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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - September, 2005



Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On June 9, 2005, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research (PA-05-118). The goals of this PA are to encourage investigations of cognitive, behavioral, and social processes as they relate to: 1) the development of novel drug abuse prevention approaches; 2) the efficacy and effectiveness of newly developed and/or modified prevention programs; 3) the processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions; and 4) methodologies appropriate for studying complex aspects of prevention science.

In July 2005, NIDA reissued the Program Announcement entitled Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award (PA-05-105). This PA supports the development and evaluation of innovative model programs and materials for enhancing knowledge and understanding of neuroscience and the biology of drug abuse and addiction among K-12 students, the general public, health care practitioners, and other groups. The award provides support for the formation of partnerships between scientists and educators, media experts, community leaders, and other interested organizations for the development and evaluation of programs and materials that will enhance knowledge and understanding of science related to drug abuse. The program contact is Dr. Cathrine Sasek, OSPC.

On August 19, 2005, NIDA issued a new RFA entitled Pilot Clinical Trials of Pharmacotherapies for Substance Related Disorders (RFA-DA-06-002). The purpose of this RFA is to support pilot clinical studies of medications for investigation as possible treatments for substance related disorders. Because the purpose of this initiative is to support pilot studies in this area, preliminary studies are not required.

PAs and RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On May 18, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Economics of Prevention and Treatment Services for Drug and Alcohol Abuse (PA-05-111). This PA solicits research projects on the economics of prevention and treatment services for drug and alcohol abuse. Such research projects might emphasize any of the following subjects: 1) financing, including health insurance and/or payment mechanisms; 2) alternative delivery systems and managed care; 3) cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analyses; 4) service costs and production; and 5) methodological research.

On June 3, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Short-Term Institutional Research Training Grants (T35) (PA-05-117). Grants awarded under this PA will enable eligible institutions to develop or enhance research training opportunities for individuals interested in careers in biomedical and behavioral research.

On June 14, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Development of PET and SPECT Ligands for Brain Imaging (SBIR/STTR Award) (PA-05-122). This initiative is intended to stimulate the commercial development of novel radioligands for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in human brain, and to incorporate pilot or clinical feasibility evaluation in pre-clinical studies, model development or clinical studies.

On June 30, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components and the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Short-Term Courses in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Techniques (PAR-05-133). Through this PA, NIH invites applications for grants to develop and conduct short-term continuing education programs on laboratory research techniques for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and to disseminate course materials and instructional experience to the scientific community. The program should include laboratory and didactic experiences to improve the knowledge and skills of biomedical researchers, and to enable them to maintain, characterize and utilize hESC lines in basic research projects.

On July 14, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Health Services Research on the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (PA-05-139). This PA solicits health services research on the prevention and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse. Proposed research might emphasize any of the following subjects: 1) Factors that affect the delivery of drug and alcohol abuse intervention and related services, such as social factors, personal behaviors and attributes, financing, organization, management and health technologies; 2) Dimensions of drug and alcohol abuse intervention and related services, such as accessibility, utilization, quality, effectiveness, and costs; 3) Processes of blending science-based practices into community-based provision of drug and alcohol abuse prevention services; and 4) Research tools to facilitate higher quality health services research on drug and alcohol abuse.

On July 14, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled AIDS International Training and Research Program (PAR-05-140). The purpose of this announcement is to invite applications from eligible institutions for innovative, collaborative training programs that would contribute to the long-term goal of building sustainable research capacity in HIV/AIDS and HIV related conditions at institutions in low- and middle- income countries. These research-training programs will strengthen scientific knowledge and skills to enhance prevention of and treatment and care for HIV/AIDS and HIV-related conditions in these countries.

On July 22, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award (K23) (PA-05-143). The goals of this NIH-supported career development programs are to help ensure that a diverse pool of highly trained scientists are available in adequate numbers and in appropriate research areas to address the Nation's biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research needs. The purpose of this award is to support the career development of investigators who have made a commitment to focus their research endeavors on patient-oriented research.

