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NIDA Home > Publications > Director's Reports > May, 2008 Index    

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - May, 2008



Program Activities

PAs and RFAs Issued with Other NIH Components/Agencies

On March 4, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Functional Links between the Immune System, Brain Function and Behavior (R01) (PA-08-097). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicits research grant applications to study neuroimmune molecules and mechanisms involved in regulating normal and pathological functions of the central nervous system (CNS).

On March 18, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH Institutes, issued a PA entitled Prevention Research with HIV Positive Individuals (R01) (PA-08-107). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites interdisciplinary studies addressing the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of HIV disease. Over the past decade, secondary prevention in HIV disease, or "positive prevention", has received a much needed increase in attention. Gains have been made toward the aim of decreasing HIV transmission behaviors and improving quality of life among individuals living with HIV/AIDS, as well as understanding factors that are important to healthy coping. In this program announcement, further opportunities for innovation in this field are indicated.

On March 18, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH Institutes, issued a PA entitled Prevention Research with HIV Positive Individuals (R03) (PA-08-108). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites interdisciplinary studies addressing the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of HIV disease. Over the past decade, secondary prevention in HIV disease, or "positive prevention", has received a much needed increase in attention. Gains have been made toward the aim of decreasing HIV transmission behaviors and improving quality of life among individuals living with HIV/AIDS, as well as understanding factors that are important to healthy coping. In this program announcement, further opportunities for innovation in this field are indicated.

On March 18, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH Institutes, issued a PA entitled Prevention Research with HIV Positive Individuals (R21) (PA-08-109). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites interdisciplinary studies addressing the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of HIV disease. Over the past decade, secondary prevention in HIV disease, or "positive prevention", has received a much needed increase in attention. Gains have been made toward the aim of decreasing HIV transmission behaviors and improving quality of life among individuals living with HIV/AIDS, as well as understanding factors that are important to healthy coping. In this program announcement, further opportunities for innovation in this field are indicated.

On March 18, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and Autism Speaks, issued a PA entitled Brain Disorders in the Developing World: Research Across the Lifespan (R01) (PAR-08-112). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages grant applications proposing the development and conduct of innovative, collaborative research and research training projects, between High Income country (HIC) and low- to middle-income country (LMIC) scientists, on nervous system function and disorders throughout life, relevant to LMICs. The collaborative research programs are expected to contribute to the long-term goals of building sustainable research capacity in LMICs to address nervous system development, function and impairment throughout life and to lead to diagnostics, treatment and prevention strategies that are applicable worldwide.

On March 18, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and Autism Speaks, issued a PA entitled Brain Disorders in the Developing World: Research Across the Lifespan (R21) (PAR-08-113). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages grant applications proposing the development and conduct of innovative, collaborative research and research training projects, between High Income country (HIC) and low- to middle-income country (LMIC) scientists, on nervous system function and disorders throughout life, relevant to LMICs. The collaborative research programs are expected to contribute to the long-term goals of building sustainable research capacity in LMICs to address nervous system development, function and impairment throughout life and to lead to diagnostics, treatment and prevention strategies that are applicable worldwide.

On April 3, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH, issued a PA entitled Prescription Drug Misuse (R01) (PA-08-127). This PA invites research applications to reduce prescription drug misuse while supporting the appropriate medical use of therapeutic agents that carry an abuse liability. A range of research is being solicited to combat prescription drug misuse--from epidemiologic research specifying the extent and nature of the problem (including physical and mental health and social consequences) as it relates to each specific drug and identifying determinants and trajectories of use. Basic science applications to determine mechanisms of action at the cellular level and possible mechanisms or medications to block or lessen the abuse potential are encouraged, as are health services applications with the goal of discovering effective clinical practices that identify those at risk and designing and disseminating prevention and treatment interventions.

