218). The purpose of this FOA is to encourage Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to advance the science of drug abuse and drug-related HIV prevention through 1) the development of novel prevention approaches, 2) the testing of novel and adapted prevention intervention approaches 3) the elucidation of processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions, and 4) the development of new methodologies suitable for the design and analysis of prevention research studies. Programs of research are intended to provide pathways toward the discovery of population-level approaches for the prevention of drug abuse and dependence, drug-related problems (such as interpersonal violence, criminal involvement, and productivity loss), and drug related illness (such as comorbid drug and mental health problems or comorbid infections including HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C). This FOA will utilize the NIH Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21) award mechanism and runs in parallel with FOAs of identical scientific scope, PA-08-217 and PA-08-219, that solicit applications under the Research Project Grant (R01) and Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanisms, respectively.

On July 25, 2008, NIDA issued a PA entitled Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research (R03) (PA-08-219). The purpose of this FOA is to encourage pilot/feasibility R03 applications from institutions/organizations that propose to advance the science of drug abuse and drug-related HIV prevention through 1) the development of novel prevention approaches, 2) the testing of novel and adapted prevention intervention approaches 3) the elucidation of processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions, and 4) the development of new methodologies suitable for the design and analysis of prevention research studies. Programs of research are intended to provide pathways toward the discovery of population-level approaches for the prevention of drug abuse and dependence, drug-related problems (such as interpersonal violence, criminal involvement, and productivity loss), and drug related illness (such as comorbid drug and mental health problems or comorbid infections including HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C). This FOA will utilize the NIH Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanism award mechanism and runs in parallel with FOAs of identical scientific scope, PA-08-217 and PA-08-218, that solicit applications under the Research Project Grant (R01) and the Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21) award mechanisms, respectively. The R03 grant mechanism supports different types of projects including pilot and feasibility studies; secondary analysis of existing data; small, self-contained research projects; development of research methodology; and development of new research technology. The R03 is intended to support small research projects that can be carried out in a short period of time with limited resources.

On April 23, 2008, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Medications Development for Cannabis Related Disorders (R01) (RFA-DA-09-001). This FOA encourages research studies that focus on the identification, and preclinical and clinical evaluation of medications that can be safe and effective for the treatment of cannabis-use and -induced disorders, as well as their medical and psychiatric consequences. The studies can be preclinical or FDA-defined Phase I, Phase II or Phase III clinical trials.

On June 12, 2008, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Pilot Clinical Trials of Pharmacotherapies for Substance Related Disorders (R01) (RFA-DA-09-005). The purpose of this FOA is to support pilot clinical studies of medications for investigation as possible treatments for Substance Related Disorders (SRDs). Because the purpose of this FOA is to support pilot studies, preliminary studies are not required. This FOA does not support clinical studies of nicotine or alcohol related disorders, except as comorbid disorders with other SRDs. NIDA expects to receive grant applications for clinical research on medications for which some theoretical or limited preclinical or clinical information exists for investigation as possible treatments of individual SRDs, combinations of them (i.e., cocaine and alcohol use, cocaine and cannabis use) or comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, but which are not ready to be tested in a large and expensive randomized clinical trial. This FOA will not accept proposals that involve preclinical studies. NIDA will not accept applications testing medications that have already demonstrated safety and efficacy for the target disorder. Therefore, there must be a strong rationale for the medications proposed for testing, but no preclinical or clinical data are required or expected. This FOA will utilize the National Institutes of Health (NIH) research project grant (R01) granting mechanism.

On June 24, 2008, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies 2 (CJ-DATS 2) (U01) (RFA-DA-09-006). Through this FOA, NIDA invites cooperative agreement applications to participate as Research Centers in the second phase of the national Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS 2). The goal of this cooperative research program is to develop and test systems-level models that integrate public health and public safety approaches for criminal justice-involved adults and adolescents with drug abuse and addictive disorders. Additional funds are being sought from other sources. This FOA will utilize the NIH Cooperative Research Project Grant (U01) award.

Other Program Activities

On May 9, 2008 NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH components issued a PA entitled Collaborative HIV/AIDS Studies in the Middle East and North Africa (R21) (PAR-08-153). The aim of this FOA is to invite applications for collaborations for exploratory and developmental work on HIV/AIDS in the low and middle income countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), as defined by the World Bank: Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Syria, Tunisia, West Bank and Gaza, and Yemen. Specific areas of research include, but aren't limited to, epidemiologic studies, prevention research from both biomedical and social/behavioral perspectives, studies of social factors affecting the spread of HIV in the region, and research on women and youth. Collaborations must involve U.S. investigators from a partnering U.S. organization and one or more research teams in the MENA region. The collaborative effort supported through the R21 should help foster the development of HIV-relevant research infrastructure and expertise in the region and have the potential to lead to further research and improvements in public health. This FOA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) award mechanism.

On June 6, 2008, NIDA and NIAAA issued a PA entitled Economics of Treatment and Prevention Services for Drug & Alcohol Abuse (R03) (PA-08-172). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages Research Project Grant (R03) applications on the economics of prevention and treatment services for drug and alcohol abuse. Such research projects might emphasize any of the following subjects: (1) financing and purchasing of drug and alcohol treatment and prevention services, including studies of health insurance and payment mechanisms; (2) economic incentives used to improve the quality and economic efficiency of treatment and prevention services (3) alternative delivery systems and managed care; (4) cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analyses; (5) service costs, production, and economic efficiency; and (6) research to develop or improve methods to be used in the economic study of drug and alcohol services The R03 grant mechanism supports different types of projects including pilot and feasibility studies; secondary analysis of existing data; small, self-contained research projects; development of research methodology; and development of new research technology. The R03 is intended to support small research projects that can be carried out in a short period of time with limited resources. This FOA will utilize the NIH Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanism and runs in parallel with FOAs of identical scientific scope, PA-08-174, that encourages applications under the R01 mechanism and PA-08-173 that encourages applications under the R21 mechanism.

On June 6, 2008, NIDA and NIAAA issued a PA entitled Economics of Treatment and Prevention Services for Drug & Alcohol Abuse (R21) (PA-08-173). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) encourages Research Project Grant (R21) applications on the economics of prevention and treatment services for drug and alcohol abuse. Such research projects might emphasize any of the following subjects: (1) financing and purchasing of drug and alcohol treatment and prevention services, including studies of health insurance and payment mechanisms; (2) economic incentives used to improve the quality and economic efficiency of treatment and prevention services (3) alternative delivery systems and managed care; (4) cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analyses; (5) service costs, production, and economic efficiency; and (6) research to develop or improve methods to be used in the economic study of drug and alcohol services. This FOA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-08-174, that encourages applications under the R01 mechanisms and PA-08-172 which encourages applications under the R03 mechanism.

On June 6, 2008, NIDA and NIAAA issued a PA entitled Economics of Treatment and Prevention Services for Drug & Alcohol Abuse (R01) (PA-08-174). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages Research Project Grant (R01) applications on the economics of prevention and treatment services for drug and alcohol abuse. Such research projects might emphasize any of the following subjects: (1) financing and purchasing of drug and alcohol treatment and prevention services, including studies of health insurance and payment mechanisms; (2) economic incentives used to improve the quality and economic efficiency of treatment and prevention services (3) alternative delivery systems and managed care; (4) cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analyses; (5) service costs, production, and economic efficiency; and (6) research to develop or improve methods to be used in the economic study of drug and alcohol services. This FOA will utilize the Research Project Grant (R01) grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-08-173, which encourages applications under the R21 mechanism and PA-08-172 which encourages applications under the R03 mechanism.