On August 3, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NINDS, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Collaborative Neurological Sciences (CNS) Award (PAR-05-149). The purpose of this award is to encourage collaborative research investigations among scientists at minority institutions and grantees from leading research laboratories that have NIH or equivalent grant support to conduct neuroscience research. The CNS award will support an investigator-initiated research project in which the applicant and collaborating neuroscientist(s) work in a clearly defined area of mutual research interest.

On August 5, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Research Opportunities (PAR-05-150). This PA is intended to support public mental health and/or substance abuse services research in rapidly evolving areas (e.g., changes in service systems, health care financing, policy, etc.) where opportunities for empirical study are, by their very natures, only available through expedited award of support.

On August 8, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards for Individual Predoctoral MD/PhD Fellows (F30) (PA-05-151). Grants awarded under this PA will support individual predoctoral fellowships for combined MD/PhD training in research areas relevant to the mission of the participating Institutes.

On June 30, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), issued an RFA entitled Research on Research Integrity (RFA-NR-06-001). Through this RFA, participating organizations invite applications to support empirical research on research integrity. Applications must have clear relevance to biomedical, behavioral health sciences, and health services research.

On August 5, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), issued an RFA entitled Enhancing Practice Improvement in Community-Based Care for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Abuse or Co-occurring Drug Abuse and Mental Disorders (RFA-DA-06-001). This initiative aims to develop research capacity in a group that historically has been the object rather than the initiator of research-to-practice investigations. Accordingly, this RFA is intended to enhance the capacity of community-based providers of drug abuse prevention/treatment services, including services for individuals with co-occurring mental disorders, to conduct practice improvement research. Such research may entail the examiniation of therapeutic and/or business practices currently in use but lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness, or it may entail examination of the adoption, implementation, and sustained use of science-based therapeutic and/or business innovations.

On August 19, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled New Ways to Image Neural Activity (RFA-EB-05-001). This RFA is an initiative of the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, a coordinated effort of 15 NIH Institutes and Centers to accelerate progress in neuroscience by supporting research and development of enabling tools and resources. This RFA will be administered by the NIBIB on behalf of the Neuroscience Blueprint. This initiative is intended to support research leading to new ways for high resolution imaging of the neural activity that is reflected in electrophysiological signals.

On September 8, 2005, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Completion of a Comprehensive Mouse Knockout Resource (RFA-HG-05-007). The ultimate aim of the Knockout Mouse Project is to generate a null-mutant mouse resource comprising a null mutation marked with a reporter of high utility for each gene in mouse strain C57BL/6. The purpose of this RFA is to make maximum progress toward this goal using gene targeting, transposon-mediated mutagenesis or gene trapping.

On April 6, 2005, a Notice was released through the NIH Guide announcing the availability of administrative supplement funding to support interdisciplinary research in the behavioral/social and biological sciences. This announcement was associated with the Interdisciplinary Research efforts of the NIH Roadmap, with set-aside funding of approximately $2.4 million. Application receipt date was June 15, 2005, with start dates for successful applications expected to be September 30, 2005. NIDA grantees represented a large proportion of those applications received in response to this call for applications, and NIDA staff actively participated in the review of the applications.

Response to NIDA RFAs

Thirty-nine applications were received in response to RFA DA-05-007, Consequences of Drug Abuse and Alcohol Exposure on Brain and Behavioral Development. These applications were reviewed July 26-27, 2005.

Twenty-two applications (2 competetive supplement applications) were received in response to the RFA Neurobiology of Treatment: Recovery of Brain Structure and Function, RFA-DA-05-006. These applications were reviewed on July 12, 2005.

On July 26, 2005, reviewers evaluated applications received in response to RFA-DA-05-008, HIV and Drug Abuse Interventions among Pregnant Women in Drug Abuse Treatment. In total, 15 responsive applications were received.