On April 3, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH, issued a PA entitled Prescription Drug Misuse (R21) (PA-08-128). This PA invites research applications to reduce prescription drug misuse while supporting the appropriate medical use of therapeutic agents that carry an abuse liability. A range of research is being solicited to combat prescription drug misuse--from epidemiologic research specifying the extent and nature of the problem (including physical and mental health and social consequences) as it relates to each specific drug and identifying determinants and trajectories of use. Basic science applications to determine mechanisms of action at the cellular level and possible mechanisms or medications to block or lessen the abuse potential are encouraged, as are health services applications with the goal of discovering effective clinical practices that identify those at risk and designing and disseminating prevention and treatment interventions.

On April 3, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH, issued a PA entitled Prescription Drug Misuse (R03) (PA-08-129). This PA invites research applications to reduce prescription drug misuse while supporting the appropriate medical use of therapeutic agents that carry an abuse liability. A range of research is being solicited to combat prescription drug misuse--from epidemiologic research specifying the extent and nature of the problem (including physical and mental health and social consequences) as it relates to each specific drug and identifying determinants and trajectories of use. Basic science applications to determine mechanisms of action at the cellular level and possible mechanisms or medications to block or lessen the abuse potential are encouraged, as are health services applications with the goal of discovering effective clinical practices that identify those at risk and designing and disseminating prevention and treatment interventions.

On April 9, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Genetic Screens to Enhance Zebrafish Research (R01) (PAR-08-138). This FOA encourages investigator-initiated applications designed to exploit the power of the zebrafish as a vertebrate model for biomedical and behavioral research. Applications proposing to develop new genetic screens of high priority to the zebrafish community that will advance the detection and characterization of genes, pathways, and phenotypes of interest in development and aging, organ formation, neural processes, behavior, sensory processes, physiological processes, and disease processes are welcome. This effort stems from an NIH initiative developed by the Institutes and Centers of the Trans-NIH Zebrafish Coordinating Committee (TZCC) under the co-chairmanship of NICHD and NIDDK.

On April 9, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Enhancing Zebrafish Research with Research Tools and Techniques (R01) (PAR-08-139). This FOA encourages investigator-initiated applications designed to exploit the power of the zebrafish as a vertebrate model for biomedical and behavioral research. Applications proposing to develop new research tools or techniques that are of high priority to the zebrafish community and that will advance the detection and characterization of genes, pathways, and phenotypes of interest in development and aging, organ formation, neural processes, behavior, sensory processing, physiological processes, and disease processes are welcome. This effort stems from an NIH initiative developed by the Institutes and Centers of the Trans-NIH Zebrafish Coordinating Committee (TZCC) under the co-chairmanship of NICHD and NIDDK.

On April 16, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled NIH Support for Conferences and Scientific Meetings (Parent R13/U13) (PA-08-149). The purpose of the NIH Research Conference Grant Program (R13 and U13) is to support high quality conferences/scientific meetings that are relevant to the scientific mission of the NIH and to the public health. A conference/scientific meeting is defined as a gathering, symposium, seminar, scientific meeting, workshop or any other organized, formal meeting where persons assemble to coordinate, exchange, and disseminate information or to explore or clarify a defined subject, problem, or area of knowledge.

On April 18, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24) (PA-08-151). The purpose of the Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research is to provide support to mid-career health-professional doctorates or equivalent who are typically at the Associate Professor level or the equivalent (see Section III. Eligible Individuals) for protected time to devote to patient-oriented research (POR) and to act as research mentors primarily for clinical residents, clinical fellows and/or junior clinical faculty. The intent of this award is two-fold: 1) to enable mid-career clinician scientists to devote more time and to augment their capabilities in patient-oriented research; and 2) to enable mid-career clinical scientists to mentor new clinical investigators in the conduct of patient-oriented research. An award recipient who continues to have an independent peer-reviewed patient-oriented research program and continues to provide mentoring to new investigators can continue to contribute to the overall goals of the program after being promoted to Full professor.

On April 22, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH components, issued a PA entitled PHASE II Comprehensive ICOHRTA AIDS/TB (U2R) (PAR-08-155). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicits renewal (re-competing) and new Phase II applications in the International Clinical, Operations and Health Services Research Training Award for AIDS and TB (ICOHRTA AIDS TB) program. The applications from a Research Training Unit, composed of a Phase I ICOHRTA AIDS TB (planning grant) recipient and the U.S. partner institution chosen by the Phase I recipient, must propose, in an integrated manner, a comprehensive training program that will strengthen the capacity in the foreign country to conduct clinical research and implementation science, including operations and health services research focused on HIV infection, TB, and, where relevant, HIV/TB co-infection prevention, care and treatment.