On June 24, 2008, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Exploratory Collaborations with National Centers for Biomedical Computing (R21) (PAR-08-183). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is for projects from individual-investigators or small groups to collaborate with the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBCs). The intention of the collaborating projects is to engage researchers across the nation in building an excellent biomedical computing environment, using the computational tools and biological and behavioral application drivers of the funded NCBCs as foundation stones. This FOA is intended to support exploratory biomedical informatics and computational biology research--applications should be innovative, with high risk/high impact in new areas that are lacking preliminary data or development. Applications for R21 awards should describe projects distinct from those supported through the traditional R01 mechanism. For example, long-term projects, or projects designed to increase knowledge in a well-established area will not be considered for R21 awards. This FOA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PAR-08-184, that solicits applications under the R01 mechanism.

On June 24, 2008, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Collaborations with National Centers for Biomedical Computing (R01) (PAR-08-184). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is for projects from individual-investigators or small groups to collaborate with the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBCs). For a description of the NCBCs see http://www.bisti.nih.gov/ncbc/. The intention of the collaborating projects is to engage researchers across the nation in building an excellent biomedical computing environment, using the computational tools and biological and behavioral application drivers of the funded NCBCs as foundation stones. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) will utilize the R01 grant mechanism and runs in parallel with an FOA of identical scientific scope, PAR-08-183 that solicits applications under the R21 mechanism, and which solicits innovative, high risk/high impact new areas that are lacking preliminary data or development.

On June 30, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Integrating Biobehavioral and Sociocultural Research to Prevent HIV Transmission and Infection (R01) (PA-08-188). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) solicits Research Project (R01) grant applications from applicant organizations to develop theoretically grounded approaches to prevention of HIV infection and transmission that incorporate biobehavioral approaches in studies that are culturally appropriate. Biobehavioral approaches may be biomedical, or they may consist of behavioral interventions using biological markers of efficacy. Sociocultural appropriateness involves, at minimum, application of knowledge of the norms, beliefs and values of potential research subjects in varied contexts, and an appreciation of culture as dynamic. It is anticipated that such knowledge will improve both the quality and applicability of research among the diverse populations affected by the pandemic, in the US or abroad. Intervention and pre-intervention studies are welcomed, but descriptive ethnographic and epidemiological research is still needed in some areas. For example, descriptive research may delineate the impact of cultural variables on behaviors that impede or promote biological markers (e.g., seroconversion), lead to a better understanding of ethical concerns in biomedical preventive studies, or may illuminate as yet unrecognized issues concerned with adherence to a prevention interventions. Intervention studies should evaluate the efficacy of biomedical interventions, or of behavioral interventions that also use biological variables, in light of the sociocultural context. This FOA will utilize the R01 grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-08-189, that encourages applications under the R21 mechanism.

On June 30, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Integrating Biobehavioral and Sociocultural Research to Prevent HIV Transmission and Infection (R21) (PA-08-189). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) solicits Research Project (R21) grant applications from applicant organizations to develop theoretically grounded approaches to prevention of HIV infection and transmission that incorporate biobehavioral approaches in studies that are culturally appropriate. Biobehavioral approaches may be biomedical, or they may consist of behavioral interventions using biological markers of efficacy. Sociocultural appropriateness involves, at minimum, application of knowledge of the norms, beliefs and values of potential research subjects in varied contexts, and an appreciation of culture as dynamic. It is anticipated that such knowledge will improve both the quality and applicability of research among the diverse populations affected by the pandemic, in the US or abroad. Intervention and pre-intervention studies are welcomed, but descriptive ethnographic and epidemiological research is still needed in some areas. For example, descriptive research may delineate the impact of cultural variables on behaviors that impede or promote biological markers (e.g., seroconversion), lead to a better understanding of ethical concerns in biomedical preventive studies, or may illuminate as yet unrecognized issues concerned with adherence to prevention interventions. Intervention studies should evaluate the efficacy of biomedical interventions, or of behavioral interventions that also use biological variables, in light of the sociocultural context. This FOA will utilize the R21 grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-08-188 that encourages applications under the R01 mechanism.

On July 2, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components issued a PA entitled Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research (PA-08-190). The NIH recognizes a unique and compelling need to promote diversity in the biomedical, behavioral, clinical and social sciences research workforce. The NIH expects efforts to diversify the workforce to lead to the recruitment of the most talented researchers from all groups; to improve the quality of the educational and training environment; to balance and broaden the perspective in setting research priorities; to improve the ability to recruit subjects from diverse backgrounds into clinical research protocols; and to improve the Nation's capacity to address and eliminate health disparities. Through this FOA individuals may submit (an) application(s) if they are the Principal Investigator, at a domestic institution, who holds an active R00, R01 (or RL1), R10, R18, R22, R24, R35, R37, R43, R44, R41, R42, DP1, DP2, P01 (or PL1), P20, P30, P40, P41, P50, P51, P60, U01 (or UL1), U10, U19, U41, U42, U54. Because policies may vary among awarding components regarding eligibility of Small Grant Awards (R03), Academic Research Enhancement Awards (R15), Support of Continuous Research Excellence (SC1, SC2, SC3), or Exploratory/Developmental Grants (R21) for supplements under this program, grantees holding those awards must check with the appropriate awarding component before submitting an application for a supplement.

On July 15, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components issued a PA entitled Technological Innovations for Interdisciplinary Research Incorporating the Behavioral and Social Sciences (STTR [R41/R42]) (PAR-08-201). The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to solicit Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant applications from small business concerns (SBCs) for development of new, innovative technologies for research integrating human social and/or behavioral science with other disciplines. This FOA will utilize the STTR (R41/R42) grant mechanisms for Phase I, Phase II, and Fast-Track applications and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PAR-08-202 that encourages applications under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) (R43/R44) grant mechanisms.

On July 15, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components issued a PA entitled Technological Innovations for Interdisciplinary Research Incorporating the Behavioral and Social Sciences (SBIR [R43/R44]) (PAR-08-202). The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to solicit Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications from small business concerns (SBCs) for development of new, innovative technologies for research integrating human social and/or behavioral science with other disciplines. This FOA will utilize the SBIR (R43/R44) grant mechanisms for Phase I, Phase II, and Fast-Track applications and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PAR-08-201, which solicits applications under the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) (R41/R42) grant mechanisms.

On July 22, 2008, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components issued a PA entitled Methodology and Measurement in the Behavioral and Social Sciences (R01) (PAR-08-212). The goal of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage research that will improve the quality and scientific power of data collected in the behavioral and social sciences, relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers. The participating NIH Institutes and Centers invite qualified researchers to submit research grant applications aimed at improving and developing methodology and measurement in the behavioral and social sciences through innovations in research design, data collection techniques, measurement, and data analysis techniques. Research that addresses methodology and measurement issues in diverse populations, issues in studying sensitive behaviors, issues of ethics in research, issues related to confidential data and the protection of research subjects, and issues in developing interdisciplinary, multimethod, and multilevel approaches to behavioral and social science research is particularly encouraged, as are approaches that integrate behavioral and social science research with biological, physical, or computational science research or engineering. This FOA will utilize the NIH Research Project Grant (R01) mechanism and runs in parallel with PAR-08-213 and PAR-08-214 which solicit applications under the Exploratory/Developmental (R21) and Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanisms, respectively.