Other Program Activities

CTN Update

Two new contracts were awarded for: DA-5-2207 for the Data and Statistics Center to Duke Clinical Research Institute and DA-5-2208 for the Clinical Coordinating Center to The EMMES Corporation. Both contracts were awarded April 29, 2005. The Data and Statistics Center is actively involved in statistical and data management aspects of the CTN clinical trials. The Clinical Coordinating Center is supporting protocol development, training, regulatory, monitoring, and lab and pharmacy supplies.

Twelve protocols that started since 2001 have completed enrollment. These studies enrolled 3,186 patients who were randomized in 75 community treatment programs located in 17 states.

Nine additional protocols are currently recruiting and enrolling patients. These protocols plan to enroll approximately 4,000 patients across 88 Community Treatment Programs when completed. Highlights of the active protocols include:

  • Protocol CTN 0003 (Bup/Nx: Comparison of Two Taper Schedules) began enrollment June 30, 2003. New enrollment has stopped - reached 108% of target enrollment. Study is in follow-up phase and data clean up. The last follow-up visit is expected in November 2005.
  • Protocol CTN 0010 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults) began enrollment in July 2003. This is the first protocol in the CTN that targets adolescent substance abusers. Enrollment is at nearly 60% of the projected target.
  • Protocol CTN 0013 (Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome In Pregnant Substance Abusers) began enrollment in November 2003 and has enrolled nearly 70% of the projected target enrollment.
  • Protocol CTN 0014, Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers (BSFT), has been implemented at 6 sites. An additional 2 sites have finished the provider training and overall site preparation and will start patient enrollment in summer 2005. This intervention is the first CTN study to target adolescents and their families.
  • Protocol CTN 0015 (Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial) began in March 2004. The study has reached over 90% of the targeted patient enrollment and is expected to complete enrollment in September 2005.
  • Protocol CTN 0017 (HIV and HCV Intervention in Drug Treatment Settings). The study began enrollment in November 2004 and enrollment has reached nearly 50% of the target goal. This study is enrolling at 8 community treatment sites across 5 Nodes.
  • CTN 0018 (Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Men in Drug Abuse Treatment) began enrolling in April 2004 and has reached over 90% of the target. New enrollment is expected to be completed in fall 2005.
  • CTN 0019 (Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment) began enrollment in April 2004 and has reached 90% of the target. New enrollment is expected to be completed in fall 2005.
  • CTN 0020 (Job Seekers Training for Substance Abusers). The protocol began enrollment in October 2004 and has reached over 60% of the enrollment goal. This study is also being conducted in a Navajo American Indian site, the Na'nizhoozhi Center, Inc. in Gallup, New Mexico, the first CTN study to be conducted there.
  • Protocol CTN 0021(Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) began enrollment in November 2003. This is the first Spanish-only protocol in the CTN. The study has reached over 80% of the target. This study is expected to close to new enrollment in the fall 2005.

Two protocols have recently completed all data collection phases and are pending data lock (April/May 2005). Those include:

  • Protocol CTN 0004 (Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse).
  • Protocol CTN 0009 (Smoking Cessation Treatment with Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs)

Three protocols have recently locked their data sets and are at the analysis stage. Those include:

  • Protocol CTN 0008 (Assessment of the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network: A Baseline for Investigating Diffusion of Innovation).
  • Protocol CTN 0012 (Characteristics of Screening, Evaluation, and Treatment of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C Viral Infections, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs).
  • Protocol CTN 0016 (Patient Feedback: A Performance Improvement Study in Outpatient Addiction Treatment Settings).

Four additional Protocols are currently being developed for the Network. Highlights of those protocols include:

  • Protocol CTN 0028: Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). The protocol implementation is planned for fall 2005.
  • Protocol CTN-0029: A Pilot Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) in Initiating and Maintaining Abstinence in Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Implementation is planned for fall 2005.
  • Protocol CTN 0030: Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) is a randomized 2-phases, open-label, multi-center study in outpatient treatment settings. The protocol was submitted for DSMB review.
  • Protocol CTN 0031: Twelve Step Facilitation: Evaluation of Two Interventions to Increase 12-Step Involvement and Improve Outcomes among Substance Dependent Individuals. This activity is at the concept development stage.