On April 24, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH, NIA and NIAAA, issued a PA entitled Mouse Models Containing Human Alleles: Novel Tools to Study Brain Function (R21/R33) (PAR-08-158). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites Phased Innovation (R21/R33) grant applications from organizations/institutions that propose the development and characterization of novel mouse models that express human genes or human genetic elements that can aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying brain function and the physiological function/significance of gene variants and gene dosage abnormalities that have been identified as possibly being involved in mental disorders, addiction, neurodegenerative disorders of aging, and alcoholism as well as related comorbid conditions.

On March 19, 2008, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Probes and Instrumentation for Monitoring and Manipulating Nervous System Plasticity (R01) (RFA-MH-09-030). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is issued as an initiative of the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, a collaborative framework through which 16 NIH Institutes, Centers and Offices jointly support neuroscience-related research, with the aim of accelerating discoveries and reducing the burden of nervous system disorders (for further information, see http://neuroscienceblueprint.nih.gov/). Applications are solicited for support of projects that will develop probes, instrumentation, and other tools for understanding, monitoring, and manipulating nervous system plasticity. This FOA will focus on the development of tools or techniques that will significantly advance the current state of the art in neuroplasticity research. Although applications will not be restricted to a particular type of technology, the NIH is especially interested in applications that seek to harness the ability to assess and manipulate activity with exquisite subcellular resolution, and in cells specified by their circuit connectivity and/or transmitter phenotype.

On April 24, 2008, NIDA participated in the issuance of an RFA entitled Functional Characterization of Genetic Variants and Interactions: The Genes, Environment and Health Initiative (R21) (RFA-DA-09-003). This FOA is developed as part of the NIH-wide Genes, Environment, and Health Initiative (GEI). All NIH Institutes and Centers participate in NIH-wide initiatives. This FOA will be administered by NIDA (http://www.nida.nih.gov) on behalf of the NIH (http://www.nih.gov). This RFA encourages functional characterization of genetic variants that have been statistically nominated to be associated with a particular outcome through common, complex disease gene discovery approaches, such as genome-wide association studies, candidate gene approaches, or sequencing studies. This FOA supports research relating genetic variation to biological mechanism, or disease causality. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, relatively low throughput approaches (e.g. transgenic mouse approaches) to test some of the most promising variants for changes in function; or exploit high-throughput tests (e.g. yeast, C. elegans, cell culture systems, or computational approaches) to look at different aspects of variant function.

On April 24, 2008, NIDA participated in the issuance of an RFA entitled Functional Characterization of Genetic Variants and Interactions: The Genes, Environment and Health Initiative (R03) (RFA-DA-09-004). This FOA is developed as part of the NIH-wide Genes, Environment, and Health Initiative (GEI). All NIH Institutes and Centers participate in NIH-wide initiatives. This FOA will be administered by NIDA (http://www.nida.nih.gov) on behalf of the NIH (http://www.nih.gov). This RFA encourages functional characterization of genetic variants that have been statistically nominated to be associated with a particular outcome through common, complex disease gene discovery approaches, such as genome-wide association studies, candidate gene approaches, or sequencing studies. This FOA supports research relating genetic variation to biological mechanism, or disease causality. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, relatively low throughput approaches (e.g. transgenic mouse approaches) to test some of the most promising variants for changes in function; or exploit high-throughput tests (e.g. yeast, C. elegans, cell culture systems, or computational approaches) to look at different aspects of variant function.

On March 6, 2008, NIDA, in conjunction with other neuroscience NIH components, reissued the Jointly Sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Institutional Predoctoral Training Program in the Neurosciences (T32) PAR-08-101. The purpose of the NRSA research training program is to help ensure that a diverse and highly trained workforce is available to assume leadership roles related to the Nation's biomedical and behavioral research agenda. This joint program encourages and supports early-stage predoctoral training in the neurosciences. The primary objective is to prepare qualified individual for careers in neuroscience that have a significant impact on the health-related research needs of the Nation.