On July 22, 2008, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components issued a PA entitled Methodology and Measurement in the Behavioral and Social Sciences (R21) (PAR-08-213). The goal of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage research that will improve the quality and scientific power of data collected in the behavioral and social sciences, relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers. The participating NIH Institutes and Centers invite qualified researchers to submit research grant applications aimed at improving and developing methodology and measurement in the behavioral and social sciences through innovations in research design, data collection techniques, measurement, and data analysis techniques. Research that addresses methodology and measurement issues in diverse populations, issues in studying sensitive behaviors, issues of ethics in research, issues related to confidential data and the protection of research subjects, and issues in developing interdisciplinary, multimethod, and multilevel approaches to behavioral and social science research is particularly encouraged, as are approaches that integrate behavioral and social science research with biological, physical, or computational science research or engineering. This FOA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant mechanism and runs in parallel with PAR-08-212 and PAR-08-214, which solicit applications under the NIH Research Project Grant (R01) and Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanisms, respectively.

On July 22, 2008, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components issued a PA entitled Methodology and Measurement in the Behavioral and Social Sciences (R03) (PAR-08-214). The goal of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage research that will improve the quality and scientific power of data collected in the behavioral and social sciences, relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers. The participating NIH Institutes and Centers invite qualified researchers to submit research grant applications aimed at improving and developing methodology and measurement in the behavioral and social sciences through innovations in research design, data collection techniques, measurement, and data analysis techniques. Research that addresses methodology and measurement issues in diverse populations, issues in studying sensitive behaviors, issues of ethics in research, issues related to confidential data and the protection of research subjects, and issues in developing interdisciplinary, multimethod, and multilevel approaches to behavioral and social science research is particularly encouraged, as are approaches that integrate behavioral and social science research with biological, physical, or computational science research or engineering. The R03 grant mechanism supports different types of projects including pilot and feasibility studies; secondary analysis of existing data; small, self-contained research projects; development of research methodology; and development of new research technology. The R03 is intended to support small research projects that can be carried out in a short period of time with limited resources. This FOA will utilize the NIH Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanism and runs in parallel with PAR-08-213 and PAR-08-212, which solicit applications under the Exploratory/Developmental (R21) and NIH Research Project Grant (R01) award mechanisms, respectively.

On August 1, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Research Training Grants (T32) (PA-08-226). NIH will award Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Research Training Grants (T32) to eligible institutions as the primary means of supporting predoctoral and postdoctoral research training to help ensure that a diverse and highly trained workforce is available to assume leadership roles related to the Nation's biomedical, behavioral and clinical research agenda. The primary objective of the T32 program is to prepare qualified individuals for careers that have a significant impact on the health-related research needs of the Nation. This program supports predoctoral, postdoctoral and short term research training programs at domestic institutions of higher education with the T32 funding mechanism. Note that programs solely for short-term research training should not apply to this announcement, but rather the separate (T35) NRSA Short-Term Institutional program exclusively reserved for short-term programs (see PA-08-227). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) will utilize the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Research Training Grants (T32).

On August 1, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Short-Term Institutional Research Training Grants (T35) (PA-08-227). The NIH will award Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Short-Term Institutional Research Training Grants (T35) to eligible institutions to develop or enhance research training opportunities for individuals interested in careers in biomedical, behavioral and clinical research. Many of the NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) use this grant mechanism exclusively to support intensive, short-term research training experiences for students in health professional schools during the summer. In addition, the Short-Term Institutional Research Training Grant may be used to support other types of predoctoral and postdoctoral training in focused, often emerging scientific areas relevant to the mission of the funding IC. The proposed training must be in either basic, behavioral or clinical research aspects of the health-related sciences. This program is intended to encourage graduate and/or health professional students to pursue research careers by exposure to and short-term involvement in the health-related sciences. The training should be of sufficient depth to enable the trainees, upon completion of the program, to have a thorough exposure to the principles underlying the conduct of research. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) will utilize the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Short-Term Institutional Research Training Grants (T35).

On July 31, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Fogarty International Research Collaboration - Basic Biomedical (FIRCA-BB) Research Award (R03) (PAR-08-222). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) facilitates collaborative basic biomedical research between scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and investigators in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC). All non-AIDS-related biomedical research topics that are supported by the NIH, including basic, clinical, and applied research that does not involve behavioral or social science topics and techniques, are eligible for inclusion under the FIRCA-BB program. For behavioral and social science (BSS) research, see the companion Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), the "Fogarty International Research Collaboration - Behavioral and Social Sciences (FIRCA-BSS) Research Award" program, (PAR-08-223). Special consideration will be given to proposed research that addresses significant global health problems, particularly those of high relevance to an LMIC country or region.

On July 31, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Fogarty International Research Collaboration - Behavioral and Social Sciences (FIRCA-BSS) Research Award (R03) (PAR-08-223). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) facilitates collaborative behavioral and social sciences research between scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and investigators in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). For basic biomedical research, see the companion Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), "Fogarty International Research Collaboration - Basic Biomedical Sciences (FIRCA-BB) Research Award (PAR-08-222)". Special consideration will be given to proposed research that addresses significant global health problems, particularly those of high relevance to an LMIC country or region.

On August 1, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Using Systems Science Methodologies to Protect and Improve Population Health (R21) (PAR-08-224). This FOA solicits Exploratory/Developmental (R21) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to apply one or more specific system science methodologies (identified in Section I.1 - "Background", of this announcement) to public health and health care systems problems and contribute knowledge that will enhance effective decision making around the development of and prioritization of policies, interventions, and programs to improve population health, especially where resources are limited and only a limited number of programs/policies/interventions can be implemented. Applicants are encouraged to submit projects that tackle "policy resistant" health problems (i.e., ones in which the effects of planned interventions, programs or policies tend to be delayed, diluted or defeated by responses of the system to the intervention itself) using a systems science methodology. This FOA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant mechanism.

On August 15, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Reducing Risk Behaviors by Promoting Positive Youth Development (R01) (PA-08-241). This purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to encourage Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to enhance our understanding of effective positive youth development programs and the mechanisms responsible for positive health and developmental outcomes. This will be accomplished through the development, implementation, and evaluation of new or improved positive youth development programs, the evaluation of existing "successful" programs, or the evaluation of effective, evidence-based, gender-inclusive programs that are adapted, translated, or disseminated for new populations of youth and adolescents. This FOA will utilize the Research Project Grant (R01) grant award mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-08-242, that encourages applications under the R03 mechanism.

On August 15, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Reducing Risk Behaviors by Promoting Positive Youth Development (R03) (PA-08-242). This purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to encourage Research Project Small (R03) Grant applications from institutions/organizations that propose to enhance our understanding of effective positive youth development programs and the mechanisms responsible for positive health and developmental outcomes. These studies may include the evaluation of particular components of new or existing youth development programs thought to be responsible for positive development; the examination of child and adolescent assets, behaviors, and development that influence positive youth trajectories; and the evaluation of family, community, or social assets and liabilities that contribute to or hamper youth development. Investigators and/or colleagues should have a strong knowledge of child development. The R03 grant mechanism supports a variety of projects including pilot and feasibility studies; secondary analysis of existing data; small, self-contained research projects; development of research methodology; and development of new research technology. The R03 small grant mechanism is intended to support small scale research projects that can be carried out in two years or less with limited resources. This FOA will utilize the Research Project Small (R03) Grant award mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of similar scientific scope, PA-08-241, that encourages applications under the R01 mechanism.