In addition to the primary CTN trials, there are 12 studies supported by independent grants or as supplements that use CTN studies as a platform.

New Collaborative Study: Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) Study: The CTN will participate with the Division of Pharmacotherapies & Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse on a multi-centered trial to compare the effect of buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) and methadone (MET) on liver function. This is a randomized, open-label, multi-center, Phase 4 study in participants entering opioid agonist treatment programs at community centers (methadone centers) throughout the country. Flair Lindsey, Program Analyst, Special Populations Office, coordinated the ninth annual Summer Research with NIDA program. The program allowed high school and undergraduate students to engage in drug abuse research with NIDA grantees for 8 - 10 weeks over the summer. In 2005, 84 students and 32 grantees participated in the program.

The CTN Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) met July 20-22, 2005, in Bethesda, Maryland. The DSMB group reviewed ongoing protocols CTN 015 (Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Abuse), CTN 0017 (HIV/HCV Intervention in Drug Treatment Settings), and CTN 0020 (Job Seekers Training for Substance Abusers).

NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since May 2005

Ahijevych, Karen L. -- Ohio State University
Menthol, Ethnicity and Nicotine Dependence

Ahmed, Mahmoud S. -- University of Texas Medical, Galveston
Medications Development for the Pregnant Opiate Addict

Akbarian, Schahram -- University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester
Dopaminergic Signaling Modifies Stratial Histones

Ames, Steven C. -- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville
Smoking Cessation For Young Adults Who Binge Drink

Arkes, Jeremy -- RAND Corporation
Economic Determinants of Prescription Drug Abuse

Banks, William A. -- St. Louis University
Opiate Addiction and HIV-1 Induced Release of Cytokines

Barrick, Christopher -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Knowledge Exchange and Skills Training for Therapists

Bauer, Lance O. -- University of Connecticut School of Medicine/Dentistry
Genetic Versus Phenotypic Markers of Relapse Risk

Bechara, Antoine -- University of Iowa
Residual Effects of Ecstasy on Decision-Making & Driving

Belenko, Steven -- Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
STI/HIV Risk, Services, and Drug Use for Young Arrestees

Berns, Gregory S. -- Emory University
Neurobiology of Reward and Perference In Adolescence

Bernstein, Steven L. -- Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY
Strategies To Help Adult ER Patients Quit Smoking

Bickel, Warren K. -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock
Improving Combined Buprenorphine-Behavioral Treatment

Bisaga, Adam M. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Memantine Naltrexone Treatment For Opioid Dependence

Blow, Frederic C. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Tailored Youth Drug Intervention In Primary Care

Boyer, Edward W. -- University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester
Adulterants, Drugs, Coingestants and Associated HIV Risk

Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W. -- University of Florida
Neuropeptide-Based Therapies For Nicotine Dependence

Burdon, William M. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Increasing Engagement In Prison-Based Drug Treatment

Carroll, Frank I. -- Research Triangle Institute
Development of Pharmacotherapies For Nicotine Addiction

Case, Patricia -- Harvard University Medical School
Assessing HIV In Hidden Populations: A Feasibility Study

Coghill, Robert C. -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Dynamic Mechanisms of Pain Modulation

Colon, Hector M. -- Universidad Central Del Caribe
Introducing New Drug Preparation Materials To Reduce HIV/HCV Transmission

Conger, Rand D. -- University of California, Davis
Mexican Family Culture & Substance Use Risk & Resilience

Cooley, Michele R. -- Johns Hopkins University
Community Violence & Youth: Affect, Behavior, Academics

Cornelius, Marie D. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Teen Tobacco Use In A Birth Cohort & Prenatal Effects