Other Program Activities

Clinical Trials Network (CTN) Update

SBIR: The CCTN received proposals in response to a NIH SBIR Contract Solicitation for, "Development of Web-based Training on Addiction Medicine for Pain Management Providers" and "Development of Web-based Skills Training for Primary Care Physicians on Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral and Treatment of Substance Abuse." The review meeting was held January 11, 2008. There are plans to award up to four proposals.

Protocols: A total of 31 protocols have been initiated since 2001. Nearly 9,000 participants have enrolled in studies. Of these studies, 20 have completed data lock; two are in the data-lock phase; and four are currently enrolling. Five new protocols are in the development phase.

Primary outcome papers are published and dissemination materials have been developed with CSAT's ATTC on the following:

Protocol CTN 0001, Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

Protocol CTN 0002, Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Outpatient Opiate Detoxification

Protocol CTN 0005, MI (Motivational Interviewing) To Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse

Protocol CTN 0006, Motivational Incentives for Enhanced Drug Abuse Recovery: Drug Free Clinics

Protocol CTN 0007, Motivational Incentives for Enhanced Drug Abuse Recovery: Methadone Clinics

Primary outcome papers are published or in press for:

Protocol CTN 0004, MET (Motivational Enhancement Treatment) To Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse

Protocol CTN 0008, A Baseline for Investigating Diffusion of Innovation

Protocol CTN 0009, Smoking Cessation Treatment with Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs

Protocol CTN 0011, A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure (TELE) to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities

Protocol CTN 0012, Characteristics of Screening, Evaluation, and Treatment of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C Viral Infection, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

Protocol CTN 0013, Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome In Pregnant Substance Abusers

Protocol CTN 0016, Patient Feedback: A Performance Improvement Study in Outpatient Addiction Treatment

In addition, the following protocols have submitted primary papers:

Protocol CTN 0003, Bup/Nx: Comparison of Two Taper Schedules

Protocol CTN 0010, Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults

Protocol CTN 0015, Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Protocol CTN 0018, Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Men in Drug Abuse Treatment

Protocol CTN 0019, Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment

Protocol CTN 0021, Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse. This is the first Spanish-only protocol in the CTN

The following protocols have ended new enrollment, completed follow-up phase and are in the data-lock phase:

Protocol CTN 0014, Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers (BSFT)

Protocol CTN 0029, A Pilot Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) in Initiating and Maintaining Abstinence in Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Four protocols are currently enrolling:

Protocol CTN 0027, Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) is a randomized, open-label, multi-center study that was developed in collaboration with the Division of Pharmacotherapies & Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse (DPMCDA). Enrollment began in April 2006. As of March 31, 2008, there were 681 randomized participants.
CCTN 0027A, START Pharmacogenetics: Exploratory Genetic Studies In Starting Treatment With Agonist Replacement Therapies.

Protocol CTN 0028, Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Enrollment is now open at 11 sites. As of March 31, 2008, 272 participants have been randomized.
CTN 0028A, Does Methylphenidate Treatment for ADHD Increase the Rate of Smoking in Adolescents with Comorbid ADHD, SUD, and nicotine dependence?

Protocol CTN 0030, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) is a randomized 2-phase, open-label, multi-center study in outpatient treatment settings. Pre-screening began in May 2006. The study is being carried out in 9 sites. As of March 31, 2008, there were 448 randomized participants.
CTN 0030A, Collection of Economic Data for the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study. This ancillary study is conducted in collaboration and support with NIDA DESPR.
CTN 0030B, Effects of Chronic Opioids is conducted in collaboration and support with NIDA DCNBR to obtain anatomical MR scans in subjects with a history of opioid use to evaluate neural changes that may occur with such use and compare with age/gender healthy controls.