On August 14, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NIAAA issued a PA entitled National Cooperative Drug Discovery and Development Groups (NCDDDG) for the Treatment of Mental Disorders, Drug or Alcohol Addiction (U01/U19) (PAR-08-238). The purpose of the National Cooperative Drug Discovery and Development Group (NCDDDG) Program is to create multidisciplinary research groups or partnerships for the discovery of pharmacological agents to treat and to study mental illness, drug or alcohol addiction. The objectives of this program are to: accelerate innovative drug discovery; develop pharmacologic tools for basic and clinical research on mental disorders, or drug or alcohol addiction; develop and validate models for evaluating novel therapeutics for mental disorders; and support early phase human clinical testing to rapidly assess the safety and efficacy of promising drug candidates and new indications for IND-ready drugs for the treatment of mental disorders or alcohol addiction. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) invite applications to advance the discovery, preclinical development, and proof of concept testing of new, rationally based candidate medications to treat mental disorders or drug or alcohol addiction, and to develop novel ligands as tools to further characterize existing or to validate new drug targets. Partnerships between academia and industry are strongly encouraged. This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) will utilize the Cooperative Agreement (U01) and multi-project Cooperative Agreement (U19) grant mechanisms. In addition, this FOA runs in parallel with an FOA of similar scientific intent for small businesses, PA-08-142 and PA-06-028 using the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR [R43/R44]) and the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR [R41/R42]) grant mechanisms.

On June 18, NIDA, in conjunction with NCI, issued an RFA entitled Improving Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Interventions and Programs in Low Income Adult Populations (R01) (RFA-CA-08-022). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA), encourages research grant applications for projects designed to improve outcomes of smoking cessation in low income adult populations within the United States. Despite significant progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the United States, smoking continues to represent a major threat to public health. In addition, decreases in smoking have not been consistent across the population and marked disparities exist with smoking prevalence continuing to remain high among low income adults. The long-term goal is to facilitate a significant reduction in smoking prevalence among low income adults, thereby reducing the excess disease burden of tobacco use within these groups and decreasing the prevalence of smoking in the United States as a whole. This FOA is intended to support human research only. This FOA will utilize the NIH research project R01 grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, RFA-CA-08-023, that solicits applications under the R21 exploratory grant mechanism.

On June 18, NIDA, in conjunction with NCI, issued an RFA entitled Improving Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Interventions and Programs in Low Income Adult Populations (R21) (RFA-CA-08-023). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA), encourages research grant applications for projects designed to improve outcomes of smoking cessation in low income adult populations within the United States. Despite significant progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the United States, smoking continues to represent a major threat to public health. In addition, decreases in smoking have not been consistent across the population and marked disparities exist with smoking prevalence continuing to remain high among low-income adults. The long-term goal is to facilitate a significant reduction in smoking prevalence among low-income adults, thereby reducing the excess disease burden of tobacco use within these groups and decreasing the prevalence of smoking in the United States as a whole. This FOA is intended to support human research only. This FOA will utilize the R21 grant mechanism and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, RFA-CA-08-022, that solicits applications under the R01 grant mechanism.

On July 16, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Implementation Planning Grants for Educational, Behavioral, or Social Studies for Translation of Genetic Factors in Common Diseases (U34) (RFA-DK-08-003). Through this FOA, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) on behalf of the NIH Genes, Environment and Health Initiative solicits Implementation Planning Grant (U34) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to plan for multicenter research on a) educational and communication initiatives for health care providers and consumers regarding interpretation of and findings from genetic studies of common diseases and the results of their dissemination and b) behavioral or psychosocial aspects of clinical application of genetic findings. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: research on patient or provider education regarding genetic findings or clinical outcomes of genetic testing; research on patient or provider perceptions of environmental or other risk factors that may have specific interactions with gene variants; and assessments of responses to use of personal genetic information in clinical care and disease prevention. The proposed research must focus on using findings from genetic studies of common diseases with complex genetic etiology in clinical settings. This FOA will support planning and preliminary or feasibility studies for investigator-initiated, multi-center clinical studies through an implementation planning (U34) grant. The U34 planning grant is designed to: (1) permit early peer review of the rationale for the proposed clinical study; (2) permit assessment of the design/protocol of the proposed study; (3) provide support for the development of a complete study protocol and associated documents including a manual of operations, (4) support the development of other essential elements required for the conduct of a clinical study, and (5) carry out key preliminary or feasibility studies. Completion of the required products of a U34 grant is a prerequisite for submission of a multi-center clinical study cooperative agreement (U01) application, which will support the actual conduct of the study. This FOA will utilize the U34 grant mechanism and runs in parallel with an FOA, RFA-DK-08-004, that solicits applications under the R21 mechanism.

On July 9, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components issued an RFA entitled Translation of Common Disease Genetics into Clinical Applications (R21) (RFA-DK-08-004). Through this FOA, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) on behalf of the NIH Genes, Environment and Health Initiative, solicits Exploratory/Developmental Clinical Research Grant (R21) applications from institutions/ organizations that propose a) clinical studies using information from genome wide association or other genetic studies in common diseases; b) development and assessment of diagnostic, clinical trial, epidemiologic and risk analytic tools for use in clinical research or practice; and c) cost-effectiveness studies of clinical applications of genetic information. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: development of diagnostic or other risk factor algorithms that incorporate genetic data; pilot interventional studies using findings from genetic studies of common diseases or outcomes related to genetic testing for variants identified in common diseases; pilot research on clinical modification of environmental factors known to interact with specific genes variants identified in common diseases; and cost effectiveness studies. The proposed research must focus on using findings from genetic studies of common diseases with complex genetic etiology in clinical or public health settings. Through a Exploratory/Developmental Clinical Research (R21) grant, this FOA will support efforts to produce data that may be useful or pivotal in eventually designing large scale clinical trials or studies. This FOA will utilize the R21 grant mechanism.

On August 15, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Exceptional, Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration (EUREKA) (R01) (RFA-GM-09-008). This FOA solicits Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/organizations proposing exceptionally innovative research on novel hypotheses or difficult problems, solutions to which would have an extremely high impact on biomedical or biobehavioral research that is germane to the mission of one or more of the participating NIH Institutes. This FOA is for support of new projects, not continuation of projects that have already been initiated. It does not support pilot projects, i.e., projects of limited scope that are designed primarily to generate data that will enable the PI to seek other funding opportunities. This FOA will utilize the NIH Research Project Grant (R01) award mechanism.

Other Program Activities

Clinical Trials Network (CTN) Update

SBIR: Four proposals were awarded under the NIH SBIR Contract Solicitation for "Development of Web-based Training on Addiction Medicine for Pain Management Providers" and "Development of Web-based Skills Training for Primary Care Physicians on Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral and Treatment of Substance Abuse."
A Phase II proposal was awarded under topic 089, "Development of Practical Training Materials for Evidence-Based Treatment."

Protocols: A total of 32 protocols have been initiated since 2001. Over 9,000 participants have enrolled in studies. Of these studies, 22 have completed data lock; one is in the follow-up phase; and three are currently enrolling. Six protocols are in the development phase.

