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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2005



Publications

NIDA Publications

Progress Report: NIDA-Spain Cooperation
Dr. M. Patricia Needle, former IP Senior Adviser, has published an article about collaborative drug abuse research supported by NIDA and the Spanish National Plan on Drugs (PNSD). The article appeared in the January 2005 issue of the Spanish-language journal, Trastornosadictivos. Dr. Needle summarizes the history of cooperation between NIDA and PNSD; describes NIDA-supported postdoctoral fellowships, research exchange programs for senior scientists, online resources, and funding mechanisms; and invites Spanish drug abuse researchers to join NIDA grantees in cooperative activities to advance scientific understanding of drug abuse and addiction.

Epidemiologic Trends on Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group - Volume II - Meeting Proceedings January 2005
NIH Pub. No. 05-5281

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.

National Survey Results from the Monitoring the Future 2004, Volume I: Secondary Students
NIH Pub. No. 05-5727

Reports on the prevalence of drug use among students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. Trends are analyzed to understand the changing drug abuse problem and to formulate appropriate prevention and treatment policies.

National Survey Results from the Monitoring the Future 2004, Volume II: College
Students and Adults Ages 19-40
NIH Pub. No. 05-5728

Reviews trends in drug use by populations based on gender, college plans, regions of the country, population density, race/ethnicity, and parents' education. Trends are analyzed to understand the changing drug abuse problem and to formulate appropriate prevention and treatment policies.

Community Drug Alert Bulletin - Prescription Drugs
NIH Pub. No. 05-5580
This publication summarizes current information about the consequences that can result from the abuse of some prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Classes of drugs to be discussed include benzodiazepines, opiates, sedative/hypnotics, and stimulants. The medicinal value, as well as some of the potential health problems that can result from abuse of these drugs are addressed. Some data will be presented from what we currently know about who is abusing and how they are accessing these medications. There is information on what can be done to reduce prescription/OTC drug abuse, and how to diagnose and treat individuals who have become addicted to these drugs.

Research Report Series: Prescription Drugs (Rev.)
NIH Pub. 05-4881

Describes the dangers of prescription drug abuse and reviews recent research in this area. Offers approaches for patients and providers to help them avoid the misuse of prescription drugs. Reviews most commonly abused prescription drugs.

Brain Power Video (Gr. 4-5)
NIH Pub. No: 05-4945A

Brain Power! Is designed to introduce 4-5th grade students to the brain and the effects of abused drugs on the brain. The final module in the Brain Power series explores how different regions of the brain work, how information travels to and from the brain, and techniques for studying brain function. In addition, it explores how various drugs, including nicotine, Ritalin, amphetamine, cocaine, alcohol, marijuana and inhalants affect the brain. This last module introduces students to addiction and the drug abuse problem in the U.S. Students have the opportunity to explore the impact of drug use on society, and to explore the difference between legal and illegal drugs.

NIDA Notes

NIDA Notes Volume 19 Issue No. 6
NCADI #NN0074

The Director's Column addresses health disparities in minority populations compared with the White population, and introduces NIDA's Health Disparities Initiative, which is a three-pronged approach to understanding and researching these differences. The Initiative will expand support of training and career development programs for minority scientists, focus the research agenda to help researchers reach underrepresented populations and study responses to drugs and the consequences of drug abuse in these populations, and disseminate research results to the widest possible audience.

The lead article highlights a pilot study on the use of topiramate to help cocaine-addicted outpatients remain abstinent from the drug. Currently used to treat seizure disorders, topiramate helped study participants stay off cocaine longer than control subjects; 60% of patients taking topiramate attained three or more weeks of continuous abstinence compared with 26% of those taking placebo. The researchers found that topiramate seems to change the brain's response to cocaine by indirectly influencing dopamine through two other neurotransmitter systems-GABA and glutamate. Additional studies are planned to further evaluate the efficacy of topiramate as a treatment for addiction.

Other research findings include:

Contrary to previous assumptions, NIDA-funded scientists have found that it takes very little experience with cocaine to establish environmental associations that become powerful cues for cocaine relapse. After exposure to a two-hour session of access to cocaine, rats continued seeking the drug when cued for up to a year after access had been extinguished. A similar experiment using sweetened condensed milk, a highly palatable food to rats, failed to produce similar long-term cravings.