Protocol CTN 0031, Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12): Evaluation of a Combined Individual-Group Intervention to Reduce Stimulant and Other Drug Use by Increasing 12-Step Involvement. As of April 4, 2008, 20 participants have been randomized at the 3 Wave 1 sites. Staff from the Wave 2 sites will be trained in Bethesda, MD during August 2008, and Wave 2 recruitment is expected to commence in September 2008.
CTN 0031A, An Evaluation of Neurocognitive Function, Oxidative Damage, and Their Association with Treatment Outcomes in Methamphetamine and Cocaine Abusers. Ten participants have been enrolled.
CTN 0031B, The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Classifications of Alcohol Use Disorders: A Clinical Study is being led by Dr. Deborah Hasin (Long Island Node). This study is funded by an MOU between NIDA and NIAAA.
CTN 0031C, Organizational and Practitioner Influences on Implementation of STAGE-12.

Five protocols are in the development phase:

Protocol CTN 0032, HIV Rapid Testing and Counseling in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs in the U.S. This study seeks to evaluate the most effective strategy to ensure that persons in drug treatment programs are tested for HIV and receive their HIV test results. The protocol seeks to enroll more than 1,200 participants across approximately 12 sites in the US. A final site selection decision is expected to be done by the middle of summer. The goal is to start enrolling patients by fall 2008.
CTN 0032A, Economic Analysis of HIV Rapid Testing in Drug Abuse Treatment Programs. This is an ancillary study to protocol CTN 0032, to conduct an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of on-site HIV testing in drug abuse treatment settings vs referral for off-site testing. The PI is Dr. Bruce Schakman. The project is being conducted in collaboration with NIDA's DESPR.

Protocol CTN 0033, Methamphetamine Use among American Indians. The first area of research emphasis in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Strategic Plan on Reducing Health Disparities (2004 Revision) is the epidemiology of drug abuse, health consequences and infectious diseases among minority populations. The study is a collaboration among four Nodes: Pacific NW, Southwest, Oregon/Hawaii, and Ohio Valley.

Protocol CTN 0034, Developing Research Capacity and Culturally Appropriate Research Methods: Community-based Participatory Research Manual for Collaborative Research in Drug Abuse for American Indians and Alaska Natives. This study is in collaboration with the NIH National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities and will be conducted in the Pacific Northwest Node.

Protocol CTN 0035, Access to HIV and Hepatitis Screening and Care among Ethnic Minority Drug Users In and Out of Drug Treatment. This study is in collaboration with the NIH National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities and will be conducted in the CA-AZ Node.

Protocol CTN 0036, Epidemiology and Ethnographic Survey of "Cheese" Heroin Use among Hispanics in Dallas County. This study is in collaboration with the NIH National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities and will be conducted in the Texas Node.

In addition to the primary CTN trials, there are currently three secondary analyses using data across several of the completed trials:

(1) Gender Differences in the Prevalence and Predictors of HIV Risk Behaviors, PI: Audrey Brooks (CA/AZ Node);

(2) Pattern of alcohol use and alcohol-related diagnoses among drug abusing/dependent participants, PIs: Dennis Donovan and Bryan Hartzler (Pacific Northwest Node);

(3) The relationships between demographic characteristics of patients and therapists, measures of therapeutic process and therapeutic alliance, and outcomes, PIs: Alyssa Forcehimes (Southwest Node) and Kathleen Burlew (Ohio Valley Node).

There are also 37 funded studies supported by independent grants that use CTN studies as a platform and 21 completed, ongoing, or planned studies funded as supplements to the clinical trials.




NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since Febraury 2008

Abi-Dargham, Anissa -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Imaging Dopamine Transmission in Comorbid Schizophrenia and Cannabis Dependence

Bannon, Michael J. -- Wayne State University
Cocaine-Binding Dopamine Transporter: Molecular Biology

Banta-Green, Caleb -- University of Washington
Quantitative Drug Surveillance System Development

Benowitz, Neal L. -- University of California, San Francisco
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine

Benveniste, Helene -- State University New York, Stony Brook
Role of Astroglia in Cocaine-induced Neurotoxicity

Boudreaux, Edwin D. -- University of Medicine/Dentistry of New Jersey - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
The Sentinel Events Model: A Dynamic Model of Substance Use Cessation