Primary outcome papers are published and dissemination materials have been developed with CSAT's ATTC on the following:

Protocol CTN 0001, Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

Protocol CTN 0002, Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Outpatient Opiate Detoxification

Protocol CTN 0005, MI (Motivational Interviewing) To Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse

Protocol CTN 0006, Motivational Incentives for Enhanced Drug Abuse Recovery: Drug Free Clinics

Protocol CTN 0007, Motivational Incentives for Enhanced Drug Abuse Recovery: Methadone Clinics

Primary outcome papers are published or in press for:

Protocol CTN 0004, MET (Motivational Enhancement Treatment) To Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse

Protocol CTN 0008, A Baseline for Investigating Diffusion of Innovation

Protocol CTN 0009, Smoking Cessation Treatment with Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs

Protocol CTN 0011, A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure (TELE) to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities

Protocol CTN 0012, Characteristics of Screening, Evaluation, and Treatment of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C Viral Infection, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

Protocol CTN 0013, Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome In Pregnant Substance Abusers

Protocol CTN 0016, Patient Feedback: A Performance Improvement Study in Outpatient Addiction Treatment

Protocol CTN 0019, Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment

In addition, the primary outcome papers from the following protocols are under journal review:

Protocol CTN 0003, Bup/Nx: Comparison of Two Taper Schedules

Protocol CTN 0010, Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults

Protocol CTN 0015, Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Protocol CTN 0018, Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Men in Drug Abuse Treatment

Protocol CTN 0019, Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment

Protocol CTN 0021, Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse. This is the first Spanish-only protocol in the CTN

The following protocols have locked the data:

Protocol CTN 0014, Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers (BSFT)

Protocol CTN 0029, A Pilot Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) in Initiating and Maintaining Abstinence in Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

The following protocol has ended new enrollment and is in the follow-up phase:

Protocol CTN 0028, Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders (SUD).

Three protocols are currently enrolling:

Protocol CTN 0027, Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) is a randomized, open-label, multi-center study that was developed in collaboration with the Division of Pharmacotherapies & Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse (DPMCDA). Enrollment began in April 2006. As of June 30, 2008, there were 797 randomized participants. CCTN 0027A, START Pharmacogenetics: Exploratory Genetic Studies In Starting Treatment With Agonist Replacement Therapies. Nearly all subjects randomized into the main study are accepting enrollment in this ancillary genetics study.

Protocol CTN 0030, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) is a randomized 2-phase, open-label, multi-center study in outpatient treatment settings. Pre-screening began in May 2006. The study is being carried out in 9 sites. As of June 30, 2008, there were 540 randomized participants.

CTN 0030A, Collection of Economic Data for the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study. This ancillary study is conducted in collaboration and support with NIDA DESPR.

CTN 0030B, Effects of Chronic Opioids is conducted in collaboration and support with NIDA DCNBR to obtain anatomical MR scans in subjects with a history of opioid use to evaluate neural changes that may occur with such use and compare with age/gender healthy controls.

Protocol CTN 0031, Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12): Evaluation of a Combined Individual-Group Intervention to Reduce Stimulant and Other Drug Use by Increasing 12-Step Involvement. As of June 30, 2008, at the three Wave 1 sites, 52 participants have been randomized to either the STAGE-12 or the TAU condition. Staff from the Wave 2 sites was trained in Rockville, MD, August 6-8, 2008, and recruitment commenced in September 2008.

CTN 0031A, An Evaluation of Neurocognitive Function, Oxidative Damage, and Their Association with Treatment Outcomes in Methamphetamine and Cocaine Abusers. Potential participants are being recruited at six sites. As of July 9, 2008, 34 participants have been enrolled in this ancillary study.

CTN 0031B, The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Classifications of Alcohol Use Disorders: A Clinical Study. It investigates the utility of adding a frequency measure of alcohol consumption (i.e., the first three items of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT-C]), to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders. This study is funded by an MOU between NIDA and NIAAA. Data will be collected for this study throughout the life of the main STAGE-12 study.

CTN 0031C, Organizational and Practitioner Influences on Implementation of STAGE-12. The study assesses the influence of counselor and organizational variables on fidelity of the STAGE-12 intervention during the clinical trial, tests the impact of fidelity on clinical trial participant outcomes, and explores the influence of counselor and organizational variables on sustainability of the STAGE-12 intervention following completion of the clinical trial. This project is supported by supplemental funds from DESPR. Study staff has already collected the organizational and counselor level data from all ten STAGE-12 sites. The baseline data obtained in this research will form the foundation for an R01 grant application to be submitted to DESPR in 2008.

Six protocols are in the development phase:

Protocol CTN 0032, HIV Rapid Testing and Counseling in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs in the U.S. This study seeks to evaluate the most effective strategy to ensure that persons in drug treatment programs are tested for HIV and receive their HIV test results, and whether a simple prevention intervention might decrease their sexual risk behavior. The protocol seeks to enroll more than 1,200 participants across approximately twelve sites in the US. The twelve sites have been selected. The protocol has been submitted to the Western IRB for approval. The goal is to start enrolling patients by fall 2008.

CTN 0032A, Economic Analysis of HIV Rapid Testing in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs. This is an ancillary study to protocol CTN 0032, to conduct an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of on-site HIV testing in drug abuse treatment settings vs referral for off-site testing. The project is in collaboration with NIDA's DESPR.

Protocol CTN 0033, Methamphetamine Use among American Indians. The first area of research emphasis in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Strategic Plan on Reducing Health Disparities (2004 Revision) is the epidemiology of drug abuse, health consequences and infectious diseases among minority populations. The study is a collaboration among four Nodes: Pacific NW, Southwest, Oregon/Hawaii, and Ohio Valley. Investigators plan to start data collection in the fall.

Protocol CTN 0034, Developing Research Capacity and Culturally Appropriate Research Methods: Community-based Participatory Research Manual for Collaborative Research in Drug Abuse for American Indians and Alaska Natives. This study is in collaboration with the NIH National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities and will be conducted in the Pacific Northwest Node.

Protocol CTN 0035, Access to HIV and Hepatitis Screening and Care among Ethnic Minority Drug Users In and Out of Drug Treatment. This study is in collaboration with the NIH National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities and will be conducted in the CA-AZ Node.

Protocol CTN 0036, Epidemiology and Ethnographic Survey of "Cheese" Heroin Use among Hispanics in Dallas County. This study is in collaboration with the NIH National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities and will be conducted in the Texas Node.

Protocol CTN 0037, Exercise as a Treatment for Substance Use Disorders. This clinical trial, which is in the protocol development phase, will test the effectiveness of the addition of exercise in improving drug abuse treatment outcomes.

In addition to the primary CTN trials, there are currently three secondary analyses that combine analysis across several of the completed trials:

  1. Gender Differences in the Prevalence and Predictors of HIV Risk Behaviors, PI: Audrey Brooks (CA/AZ Node);
  2. Pattern of alcohol use and alcohol-related diagnoses among drug abusing/dependent participants, PIs: Dennis Donovan and Bryan Hartzler (Pacific Northwest Node);
  3. The relationships between demographic characteristics of patients and therapists, measures of therapeutic process and therapeutic alliance, and outcomes, PIs: Alyssa Forcehimes (Southwest Node) and Kathleen Burlew (Ohio Valley Node).

There are also 37 funded studies supported by independent grants that use CTN studies as a platform for research, and 21 completed, ongoing, or planned studies funded as supplements to the clinical trials.

Cecelia Spitznas of DCNBR/BITB and Thomas Brady of DESPR in conjunction with NIDA's Office of Science Policy and Communication are developing A Clinician's Guide to Screening and Brief Intervention and Referral (SBIRT) for Adults in Primary Care. This document will be available over the NIDA website and its purpose is to serve as a resource for providers interested in initiating substance use screening, intervention and referral programs.