A review of the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse revealed that adolescent inhalant abuse was more likely in the presence of specific behaviors, such as stealing, fighting, or carrying a handgun. Based on the traits the researchers identified, they concluded that adolescents with inhalant abuse or dependence disorders comprise a subgroup of highly troubled youths with multiple vulnerabilities. Girls were just as likely to abuse inhalants as boys, a finding that contradicts most conventional patterns of drug abuse.

A study of 182 adolescents for a year after substance abuse treatment showed that those with co-occurring externalizing disorders recovered more slowly than those without psychiatric disorders. The researchers concluded from the study that drug abuse treatment in adolescents must address these co-occurring disorders to increase the chances for success.

The Bulletin Board focuses on two researchers who received awards at the 2004 Society for Neuroscience conference. Dr. Antonello Bonci received the second annual Waletzky Memorial Award for Innovative research in Drug Abuse and Alcoholism for his work on the long-term changes in brain cells that underlie addictive behaviors. Dr. Rochelle Schwartz-Bloom received the annual Science Educator Award for her curriculum models that help high school students learn the biology and chemistry underlying drug addiction. The Tearoff presents results of the most recent Monitoring the Future survey.

NIDA Notes Volume 20, Issue No. 1
NCADI #NN0075

The Director's Column discusses NIDA's efforts to not only understand the effects of marijuana abuse at the formative stages of human development, but to develop better treatments for marijuana abuse. The damaging effects of marijuana abuse fall most heavily on adolescents and young adults; half of all patients admitted to treatment for marijuana abuse are younger than 21. NIDA's research initiative will produce a fuller understanding of normative brain development and will illuminate the importance of family and social contexts in adolescence as well as the differing biological and environmental factors that precede marijuana use or nonuse. The Institute is also expanding efforts to develop medications that treat marijuana-associated disorders such as intoxication, delirium, psychosis, and anxiety.

The lead research story shows that cocaine-related environmental cues, which generate strong drug-seeking urges in people trying to recover from drug abuse, produce physiological stress responses in addicted men and women. Dr. Rajita Sinha and colleagues had cocaine-addicted patients listen to tapes recounting a personalized drug-related scenario, a stressful scenario, and a relaxing scenario. After undergoing baseline measures of stress responses-blood pressure, pulse, and stress hormones, patients listened to the various tapes and researchers measured their stress levels. Stressful and drug-related tapes not only increased levels of stress hormones, they also increased participants' subjective responses-craving and anxiety-compared with the relaxing tapes. These findings will help researchers identify treatment approaches for cocaine-addicted people.

Other research findings include:

Researchers report that high school girl athletes who participated in ATHENA, a NIDA-supported nutritional and behavioral guidance program, were less likely than non-participating peers to engage in substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. In post-season surveys, girls on teams that participated in the peer-led ATHENA program reported significantly less use of diet pills, amphetamines, anabolic steroids, and muscle-building supplements during the season. They also reported being less likely to engage in risky behaviors such as riding in a car without using a seatbelt.

Researchers from two laboratories have conducted research on rats to determine the causes and symptoms of cocaine "abstinence syndrome," marked by low energy, irritability, restlessness, an inability to feel pleasure, and problems with concentration. By exposing rats to a clonidine challenge, Dr. Baumann discovered that cocaine desensitizes the adrenergic system. Dr. Spealman found that giving adrenergic blockers to cocaine-"abstinent" monkeys produced anxiety-related effects similar to abstinence syndrome. These findings will help researchers develop better medication to treat stimulant abuse and withdrawal.

First-graders who receive help learning to concentrate and control their behavior are less likely to begin smoking in middle-school years than children who receive no intervention. About a third of children who participated in one of two different interventions had begun smoking by age 13, compared with 47 percent of the control group.

The Bulletin Board highlights the Institute of Medicine's new publication: New Treatments for Addiction: Behavioral, Ethical, Legal, and Social Questions. NIDA funded the report, which identifies issues that must be considered in the development and application of active and passive immunotherapies and sustained-release medication to treat or prevent drug abuse and addiction. The Tearoff highlights the Brain Power! program, a Web-based curriculum for elementary-school children that fosters knowledge of the brain and scientific methods.