Brown, Edson S. -- University of Texas, Southwest Medical Center, Dallas
Citicoline for Bipolar Disorder and Cocaine Dependence

Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W. -- University of Florida
Nicotine Withdrawal and Relapse: Role of Neuroadaptations in Brain Stress Systems

Carlson, Robert G. -- Wright State University
Opioid Use Trajectories and HIV Risk among Young Adults in Ohio

Cheer, Joseph Francois Rene -- Albany Medical College
Endogenous Cannabinoid Control of Reward Substrates

Chen, Xinguang -- Wayne State University
Measuring Cigarette Smoking Behavior Progression with Cross-Sectional Data

Conklin, Cynthia A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Self-Report and Behavioral Reactivity to Combined Smoking Cues

Coop, Andrew -- University of Maryland, Baltimore
Opioids with Delta Antagonist and Mu Agonist Activity

Cooper, Donald C. -- University of Texas, Southwest Medical Center, Dallas
Plasticity of Excitability in Ventral Subiculum after High Cocaine Intake

Culverhouse, Robert C. -- Washington University
Genetic Interactions Contributing to Alcohol and Nicotine Dependence

Dani, John A. -- Baylor College of Medicine
Cellular and Synaptic Physiology during the Progression to Nicotine Abuse

Davis, W. Rees -- National Development and Research Institutes
Prescription Opioids among Street Drug Users: Medical Use, Misuse and Diversion

De Biasi, Mariella -- Baylor College of Medicine
Regulation of Proteasomal Function by Nicotine

Devi, Lakshmi A. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
Post-Translational Regulation of Opioid Receptors

Dickson-Gomez, Julia B. -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Drug Use, Housing Access, Stability and HIV Risk among Low-Income Urban Residents

Difranza, Joseph R. -- University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester
Imaging of Nicotine Sensitization in Humans: A Translational Application of fMRI

Dimaggio, Charles -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Changes in Substance Abuse Patterns Following the Terrorist Attacks of September 11th

Dong, Yan -- Washington State University
Cocaine-Induced Adaptation in NMDA Receptors in Nucleus Accumbens

Duclos, Richard I. -- Northeastern University
Inhibition of Endocannabinoid Biosynthesis via Diacylglycerol Lipase

Dunigan, Robert L. -- Brandeis University
Treatment Engagement and Time to Recidivism for African-American Male Offenders

Edwards, Jessica M. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Neighborhood Context, Drug Use, and Risky Sexual Behavior among U.S. Adolescents

Ehrlich, Michelle E. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
Post-Synaptic Striatal TrkB: Role in the Response to Cocaine

Eisch, Amelia J. -- University of Texas, Southwest Medical Center, Dallas
Cdk5 and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Elwyn, Laura J. -- State University of New York at Albany
Perception of Childhood Maltreatment: Implications for Early Adult Substance Abuse

Ensminger, Margaret E. -- Johns Hopkins University
Drug Abuse and Crime across the Life Course in an African-American Population

Fairbanks, Carolyn A. -- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Opioid Self-Administration in Chronic Pain

Fleckenstein, Annette -- University of Utah
Psychostimulants and Monoamine Transporters

Floyd, Leah -- Johns Hopkins University
HIV Disparities among Drug Users: Neighborhoods, Neurocognition and Sex Behavior

Frankle, William G. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
The Effects of Cannabis Use/Abuse on In Vivo Dopamine Function

Galloway, Gantt P. -- California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute
A Dose Ranging Study of Modafinil for Methamphetamine Dependence

Garvey, Arthur J. -- Harvard University Medical School
Duration of Behavioral Counseling Treatment Needed to Optimize Smoking Abstinence

Gerak, Lisa R. -- University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio
Discriminative Effects of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal

Gibbons, Frederick X. -- Iowa State University
Factors Influencing the Health Behavior of Young African-American Adults

Goldstein, Rita Z. -- Brookhaven National Laboratory
The Prefrontal Cortex in Reward Devaluation in Human Cocaine Addiction

Golub, Andrew L. -- National Development and Research Institutes
Transient Domesticity and Drugs: Ethnography Informs a Nationwide Analysis