Drs. Lisa Onken, DCNBR, and Minda Lynch, DBNBR, have continued to provide input for NIDA on the Roadmap initiative, "Understanding and Incenting Behavior Change." This initiative will be part of a broader transformative R01 program designed to "stimulate disruption of existing paradigms or creation of paradigms where none exists. The Transformative R01 Program (T-R01s) will allow highly creative, "out-of-the-box" projects to be supported." (see http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/)




NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since May 2008

Arria, Amelia M. -- University of Maryland, College Park
Drug Abuse Trajectories in the Transition to Adulthood: Risk Factors and Outcomes

Ator, Nancy A. -- Johns Hopkins University
The Reinforcing and Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Orally Administered MDMA

Barbee, Scott Alan -- University of Denver
P-Body and Mirna-Mediated Regulation of Neuroplasticity

Bechara, Antoine -- University of Southern California
Changes in Addictive Behaviors after Brain Lesions

Becker, James T. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Cerebral Blood Flow in HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse Detected by CASL MRI

Berman, Joan W. -- Yeshiva University
Dopamine Alters CNS Migration of Uninfected and HIV Infected Leukocytes to SDF-1

Bevins, Rick A. -- University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Altering Nicotine Reward through Conditioning

Bickel, Warren K. -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock
Executive Function Therapy for Stimulant Addiction

Bogen, Debra L. -- Children's Hospital Pittsburgh/UPMC Health System
Methadone Maintenance Therapy: A Breastfeeding Intervention for Pregnant Women

Bolanos-Guzman, Carlos A. -- Florida State University
Ontogeny of Physical versus Emotional Stress and Reward Pathways

Bongiovanni, Michele Bongiovanni -- Medical University of South Carolina
Sex Differences in the Effects of Stress on Cocaine Seeking

Booth, Robert E. -- University of Colorado, Denver
Structural Barriers to HIV Prevention and Treatment with IDUS in Ukraine

Brady, Kathleen T. -- Medical University of South Carolina
D-Cycloserine Facilitation of Cocaine-Cue Extinction

Brown, Sandra A. -- University of California, San Diego
Genetics of Adolescent Antisocial Drug Dependence

Bulte, Jeff W. -- Johns Hopkins University
Developing MPI for Non-Invasive and Quantitative Imaging of Stem Cells

Capaldi, Deborah M. -- Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
Adjustment Problems and Substance Use in Three Generations

Carr, Kenneth D. -- New York University School of Medicine
CNS Mechanisms That Modulate Reward

Cheer, Joseph Francois Rene -- University of Maryland, Baltimore
Cannabinoid Receptor Mechanisms in Accumbal Encoding of Extinction Learning

Chen, Li Min -- Vanderbilt University
High Resolution fMRI of Nociception in Sii of Monkeys

Chen, Yuan -- City of Hope/Beckman Research Institute
A High Throughput Screening Assay for the Identification of Sumoylation Inhibitor

Chinman, Matthew J. -- Rand Corporation
Enhancing Prevention Capacity with Developmental Assets and Getting to Outcomes

Clark, David J. -- Stanford University
Opioid Efficacy in Humans: A Twin Study

Clatts, Michael C. -- University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences
Diffusion of HIV among Drug Using Men in SE Asia

Conner, Bradley T. -- University of California, Los Angeles
The Effect of Treatment Motivation on Drug Use Treatment Success

Cooper, Donald C. -- University of Texas SW Medical Center/Dallas
Pathway Specific Ecstasy-Induced Plasticity of Excitability in the Subiculum

Cravatt, Benjamin F. -- Scripps Research Institute
Toward a Potent and Selective Inhibitor for Every Mammalian Serine Hydrolase

Daughters, Stacey B. -- University of Maryland, College Park
Behavioral Depression Treatment for African American HIV-Infected Substance Users

Davidson, Beverly L. -- University of Iowa
MIRNA-Mediated Modulation of Neural Progenitor Cell Fate

De Bellis, Michael D. -- Duke University
Prefrontal Function in Adolescent Limited vs. Life Course Persistent SUD

De La Garza, Richard -- Baylor College of Medicine
Rivastigmine as a Treatment for Methamphetamine Dependence

Delaney-Black, Virginia -- Wayne State University
Teens at Risk: Prenatal Cocaine and Postnatal Challenges

Des Jarlais, Don C. -- Beth Israel Medical Center
HIV Infection in Ethnic Minority IDUS: An International Systematic Review

Diaz, Rodolfo E. -- Arizona State University-Tempe Campus
Feasibility Demonstration of an Artificial Electrocyte for Neuronal Observation

Dishion, Thomas J. -- University of Oregon
Understanding and Preventing Childhood Drug Use Risk

Donny, Eric C. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Effects of Self-Administered Versus Noncotigent Nicotine

Edlin, Brian R. -- SUNY Downstate Medical Center
HCV Transmission among Young IDUS in NYC

El-Bassel, Nabila -- Columbia University New York, Morningside
Couples-Based HIV/STI Prevention for Injecting Drug Users in Kazakhstan

Eskandar, Emad N. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Striatal Deep Brain Stimulation for Learning Enhancement

Ettenberg, Aaron -- University of California, Santa Barbara
Mechanism of Opiate and Stimulant Drug Reinforcement

Evins, A. Eden -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Memory Reconsolidation Blockade as a Novel Intervention for Nicotine Dependence

Fairbanks, Carolyn A. -- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Gene Therapy for Pain

Flaumenhaft, Robert C. -- Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Chemical Genetic Analysis of Platelet Granule Secretion

France, Charles P. -- University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio
Delay Discounting and FMRI in Rhesus Monkeys

Friedland, Gerald H. -- Yale University
Drug Interactions in Substance Abusers with HIV Infection

Friedmann, Peter D. -- Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (2/6) Rhode Island Protocol Treatment Site

Frisman, Linda K. -- University of Connecticut Storrs
CT CJ-DATS Center

Gee, James C. -- University of Pennsylvania
Advanced Neuroimages Registration Methods: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

Gelberg, Lillian -- University of California Los Angeles
Preventing Drug Use in Low Income Clinic Populations

Genberg, Becky Lynn -- Johns Hopkins University
Long Term Injection Cessation among Injection Drug Users (IDUS)

Gibb, James W. -- University of Utah
Differential Effects of Methamphetamine and Cocaine

Goldstein, Rita Z. -- Brookhaven Science Association-Brookhaven Lab
The Prefrontal Cortex in Salience and Control in Cocaine Addiction: PhfMRI Study

Grabowski, John -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Extended-Release Mixed Amphetamine Salts for Adults ADHD and Cocaine Dependence

Gray, Mary O. -- University of California San Francisco
Cigarette Smoke and Alcohol-Induced Heart Injury

Greene, Anthony J. -- University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
The Role of the Hippocampus in Implicit Context: An fMRI Analysis

Greenfield, Shelly F. -- McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Recovery Group for Women with Substance Use Disorders

Gu, Howard H. -- Ohio State University
Harnessing Somatic Hypermutation for Drug Addiction Research

Guo, Su -- University of California, San Francisco
Chemical Genetics to Elucidate the Development of Dopaminergic Neurons

Haney, Margaret -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Modafinil and DRD4 Genotype in a Human Laboratory Model of Cocaine Relapse

Harding, Heather P. -- New York University School of Medicine
Screen for Inhibitors of 2 Phosphotransferase