Costello, E. Jane -- Duke University
Vulnerability To Drug Abuse: Effects of Stressors & Stress

Cravatt, Benjamin F. -- Scripps Research Institute
Enzymes That Regulate Fatty Acid Amide Function in vivo

Curran, Patrick J. -- University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Measurement Models In Latent Curve Analysis

Dileone, Ralph J. -- Yale University
Role of the Orexin Neuropeptide In Responses To Morphine

Ehrlich, Michelle E. -- Thomas Jefferson University
Buprenorphine Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Fals-Stewart, William -- Research Triangle Institute
Group-Based Couples Therapy for Drug Abuse

Fals-Stewart, William -- Research Triangle Institute
Children of Drug Abusing Fathers

Fals-Stewart, William -- Research Triangle Institute
Cognitive Rehabilitation For Substance Abusers

Farabee, David J. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Four Models of Telephone Support For Stimulant Recovery

Fiellin, David A. -- Yale University
Counseling For Primary Care Office-Based Buprenorphine

Forman, Robert F. -- University of Pennsylvania
Opioid Medications Without Prescriptions on the Internet

Forster, Gina L. -- University of South Dakota
Neural Sensitivity To Stress During Drug Withdrawal

Francesconi, Walter G. -- Scripps Research Institute
Synaptic Plasticity In the BNST and Drug Dependence

Frantz, Kyle J. -- Georgia State University
Sex Differences In Adolescent Vulnerability To Morphine

Frazier, Charles J. -- University of Florida
Endocannabinoids and Tonic GABA In The Dentate Gyrus

French, Michael T. -- University of Miami, Coral Gables
Economic Evaluation Methods: Development and Application

Friedman, Samuel R. -- National Development & Research Institutes
Staying Safe: Long-Term IDUs Who Avoided HIV & HCV

Frisman, Linda K. -- Connecticut State Dept. of Mental Health/Addiction Services
Promoting Adoption of EBPS In Addiction Treatment

Fuchs Lokensgard, Rita A. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Neural Bases of Drug Context-Induced Cocaine Seeking

Gelernter, Joel -- Yale University
Genetics of Opioid Dependence

Gil-Rivas, Virginia -- University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Treatment Outcomes, Comorbid Disorders and PTSD

Gould, Thomas J. -- Temple University
Nicotine Addiction: Learning, Neural & Genetic Process

Grant, Igor -- University of California, San Diego
NeuroAIDS: Effects of Methamphetamine and HCV

Griffiths, Roland R. -- Johns Hopkins University
Licit and Illicit Abused Stimulant Drugs

Hauser, Kurt F. -- University of Kentucky
Opiate Drug Abuse and CNS Vulnerability To HIV

Hayes, Steven C. -- University of Nevada, Reno
Stigma and Burnout In Addiction Counselors

Hoffer, Lee D. -- Washington University
Evaluating the Social Structure of a Local Heroin Market

Horsburgh, C. Robert -- Boston University Medical Campus
Natural History of Hepatitis C Infection In HIV Disease

Horwith, Gary -- Nabi Biopharmaceuticals
Efficacy of a Nicotine Vaccine for Smoking Cessation

Howell, Leonard L. -- Emory University
Cocaine Use and Monoamine Function

Hruby, Victor J. -- University of Arizona
Novel Non-Peptide Opioid Ligands for Pain

Hughes, John R. -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Internal Barriers To Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

Inciardi, James A. -- University of Delaware
Prescription Drug Abuse Among Club Drug Users

Ingram, Susan L. -- Washington State University
Dendritic DAT Conductances In Psychostimulant Addiction

Jansson, Lauren M. -- Johns Hopkins University
Fetal and Infant Neurobehavior In Opiate Dependent Women

Johnson, Knowlton W. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
A School-Based Program To Prevent Inhalant Use In Alaska