Haggerty, Kevin P. -- University of Washington
Disparities of Drug Use in Emerging Adults

Havens, Jennifer R. -- University of Kentucky
Social Networks and HIV Risk among Rural Drug Users

Hayashida, Kenchiro -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Mechanism of Gabapentin Analgesia

Higgins, Stephen T. -- University of Vermont and State Agricultural College
Treating Cocaine Abuse: A Behavioral Approach

Huang, Li -- Duke University
Identification of Anti-HIV Agent(s) from Sophora Alkaloids

Hurd, Yasmin L. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
The Neuronal Basis of Cannabis-Induced Developmental Deficits in the CNS

Jacobsen, Leslie K. -- Yale University
Reward-Motivated Learning in Adolescent Cannabis Users

Kavanaugh, Michael P. -- University of Montana
Characterization and Use of Fluorescent Endocannabinoid Transporter Substrates

Kellar, Kenneth J. -- Georgetown University
Pharmacology and Regulation of Nicotinic Receptor Subtypes

Kipke, Michele D. -- Children's Hospital, Los Angeles
HIV Prevention for High Risk African-American Young Men

Kipke, Michele D. -- Children's Hospital, Los Angeles
African-American Young Men's Study

Ko, Mei-Chuan -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Evaluation in Primates of Cocaine Esterase for the Treatment of Cocaine Toxicity

Koob, George F. -- Scripps Research Institute
Central Mechanisms of Nicotine Reinforcement and Dependence

Kurtz, Steven P. -- University of Delaware
Risk Reduction for Urban Substance Using MSM

Lavin, Antonieta -- Medical University of South Carolina
Effects of Repetitive Cocaine Administration in Activity of Cortical Interneurons

Law, Ping-Yee -- University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Engineered Opioid Receptors as Therapeutic Agents for Pain Control

Li, Shi-Jiang W. -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Imaging Cocaine Valuations in the Human Brain by fMRI

Liu, Qing-Song -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Synaptic Plasticity in the Ventral Tegmental Area and Cocaine Addiction

Luthar, Suniya S. -- Columbia University Teachers College
Substance Abuse among Suburban Youth: A Prospective Study

Lynch, Wendy J. -- University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Dopaminergic and Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Cocaine Addiction: Sex Differences

Madden, Gregory J. -- University of Kansas, Lawrence
Impulsivity, Dopamine and the Behavioral Economics of Gambling

Manev, Hari -- University of Illinois at Chicago
A Role for 5-Lipoxyegenase in Cocaine's Actions

Marshall, John F. -- University of California, Irvine
Methamphetamine Abuse and Cortical Cell Injury

Mason, Walter A. -- University of Washington
Parent-Training Intervention to Prevent Adolescent Depression and Substance Use

Meisel, Robert L. -- Purdue University, West Lafayette
Dopamine Sensitization by Motivated Behaviors

Melikian, Haley E. -- University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester
Trafficking and Regulation of Monoamine Transporters

Mills, Edward M. -- University of Texas, Austin
Mechanisms of MDMA-Induced Hyperthermia

Morris, Marilyn E. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate: Toxicokinetics, Toxicodynamics and Treatment Strategies

Mosberg, Henry I. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Conformation - Selectivity Relations of Opioid Peptides

Mustanski, Brian S. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Gene-Environment Interaction Effects on HIV Risk

Nath, Avindra -- Johns Hopkins University
SSRI-Neuroprotection for HIV/Drug Abuse

Navarro, Hernan A. -- Research Triangle Institute
Ethnopharmacological Approach to Psychoactive Compounds

Nicosia, Nancy -- Rand Corporation
Role of Race in Criminal Justice Referrals to Treatment

Nyamathi, Adeline M. -- University of California, Los Angeles
An Arts Intervention for Drug-Using Homeless Youth

Ompad, Danielle C. -- New York Academy of Medicine
Methods for Evaluating the Physical and Social Environment of Urban Neighborhoods

Orlando, Maria -- Rand Corporation
Assessment of the Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment Process

Oser, Carrie B. -- University of Kentucky
African-American Female Drug Users: HIV, Health Disparities, and Criminality