NIDA NOTES CD-ROM
This CD-ROM contains PDF files of the nine popular Collections of NIDA NOTES Articles, in addition to direct links to NIDA's Web site for current NIDA NOTES articles, NIDA publications, science summary reports, and information on drugs of abuse. The Collections include Articles That Address Research on Drug Abuse Prevention, Drug Abuse Treatment, Drugs and AIDS, Cocaine, Heroin, Marijuana, Methamphetamine, Nicotine, and Women and Gender Differences

A Collection of NIDA Notes Articles That Address Research on Nicotine - Revised 2005
This edition covers articles and research findings on nicotine originally published in NIDA NOTES from 1995 through 2004. Articles include topics such as smoking exposure in utero and the effects of early nicotine initiation.

A Collection of NIDA NOTES Articles That Address Research on Heroin - Revised 2005
This updated collection includes 18 articles about heroin research published in NIDA NOTES from 1998 to 2004. Article topics range from buprenorphine treatment to HIV risk prevention programs for IV drug users.

During the months May - August 2005, seven editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the progress of the protocols, committees, and node activity in the CTN.

Other Publications

Beatty, L.A., Wetherington, C.L, Jones, D.J. and Roman, A.B. Substance Abuse in Girls and Women. In J. Worrell and C. D.Goodheart, Handbook of Girls' and Women's Psychological Health. Oxford University Press, 2005.

p>Lever, J.R., Zou, M-F., Parnas, M.L., Duval, R.A., Wirtz, S.E., Justice, J.B., Vaughan, R.A. and Newman, A.H. Radioiodinated Azide and Isothiocyanate Derivatives of Cocaine for Irreversible Labeling of Dopamine Transporters: Synthesis and Covalent Binding Studies. Bioconjugate Chem. 16, pp. 644-649, 2005.

Tanda, G., Ebbs, A., Newman, A.H. and Katz, J.L. Effects of 4-Cl-BZT on Mesostriatal, Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission: Comparison with Effects of Cocaine. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 313, pp. 613-620, 2005.

Gilbert, J., Newman, A.H., Gardner, E.L., Ashby, C.R., Heidbreder, C.A., Pak, A.C. and Xi, Z-X. Acute Administration of SB-277011A, NGB 2904 or BP 897 Inhibits Cue-induced Reinstatement of Drug-seeking Behavior in Rats: Role of Dopamine D3 Receptors. Synapse, 57, pp. 17-28, 2005.

Raje, S., Cornish, J., Newman, A.H., Cao, J., Katz, J.L. and Eddington, N.D. Pharmacodynamic Assessment of the Benztropine Analogues AHN 1-055 and AHN 2-005 Using Intracerebral Microdialysis to Evaluate Brain Dopamine Levels and Pharmacokinetic/Pharmocodynamic Modeling. Pharm. Res. 22, pp. 603-612, 2005.

Newman, A.H., Grundt, P. and Nader, M.A. Dopamine D3 Receptor Partial Agonists and Antagonists as Potential Drug Abuse Therapeutic Agents. J. Med. Chem. 11, pp. 3663-3679, 2005. Invited Perspective.

Li, S-M., Newman, A.H. and Katz, J.L. Place Conditioning and Locomotor Effects of N-Substituted, 4',4"-Difluorobenztropine Analogues in Rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 313, pp. 1223-1230, 2005.

Collins, G.T., Witkin, J.M., Newman, A.H., Svensson, K.A., Grundt, P., Cao, J., Woods, J.H. Yawning in Rats: A Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediated Behavior. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 314, pp. 310-319, 205.

Ukairo, O.T., Bondi, C.D., Newman, A.H., Kulkarni, S.S., Kozikowski, A.P., Pan, S. and Surratt, C.K. Recognition of Benztropine by the Dopamine Transporter (DAT) Differs from that of the Classical Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Cocaine, Methylphenidate and Mazindol as a Function of a DAT Transmembrane 1 Aspartic Acid Residue. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 314, pp. 575-583, 2005.

Yang, S, Ross, TJ., Zhang, Y-Q, Stein, E.A. and Yang, Y. Head-motion Suppression Using Real-time Feedback of Motion Information and its Effects on Task Performance in fMRI. NeuroImage. 27, pp. 153-162, 2005.