Kaminski, Norbert E. -- Michigan State University
Il-2 Suppression By Endocannabinoid Activation of Ppargamma

Karpatkin, Simon -- New York University School of Medicine
AIDS and Thrombocytopenia: Drug Abusers and Homosexuals

Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy -- University of Medicine/Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark
Gel Depot for Narcotic Addiction

Kellam, Sheppard G. -- American Institutes for Research
A Follow-Up of Classroom Services to Prevent Drug Use

Kemp, Jack -- Delaware State Department of Health & Social Services
Statewide Science-Based Concurrent Recovery Monitor

King, Andrea C. -- University of Chicago
Efficacy of Naltrexone In Women's Smoking Cessation

Kirby, Kimberly C. -- Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
Behavior Therapy Development of Group CM In Methadone Tx

Knutson, Brian D. -- Stanford University
Affective Neuroscience Probes of Cigarette Craving and Consumption

Lamb, Richard J. -- University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio
Increasing Contingency Management Success Using Shaping

Larkby, Cynthia A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Child Abuse, Violence, and PTSD In Early Substance Use

Lejuez, Carl W. -- University of Maryland College Park Campus
Behavioral Technologies for Predicting HIV Risk

Lesage, Mark G. -- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Modeling Behavioral Treatments for Stimulant Abuse

Lewin, Anita H. -- Research Triangle Institute
Trace Amine Receptor As Medication Development Targets

Lipton, Jack W. -- University of Cincinnati
Prenatal MDMA-Induced Changes In Axonal Guidance Cues

Lynskey, Michael T. -- Washington University
Cannabis and Other Illicit Drug Use: A Twin Study

Maciver, M. Bruce -- Stanford University
Abused Inhalant Actions At GABA and Glutamate Synapses

Malcolm, Robert J. -- Medical University of South Carolina
A Controlled Trial of NAC for Cocaine Dependence

Malenka, Robert C. -- Stanford University
Drugs of Abuse & Synaptic Processes In Dopamine Systems

Martinez, Diana -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
PET Imaging of Mesolimbic Dopamine In Heroin Dependence

Mason, W. Alex -- University of Washington
Role of Psychopathology In Adolescent Problem Drug Use

Matsumoto, Rae R. -- University of Mississippi
Sigma Ligands for the Treatment of Cocaine Overdose

Mccarty, Dennis -- Oregon Health & Science University
Adoption of Buprenorphine In An HMO Setting

Mccarty, Dennis -- Oregon Health & Science University
Organizational Change to Improve Access and Retention

Mccorry, Francis A. -- New York State Office of Alcoholism/Substance Abuse
A Case Study of NY's Infrastructure To Improve Practice

Mckee, Sherry -- Yale University
Negative Affect and Smoking Behavior In Women and Men

Mcrae, Aimee L. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Atomoxetine Treatment For ADHD and Marijuana Dependence

Mendelson, John E. -- California Pacific Medical Center-Pacific Campus
MDMA Dependence and Discontinuation Syndrome

Mermelstein, Paul G. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Nfat-Mediated Gene Expression and Striatal Plasticity

Messina, Nena P. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Children Exposed to Methamphetamine Use and Manufacture

Messina, Nena P. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Gender-Responsive Treatment for Women In Prison

Metsch, Lisa R. -- University of Miami-Medical
Prevention Among HIV+ Crack Users In The Hospital

Miller, Brenda A. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Prevention Of Young Adult Drug Use In Club Settings

Miller, Richard J. -- Northwestern University
Chemokine Receptor Function In The Nervous System

Mintzer, Miriam Z. -- Johns Hopkins University
Effects of Opioid Pharmacotherapy on Functioning

Moberg, D Paul. -- University of Wisconsin Madison
Recovery High Schools As Continuing Care For Drug Abuse

Mulvey, Edward P. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Pathways To Desistance From Substance Use Problems and Crime

Nader, Michael A. -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Social Stress: Vulnerability To Cocaine Abuse In Monkeys