Hawkins, J. David -- University of Washington
The Community Youth Development Study: A Test of Communities That Care

He, Johnny J. -- Indiana University-Purdue, University at Indianapolis
Drug Abuse and Neuroaids in China

Heil, Sarah H. -- University of Vermont and State Agricultural College
Characterizing Nicotine Withdrawal in Pregnant Smokers

Hewitt, John K. -- University of Colorado at Boulder
Genetics of Adolescent Antisocial Drug Dependence

Hill, Karl G. -- University of Washington
Linking Parent Drug Use and Child Development across Three Generations

Hopfer, Christian J. -- University of Colorado Denver
Genetics of Adolescent Antisocial Drug Dependence

Horti, Andrew G. -- Johns Hopkins University
Development of Radioligands with Improved Brain Kinetics for Imaging nAChR by PET

Hoven, Christina W. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Paternal Criminal Justice Involvement and Substance Use in Children and Adolescents

Hser, Yih-Ing -- University of California, Los Angeles
Improving Methadone Maintenance Treatment Compliance and Outcomes in China

Husbands, Stephen M. -- University of Bath
Derivatives of Naltrexone as Opioid Pharmacotherapies

Ingram Osborn, Susan L. -- Washington State University
Dendritic Dat Activity Monitored with Fluorescent Biosensors

Johns, Josephine M. -- University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Neurobiological and Behavioral Consequences of Cocaine Use in Mother/Infant Dyads

Kampman, Kyle M. -- University of Pennsylvania
Multisite Controlled Trial of Cocaine Vaccine (4 of 6) Philadelphia Treatment Site

Katz, David A. -- University of Iowa
The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Guidelines in the Emergency Department

Kelly, Anne Marie Clare -- New York University School of Medicine
Functional and Structural Connectivity in Cocaine Addiction

Kertesz, Stefan G. -- University of Alabama at Birmingham
Midlife Health and Service Utilization Associated with Early Life Drug Use

Kharasch, Evan D. -- Washington University
Addiction Therapy: Metabolism and Transport-Mediated Drug Interactions

Kidorf, Michael S. -- Johns Hopkins University
Community-Based Intervention at Needle Exchange Sites

Kilts, Clinton D. -- Emory University
The Clinical and Neural Response of Cocaine Addicts to Combination Treatment

Kinlock, Timothy W. -- Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (5/6) Baltimore Protocol Treatment Site

Kitamoto, Toshihiro -- University of Iowa
Significance of Microrna-Mediated Gene Regulation in Chronic Neuropathic Pain

Knight, Kevin -- Texas Christian University
Implementing and Sustaining Innovations in CJ-DATS 2

Krystal, John H. -- Yale University
The Interactive Impact of Cocaine and Schizophrenia on Prefrontal Function

Kuhn, Cynthia M. -- Duke University
Gender Differences in Stimulant Action

Lal, Ratneshwar -- University of Chicago
Designing an Integrated Nanoscale System for Ion Channel Structure - Function Study

Lee, Joshua D. -- New York University School of Medicine
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (3/6) NY/Bellevue Protocol Treatment Site

Leukefeld, Carl G. -- University of Kentucky
Central States Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Center

Levine, Andrew J. -- University of California, Los Angeles
The Impact of Host Genetics and Stimulant Use on Neurocognition in HIV+ Adults

Levine, Ross L. -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
High Throughput Screen for Jak2v617f Mutant Selective Inhibitors

Levitan, Edwin S. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Multiphoton Monoamine Imaging of Serotonin Neuron Function

Lewis, David A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Cannabis and Adolescent Brain Development

Lewis, Michael -- University of Medicine/Dental NJ-R. W. Johnson Medical School
Developmental Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

Li, Chiang-Shan Ray -- Yale University
Cognitive Control and Cocaine Dependence

Lindsley, Craig -- Vanderbilt University
Partial Antagonists of Mglur5 for Treatment of Cocaine Addiction

Lipovich, Leonard -- Wayne State University
Differential Expression and Regulatory Functions of Long Non-Coding RNA Molecules

Littman, Dan R. -- New York University School of Medicine
Screen for Small Molecule Compounds That Modulate the Transcriptional Activity

Liu, Hongjie -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Mediation Effect of Network Function on Transition to Injection Drug Use

Lou, Xiang-Yang -- University of Virginia Charlottesville
Detection of Multifactor Interactions with Application to Nicotine Dependence

Lounsbury, David William -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Dynamics Modeling as a Tool for Disseminating the Phs Tobacco Treatment Guideline

Madden, Pamela A. -- Washington University
The Genetics of Vulnerability to Nicotine Addictions

Magura, Stephe -- Western Michigan University
Efficacy of "Dual Focus" Mutual Aid for Persons with Co-Occurring Disorder

Makhina, Elena -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
High Throughput Screening for Potassium Channel Modulators

Makriyannis, Alexandros -- Northeastern University
Cannabinergic Ligands and Drugs

Malcolm, Robert J. -- Medical University of South Carolina
CHT and Modafinil for Cocaine Addiction

Markham, Richard B. -- Johns Hopkins University
Use of Clonal Genotyping to Predict Resistance Development in Art-Naive IDU

Martin, Billy R. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Investigation of THC Receptors

Martin, Eileen M. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Morphometric Studies of HIV and Drug Abuse: A Pilot Study

Martino, Steve -- Yale University
Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Supervision in Community Programs

Martins, Silvia Saboia -- Johns Hopkins University
Trends in Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use, Abuse-Dependence in Adolescence

McClernon, Francis Joseph -- Duke University
Neurobiology of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Components of Tobacco Addiction

McDonough, Patrick M. -- Vala Sciences, Inc.
A High Throughput Imaging Assay for Hepatic Lipid Droplet Formation

Mehta, Shruti H. -- Johns Hopkins University
Incidence of HIV Infection in a Cohort of IV Drug Users

Mello, Nancy K. -- McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Buprenorphine: A Behavioral Analysis

Metherate, Raju S. -- University of California, Irvine
Functions of Nicotine Receptors in Sensory Neocortex

Milburn, Norweeta Germaine -- University of California, Los Angeles
Recruiting, Engaging and Retaining Families for Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission

Mohseni, Pedram -- Case Western Reserve University
A Wireless Implanted Device for Brain Monitoring in Support of Addiction Research

Monterosso, John R. -- University of Southern California
Effect of Anticipated Delay on Neural Response to Signal of Future Reward

Moore, Claire L. -- Tufts University Boston
High Throughput Screening for Polyadenylation Inhibitors Using the MLSCN Library

Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A. -- Research Triangle Institute
Modeling the Impact of Group Membership Turnover in Ecologically-Valid Treatment

Nader, Michael A. -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Impact of In-Utero Cocaine Exposure on Vulnerability to Drug Abuse in Monkeys

Nelson, Kenrad E. -- Johns Hopkins University
Evaluation of the Control of HIV after A Prison Amnesty in Taiwan

Nestler, Eric J. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
Molecular Neurobiology of Drug Addiction

Newton, Thomas F. -- Baylor College of Medicine
An Ace Inhibitor as a Treatment for Methamphetamine Dependence

Niccolai, Linda M. -- Yale University
Potential for HIV Transmission in Relationships of Drug-Using Women in Russia

Nothacker, Hans-Peter -- University of California Irvine
High-Throughput Assay for G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Pain Research