Risinger, R.C., Salmeron, B.J., Ross, T.J., Amen, S.L., Sanfilipo, M., Hoffmann, R., Bloom, A.S., Garavan, H., and Stein, E.A. Neural Correlates of High and Craving During Cocaine Self-administration Using BOLD fMRI. NeuroImage, 26, pp. 1097-1108, 2005.

Woods, A.S. and Ferre, S. The Amazing Stability of the Arginine-Phosphate Electrostatic Interaction. J. Proteome Res. 4, pp. 1397-1402, 2005.

Wang, H.Y.J., Taggi, A.E., Meinwald, J., Wise, R.A. and Woods, A.S. A Study of the Interaction of Chlorisondamine and Chlorisondamine Analogs with An Epitope of the _-2 Neuronal Acetylcholine Nicotinic Receptor Subunit J. Proteome Res. 4, pp. 532-539, 2005.

Novikov, A., Caroff, M., Della-Negra, S., Depauw, J., Fallavier, M., Lebeyec, Y., Pautrat, M. , Schultz, J.A., Tempez, A. and Woods, A.S. The Au(n) Cluster Probe in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Influence of the Projectile Size and Energy on the Desorption/ionization Rate from Biomolecular Solids. RCM 19, pp. 1851-1857, 2005.

Oz, M., Jackson, S.N., Woods, A.S., Morales, M. and Zhang, L. Additive Effects of Endogenous Cannabinoids Anandamide and Ethanol on _7-nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-mediated Responses in Xenopus Oocytes J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 313, pp. 1272-1280, 2005.

Jackson, S.N., Wang, H.Y.J. and Woods, A.S. Direct Profiling of Lipid Distribution in Brain Tissue Using MALDI-TOF MS, Anal. Chem 77, pp. 4523-4527, 2005.

Woods, A.S., Ciruela, F., Fuxe, K., Agnati, L.F., Lluis, C., Franco, R. and Ferrˇ, S. The Role of Electrostatic Interaction in Receptor-receptor Heteromerization, J. of Mol Neurosci 26, pp. 125-132, 2005.

Ciruela, F., Canela, L., Burgue–o, J., Soriguera, A., Cabello, N., Canela, E.I., Casad—, V., Cortˇs, A., Mallol, J., Woods, A., Ferrˇ, S., Lluis, C. and Franco, R.. Heptaspanning Membrane Receptors and cytoskeletal/Scaffolding Proteins: Focus on Adenosine, Dopamine and metabotropic glutamate receptors Function. J. of Mol Neurosci 26, pp. 277-292, 2005.

Fuxe, K., Ferrˇ, S., Canals, M., Torvinen, M., Terasmaa, A., Marcellino, D., Staines, W., Jacobsen, K., Lluis, C., Woods, A.S., Agnati, L.F. and Franco, R. Adenosine A2A and Dopamine D2 Heteromeric Receptor Complexes and their Function. J Mol Neurosci 26, pp. 209-220, 2005.

Genedani, S., Guidolin, D., Leo, G., Filaferro, M., Torvinen, M., Woods, A.S., Fuxe, K., Ferrˇ, S. and Agnati, L.F. Computer Assisted Image Analysis of Caveolin-1 Involvement in the Internalization Process of Adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 Receptor Hetero-dimers. J Mol Neurosci 26, pp. 177-184, 2005.

Agnati, L.F., Guidolin, D., Genedani, S., Ferre, S., Bigiani, A., Woods, A. and Fuxe, K. How Proteins Come Together in the Plasma Membrane and Function in Macromolecular Assemblies: Focus on Receptor Mosaics. J Mol Neurosci 26, pp. 133-154, 2005.

Agnati, L.F., Ferre, S., Burioni, R., Woods, A., Genedani, S., Franco, R. and Fuxe, K. Existence and Theoretical Aspects of Homomeric and Heteromeric Dopamine Receptor Complexes and Their Relevance for Neurological Diseases. Neuromolecular Med. 7, pp. 61-78, 2005.

Compton, W.M., Conway, K.P., Stinson, F.S., Colliver, J.D. and Grant, B.F. Prevalence and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Syndromes and Specific Substance Use Disorders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66, pp. 677-685, 2005.

Compton, W.M., Thomas, Y., Conway, K.P. and Colliver, J.D. Developments in the Epidemiology of Drug Use and Drug Use Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(8), pp. 1494-1502, 2005.