Negus, Sidney S. -- Mc Lean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Novel Delta Opioids: Analgesic Effects & Abuse Liability

Nestler, Eric J. -- University of Texas Southwest Medical Center, Dallas
Neurotrophic Factors and Drugs of Abuse

Neumeyer, John L. -- Mc Lean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Mixed Kappa-Mu Opioids: Synthesis and Evaluation

Niaura, Raymond S. -- Butler Hospital, Providence, RI
Ethnic Health/Motivating HIV+ Latinos To Quit Smoking

Nishi, Rae -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors In Neural Development

Okuyemi, Kolawole S. -- University of Kansas Medical Center
Effects of Menthol on Bupropion Pharmacokinetics

O'Neill, Joseph -- University of California, Los Angeles
1h Mrsi/Response Inhibition/Methamphetamine Abusers

Owens, S. Michael -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock
Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

Page-Shafer, Kimberly -- University of California, San Francisco
Acute Hepatitis C Infection In Young Injectors

Park, Sohee -- Vanderbilt University
Neurocognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use

Parsons, Loren H. -- Scripps Research Institute
Endocannabinoids and Cue-Induced Drug-Seeking Behavior

Pasternak, Gavril W. -- Sloan-Kettering Institute For Cancer Research
Pharmacology of Opioid Receptor Subtypes

Peng, Junmin -- Emory University
Quantitative Approach To Postsynaptic Density Proteome

Phillips, Paul E. -- University of Washington
Dynamic Control of Dopamine Release In Cocaine Abuse

Piomelli, Daniele -- University of California, Irvine
Characterization of a Novel Cannabinoid Ligand

Potenza, Marc N. -- Yale University
fMRI of Craving In Addictions: Gender Differences

Potter, Philip M. -- St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Novel Therapeutic Approaches For Narcotic Overdose

Pyne, Jeffrey M. -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock
Cost-Effectiveness of Reducing Drug Treatment Barriers

Rabiner, David L. -- Duke University
College Students' Non-Medical Use & Misuse of ADHD Meds

Rauhut, Anthony S. -- Dickinson College
Bupropion and Secondary Motivational Effects of Nicotine

Rayport, Stephen G. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Transgenic Analysis of Glutamate In Sensitization

Rich, Josiah D. -- Miriam Hospital
Opiate Replacement Therapy at Release from Incarceration

Robinson, Gene E. -- University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Neuromodulation of Excessive Reward-Directed Behavior

Roffman, Roger A. -- University of Washington
Motivating Substance Abusing Batterers To Seek Treatment

Role, Lorna -- Western New York State Psychiatric Institute
in vivo Studies of Neuregulin 1 In Addiction Pathways

Rothenberg, Richard B. -- Emory University
Geography, Networks, and Risk In Disease Transmission

Rush, Craig R. -- University of Kentucky
Stimulant Abuse Pharmacotherapy: Novel Antipsychotics

Sacks, Stanley -- National Development & Research Institutes
Re-Entry MTC For Offenders With MICA Disorders

Salloum, Ihsan M. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Valproate Efficacy In Cocaine-Bipolar Comorbidity

Sanders, Bill -- Children's Hospital, Los Angeles
Youth Gangs: Drug Use, Sexual Behavior, Violence & HIV Risk

Santisteban, Daniel -- University of Miami-Medical
Borderline Adolescent Family Therapy Trial

Schafer, William -- University of California, San Diego
Machine Vision Analysis Of C.Elegans Phenotypic Patterns

Schiller, Peter W. -- Clinical Research Institute of Montreal
Development of Receptor-Specific Opioid Peptide Analogs

Schinke, Steven P. -- Columbia University of New York, Morningside
Drug Abuse Prevention: Mother-Daughter Intervention

Schulteis, Gerhard -- Veterans Medical Research Foundation, San Diego
Development of Opiate Dependence--Neural Substrates