Novins, Douglas K. -- University of Colorado, Denver
Evidence-Based Practices and Substance Abuse Treatment for Native Americans

O'Brien, Charles P. -- University of Pennsylvania
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (1/6) Philadelphia Coordination/Data Management Site

O'Donnell, Patricio -- University of Maryland, Baltimore
Animal Model of Dual Diagnosis

Olds, David L. -- University of Rochester
Age-17 Follow-Up of Home Visiting Intervention

Oswald, Lynn M. -- University of Maryland Baltimore
Imaging Research on Impulsivity, Stress and Drug Abuse

Page-Shafer, Kimberly -- University of California San Francisco
ATS Use and HIV among Young Female Sex and Entertainment Workers in Cambodia

Palmatier, Matthew I. -- Kansas State University
Nicotine Self-Administration: Tobacco Pharmacotherapies

Pan, Zhizhong Z. -- University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Delta-Opioid Receptor Trafficking and Pain Inhibition

Pentel, Paul R. -- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Immunization to Block the Effects of Nicotine

Petry, Nancy M. -- University of Connecticut School of Medicine/Dental
Healthy Activities for Prize Incentives (HAPI)

Picciotto, Marina R. -- Yale University
Galanin-Opiate Interactions

Pierce, Robert Christopher -- Boston University Medical Campus
D1 Dopamine Receptor Signaling and Cocaine Reinstatement

Pleasure, Samuel Jeremy -- University of California, San Francisco
Defective Forebrain Development in Mutant Mice

Price, Cynthia J. -- University of Washington
Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy for Women's Substance Abuse Treatment

Ramoni, Marco Francesco -- Brigham and Women's Hospital
Beyond Association: Predictive Modeling of Nicotine Dependence

Rathbun, Stephen L. -- University of Georgia
Probability-Sampling Framework for Modeling the Impact of Time-Varying Covariates

Rawls, Scott M. -- Temple University
Can Beta-Lactam Antibiotics Decrease Morphine Physical Dependence?

Reynolds, Brady A. -- Research Institute Nationwide Children's Hospital
Impulsive Behavior and Treatment Outcomes for Adolescent Smoking

Riggs, Paula D. -- University of Colorado, Denver
Bupropion for ADHD in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders

Roache, John D. -- University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio
Alprazolam Abuse Liability in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Rock, R. Bryan -- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Neuropathogenesis

Rogers, Thomas J. -- Temple University
Drugs of Abuse Affecting AIDS Pathogenesis

Rohsenow, Damaris J. -- Brown University
Varenicline and Motivational Advice for Smokers with SUD

Rohsenow, Damaris J. -- Brown University
Contingent Vouchers for Smoking in Substance Abusers as Adjunct to Nicotine Patch

Rotrosen, John P. -- New York University School of Medicine
Multisite Controlled Trial of Cocaine Vaccine (5 of 6) New York University Treatment

Roy-Byrne, Peter P. -- University of Washington
Brief Intervention in Primary Care for Problem Drug Use and Abuse

Saitz, Richard -- Boston Medical Center
Efficacy/Effectiveness of Unhealthy Drug Use Screening/Brief Intervention Models

Saladin, Michael E. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Treatment Implications of Beta-Blockade Effects on Memory for Cocaine Craving

Salama, Sofie Reda -- University of California, Santa Cruz
The Role of HARL Non-Coding RNA's in Cortical Development

Salvemini, Daniela -- Saint Louis University
Role of Peroxynitrite in Morphine Hyperalgesia and Tolerance

Sanna, Pietro P. -- Scripps Research Institute
CNS Effects of Cocaine: Epigenetic Gene Network Regulation

Schaefer, Anne -- Rockefeller University
The Role of MIRNAs in Cocaine Addiction

Schiller, Peter W. -- Clinical Research Institute of Montreal
Bifunctional Opioid Peptide Analgesics

Schratt, Gerhard -- University Hospital and Medical Faculty Heidelberg
Function of Microrna-Dependent Control of Protein Synthesis in Dendritic Spine Pl

Shane, Matthew -- The Mind Research Network
Error Detection and Error Awareness in Incarcerated Cocaine Dependent Individuals

Shaw, Daniel S. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Understanding and Preventing Childhood Drug Use Risk

Shi, Song-Hai -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Molecular Control of Progenitor Cell Polarity and Cortical Neurogenesis

Somoza, Eugene C. -- University of Cincinnati
Multisite Controlled Trial of Cocaine Vaccine (2 of 6) Cincinnati Treatment Site

Spirito, Anthony -- Brown University
Substance Use Prevention Program for Preadolescents with Psychiatric Disorders

Stacy, Alan W. -- University of Southern California
Dual Processes in HIV Risk Behavior in Drug Abusers

Staley, Julie K. -- Yale University
Nicotine Vaccine and Nicotine Occupancy of Brain Nicotinic Receptors

Steketee, Jeffery D. -- University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Cortical Mechanisms of Cocaine Sensitization

Strauman, Timothy J. -- Duke University
Project Aim: Preventing Illicit Substance Use Among Middle School Children

Sun, Hongmin -- University of Missouri-Columbia
High Throughput Screening for Small Compounds to Inhibit the Expression of Strept

Taffe, Michael A. -- Scripps Research Institute
Immunopharmacotherapy for Methamphetamine Addiction

Tanabe, Jody L. -- University of Colorado Denver
Frontal Striatal Activity during Decision Making in Substance Abuse

Tomasi, Dardo G. -- Brookhaven Science Association-Brookhaven Laboratory
Simultaneous PET/FMRI to Map Cocaine's Pharmacokinetic-Vascular Coupling

Turner, Charles W. -- Oregon Research Institute
Predictors of Change Profiles in Studies of Adolescent Substance Abusers

Vassileva, Jasmin L. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Varieties of Impulsivity in Opiate and Stimulant Users

Vassileva, Jasmin L. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Neurocognitive Impulsivity and HIV Risk Behaviors in Bulgarian Heroin Users

Wagner, Edward J. -- Western University of Health Sciences
Sex Differences in the Cannabinoid Regulation of Feeding

Wang, Ning -- National Center/AIDS/STD Control/Prevention
Drug Use and Other Risk Factors for HIV Infection in Female Sex Workers in China

Weiss, Friedbert -- Scripps Research Institute
Novel Methods to Explore Mechanisms of Cocaine Abuse

Wessling-Resnick, Marianne -- Harvard University School of Public Health
Cannabinoid Inhibition of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 Activity

Will, Matthew J. -- University of Missouri-Columbia
Central Opioids-Cannabinoid Interactions and Food Reward

Wilson, Melvin N. -- University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Understanding and Preventing Childhood Drug Use Risk

Winter, Jerrold C. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Behavioral and Pharmacological Analysis of Drugs of Abuse

Yanagihara, Angel Anne -- University of Hawaii at Manoa
TRPV Pharmacophores from Cnidaria Venom

Yang, Vincent W. -- Emory University
High Throughput Screen for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Colorectal Cancer Cell PR

Yi, Richard -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Little Rock
Future Probability and Past Discounting by Active Methamphetamine Users

Yin, Deling -- East Tennessee State University
Role of Opioids Signaling in Immune Suppression

Zenk, Meinhart H. -- Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Morphine in Mammals

Zhan, Chang-Guo -- University of Kentucky
High-Activity Mutants of Cocaine Esterase for Treatment of Drug Addiction

Zigman, Jeffrey M. -- University of Texas SW Medical Center/Dallas
Ghrelin and Reward


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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