Compton, W.M. and Volkow, N.D. Major Increases in Opioid Analgesic Abuse: Concerns and Strategies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence [Epub ahead of print] July 12, 2005. PMID: 16023304.

Glantz, M.D., Conway, K.P. and Colliver, J.D. Drug Abuse Heterogeneity and the Search for Subtypes. In Z. Sloboda (Ed.). Epidemiology of Drug Abuse. New York: Springer; pp. 15-28, 2005. This chapter discusses the importance of determining drug abuse subtypes in order to further understand and effectively treat drug abuse.

Simons-Morton, B., Haynie, D., Saylor, K, Crump, A.D. and Chen, R. Impact Analysis and Mediation of Outcomes: The Going Places Program. Health Education and Behavior, 32(2), pp. 227-241, 2005.

Flanzer, J. The Status of Health Services Research on Adjudicated Drug-abusing Juveniles: Selected Findings and Remaining Questions. Substance Use and Misuse, 40, pp. 887-911, 2005.

Herbeck, D.M., Fitek, D.J., Svikis, D.S., Montoya, I.D., Marcus, S.C. and West, J.C. Treatment Compliance in Patients with Comorbid Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Am. J. Addict., 14, pp. 195-207, 2005.

Levav, I., Kohn, R., Montoya, I., Palacio, C., Rozic, P., Solano, I. et al. Training Latin American Primary Care Physicians in the WPA Module on Depression: Results of a Multicenter Trial. Psychol. Med., 35, pp. 35-45, 2005.

Montoya, I.D., Schroeder, J.R., Preston, K.L., Covi, L., Umbricht, A., Contoreggi, C. et al. Influence of Psychotherapy Attendance on Buprenorphine Treatment Outcome. J. Subst. Abuse Treat., 28, pp. 247-254, 2005.

Khalsa, J., Kresina, T.F., Sherman, K. and Vocci, F. Medical Management of HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Injection Drug Users. Clin Infect Dis. 41 Suppl 1:S1-66, 2005.

Kresina, T.F., Khalsa, J., Cesari, H. and Francis, H. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Substance Abuse: Medical Management and Developing Models of Integrated Care--An Introduction. Clin Infect Dis. 40 Suppl 5:S259-62, 2005.

Purohit, V., Khalsa, J. and Serrano, J. Mechanisms of Alcohol-associated Cancers: Introduction and Summary of the Symposium. Alcohol. 35(3), pp. 155-160, 2005.

Vocci, F.J. and Elkashef, A.E. Pharmacotherapy and Other Treatments for Cocaine Abuse and Dependence. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 18, pp. 265-270, 2005.

Vocci, F.J., Acri, J.B. and Elkashef, A.E. Medications Development for Addictive Disorders: State of the Science. Am J Psychiatry 162, pp. 1432-1440, 2005.

Herman, B.H., Elkashef, A.E. and Vocci, F.J. Medications for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction: Emerging Candidates. Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies 2, pp. 87-92, 2005.

Drs. Dionne Jones and Aria Crump, DESPR, guest edited a special issue of the Journal of Urban Health (volume 82 number 2, June 2005/supplement 3) entitled "Methodological Challenges in Conducting Health Disparities Research."

Dr. Steven Grant, DCNDBT, was a co-author on the publication "Risky Decision Making and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Abstinent Drug Abusers and Nonusers". Fishbein, D.H., Eldreth, D.L., Hyde, C., Matochik, J.A. London, E.D., Contoreggi, C., Kurian, V., Kimes, A.S., Breeden, A. and Grant, S. Cognitive Brain Research. 23, pp. 119-136, 2005.

Walter Ling, Leslie Amass, Steve Shoptaw, Jeffrey J. Annon, Maureen Hillhouse, Dean Babcock, Greg Brigham, Judy Harrer, Malcolm Reid, Joan Muir, Betty Buchan, Debbie Orr, George Woody, Jonathan Krejci, and the Buprenorphine Study Protocol Group have published a paper entitled "A Multi Center Randomized Trial Of Buprenorphine-Naloxone versus Clonidine for Opioid Detoxification: Findings from the National Institute On Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network," in Addiction electronically June 22, 2005 and in the August 2005 print edition. This paper highlights the primary outcomes from CTN Protocol 0001 and CTN Protocol 0002.


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors

In Memoriam



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