Shinnick-Gallagher, Patricia -- University of Texas Medical, Galveston
Amygdala Neurons and Cocaine

Smith, Carolyn A. -- State University of New York at Albany
Long-Term Consequences of Exposure To Family Violence

Stark, Kenneth D. -- Washington State Department of Social/Health Services
Measuring and Tracking Statewide Model Program Fidelity

Stefansson, Kari -- Decode Genetics
Genes Contributing to Nicotine Dependence In Humans

Stein, Flo A. - North Carolina State Department of Health & Human Services
Adopting Prevention & Treatment Science-Based Practices

Stevens, Stacey L. -- Treatment Comm on Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Texas Process & Practice Improvement Initiative

Stormshak, Elizabeth A. -- University of Oregon
A Family Intervention for Adolescent Problem Behavior

Stotts, Angela L. -- University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
Acceptance Therapy During Methadone Detoxification

Strong, David R. -- Butler Hospital, Providence, RI
Mood Management Phone Counseling In Smoking Cessation

Stroud, Laura R. -- Miriam Hospital
Prenatal Smoking, Fetal Behavior, and Infant Withdrawal

Supplee, Lauren H. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Early Maternal Strategy Instruction In An At-Risk Sample

Taxman, Faye S. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Effects of Manualized Treatment In A Seamless System

Taylor, Bradley K. -- Tulane University of Louisiana
Supraspinal Modulation of Neuropathic Pain

Trujillo, Keith A. -- California State University, San Marcos
Role of Glutamate In Opiate Tolerance and Sensitization

Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth -- Thomas Jefferson University
Modulation of Norepinephrine By Cannabinoids

Verkhusha, Vladislav V. -- University of Colorado, Denver/HSC, Aurora
Development of Imaging Technique To Study Regulation

Vezina, Paul -- University of Chicago
Sensitization and Stimulant Self-Administration

Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar -- University of Colorado, Denver/HSC, Aurora
Cholinergic Signaling In The Brain

Vilim, Ferdinand S. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
Neural Basis of Behavior Priming: Induction and Memory

Vlahov, David -- New York Academy of Medicine
The HIV Risk Behavior and the Urban Environment

Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna -- University of Miami-Medical
HIV+ Drug Users: Neurocognitive Aspects of ARV Adherence

Weeks, Margaret R. -- Institute For Community Research
Longitudinal Study of the Rap Peer Intervention for HIV

Weingardt, Kenneth R. -- Palo Alto Institute For Research & Education
Web-Based Instruction for Counselor Training

Weinshenker, David -- Emory University
Modeling Genetically Controlled DBH Activity In Mice

Weinshenker, David -- Emory University
Disulfiram, DBH, and Cocaine-Induced Anxiety

Weinstein, Harel -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Structure and Function of Neurotransmitter Transporters

Weiss, Jie W. -- California State University, Fullerton
Predicting Tobacco and Alcohol Initiation

Wenzel, Suzanne L. -- RAND Corporation
Residential Status, Drug Use, Health Among Impoverished Women

Wessendorf, Martin W. -- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Circuits In Descending Facilitation of Nociception

Whitbeck, Leslie B. -- University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Ojibwe Pathways Through the High School Years

Wunsch, Martha J. -- Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine
Opioid Mortality In Southwestern Virginia

Xu, Ming -- University of Cincinnati
Role of C-Fos In Cocaine Actions

Yantis, Steven G. -- Johns Hopkins University
Cortical Mechanisms of Task Switching Revealed By fMRIi

Yin, Deling -- East Tennessee State University
Role of Opioids Signaling In Immune Suppression

Zacny, James -- University of Chicago
Behavioral Effects of Opioids In Volunteers

Zarcone, Troy J. -- University of Rochester
Behavior Consequences of Amphetamine Dependence In Mice

Zvolensky, Michael J. -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Smoking and Panic Vulnerability

Zvolensky, Michael J. -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors

In Memoriam



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