Palmer, Abraham A. -- University of Chicago
Novel Methods to Map Stimulant QTLs in Advanced Intercross Lines

Pan, Ying-Xian -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Characterizing Exon 11 Promoter of the Mu Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM

Pasternak, Gavril W. -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Synthesis and Pharmacology of Novel Opiates and Their Modulatory Systems

Pechnick, Robert N. -- Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Viral-Mediated GDNF Expression and Cocaine Addiction

Pechnick, Robert N. -- Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Nicotine Addiction: Influence of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure

Pelham, William E. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Development of Drug Use and Abuse in ADHD Adolescents

Peti, Wolfgang -- Brown University
Structural and Functional Analysis of the Sigma-1 Receptor

Picciotto, Marina R. -- Yale University
Anatomical Basis for Nicotine Addiction

Pierce, Robert Christopher -- Boston University Medical Campus
MPFC, N. Accumbens and Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking

Popescu, Gabriela -- State University of New York at Buffalo
NMDA Receptors with Restricted Mobility of the Ligand Binding Domain

Porreca, Frank F. -- University of Arizona
NGF-Dependent Sensitization of Nociceptors by Opiates

Potter, Alexandra S. -- University of Vermont and State Agricultural College
The Functional Neuroanatomy of Acute Nicotinic Modulation of Impulsivity in Women

Potts, Geoffrey F. -- University of South Florida
Reward Sensitivity and Incentive Salience in Cigarette Smokers

Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M. -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
RNAi Knockdown of Cav1.3 and Addiction

Redding, Colleen A. -- University of Rhode Island
Optimal TTM Tailoring for Population Cessation

Rowell, Tawandra Lashone -- University of Pennsylvania
The Impact of Drugs on the Sexual Behavior of African-American Male Inmates

Sanna, Pietro P. -- Scripps Research Institute
Gene Expression of Cocaine Dependence and Relapse

Self, David W. -- University of Texas, Southwest Medical Center, Dallas
Mechanisms of Altered Dopamine Signaling in Cocaine Addiction

Shadel, William G. -- Rand Corporation
Modeling the Effect of Cigarette Advertising on Adolescent Smoking

Stoops, William W. -- University of Kentucky
Human Lab Model of Behavioral/Pharmacological Treatment for Cocaine Dependence

Strathdee, Steffanie A. -- University of California, San Diego
Epidemiologic Study on Changing HIV Risks Among FSW-IDUs on the Mexico-US Border

Swann, William B. -- University of Texas, Austin
Interpersonal Processes, Identity and Smoking Cessation

Sweitzer, Sarah M. -- University of South Carolina at Columbia
Developmental Regulation of Endothelin Pain

Thomas, James B. -- Research Triangle Institute
Development of Levocabastine Analogues to Treat Methamphetamine Abuse

Tull, Matthew T. -- University of Maryland
PTSD and Predictors of Residential Drug Treatment Drop Out

Unger, Vinzenz M. -- Yale University
Structural Biology of Presynaptic Scaffolds

Vaidya, Jatin G. -- University of Iowa
An FMRI Study of Relative Reward Processing in Adolescents and Adults

Vallano, Mary L. -- Upstate Medical University
A Calcium/Calcineurin Signaling Cascade Regulates Neuronal Cannabinoid Receptors

Wagner, Karla D. -- University of Southern California
Gender Differences in Perceived Costs of Safer Injection among Injection Drug Use

Wang, Qiang -- University of Missouri, Kansas City
Metabotropic Glutamate Regulation of Amphetamine Action

Watkins, Linda R. -- University of Colorado at Boulder
Exploring the Potential of Glia for Regulating Clinically Relevant Opioid Actions

White, Mary Castle -- University of California, San Francisco
Methamphetamine Use in Inmates: Risk Behaviors, Health Status and Recidivism

Wolfe, Hannah -- St. Luke's-Roosevelt Institute for Health Sciences
Peer Intervention to Link HIV Positive Substance Abusers to Outpatient Care

Zhang, Heping -- Yale University
Analysis of Genomic Data for Complex Traits


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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