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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - May, 2006



Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On March 8, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Cutting-Edge Basic Research Awards (CEBRA) (R21) (PAR-06-209). The NIDA CEBRA award is designed to foster highly innovative or conceptually creative research related to drug abuse and addiction and how to prevent and treat them, and to support research that is high risk and potentially high impact that is underrepresented or not included in NIDA's current portfolio.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Drug Abuse Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Other Infections (R21) (PA-06-309). This PA is intended to support Exploratory/Developmental research projects that address drug abuse aspects of HIV/AIDS, other blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, and TB in men and women, adolescents and adults, and in majority and minority populations.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Drug Abuse Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Other Infections (R03) (PA-06-310). This PA is intended to support small research projects that address drug abuse aspects of HIV/AIDS, other blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, and TB in men and women, adolescents and adults, and in majority and minority populations.

On March 30, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Behavioral Science Track Award for Rapid Transition (B/START) (R03) (PA-06-300). This PA seeks to facilitate the entry of beginning investigators into the field of behavioral science research related to drug abuse. To be appropriate for a B/START award, research must be primarily focused on behavioral processes and research questions.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Imaging-Science Track Award for Rapid Transition (I/START) (R03) (PA-06-311). This PA seeks to facilitate the entry of investigators to the area of neuroimaging, including both new investigators and established investigators seeking to adopt neuroimaging methodologies in their research programs.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research (R21) (PA-06-317). The goals of this PA are to encourage exploratory/developmental research projects of cognitive, behavioral and social processes as they relate to: 1) the development of novel drug abuse prevention approaches; 2) the efficacy and effectiveness of newly developed and/or modified prevention programs; 3) the processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions; and 4) methodologies appropriate for studying complex aspects of prevention science.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Drug Abuse Prevention Intervention Research (R03) (PA-06-318). The goals of this PA are to encourage pilot/feasibility research projects of cognitive, behavioral and social processes as they relate to: 1) the development of novel drug abuse prevention approaches; 2) the efficacy and effectiveness of newly developed and/or modified prevention programs; 3) the processes associated with the selection, adoption, adaptation, implementation, sustainability, and financing of empirically validated interventions; and 4) methodologies appropriate for studying complex aspects of prevention science.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Inhalant Abuse: Supporting Broad-Based Research Approaches (R21) (PA-06-327). The goal of this PA is to encourage research on all aspects of inhalant abuse (i.e., epidemiology; prevention, treatment and service delivery; antecedents, consequences and neurobiological mechanisms).

On April 5, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Inhalant Abuse: Supporting Broad-Based Research Approaches (R03) (PA-06-328). The goal of this PA is to encourage research on all aspects of inhalant abuse (i.e., epidemiology; prevention, treatment and service delivery; antecedents, consequences and neurobiological mechanisms).

On April 6, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Women, Sex/Gender Differences and Drug Abuse (R21) (PA-06-331). The purpose of this PA is to encourage sex/gender-based drug abuse research that focuses on the mechanisms, origins and consequences of drug abuse, as well as prevention and treatment interventions and services. It also encourages the study of female-specific issues in all areas of drug abuse.

On April 6, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Women, Sex/Gender Differences and Drug Abuse (R03) (PA-06-332). The purpose of this PA is to encourage sex/gender-based drug abuse research that focuses on the mechanisms, origins and consequences of drug abuse, as well as prevention and treatment interventions and services. It also encourages the study of female-specific issues in all areas of drug abuse.

On April 7, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Epidemiology of Drug Abuse (R21) (PA-06-329). This PA is intended to support exploratory/developmental research projects that address: 1) drug use patterns and trends within and across populations; 2) interplay of social interactions, social environment, structural context with individual behavioral characteristics and genetic vulnerability; 3) the phenotypic heterogeneity of drug abuse; 4) causal mechanisms leading to onset, maintenance, and remittance of drug abuse, as well as protective mechanisms that reduce the risk of drug abuse; and 5) drug abuse over the life course, including developmental processes that influence drug use trajectories and behavioral, health and social consequences of drug abuse.

On April 7, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Epidemiology of Drug Abuse (R03) (PA-06-330). This PA is intended to support small research projects that address: 1) drug use patterns and trends within and across populations; 2) interplay of social interactions, social environment, structural context with individual behavioral characteristics and genetic vulnerability; 3) the phenotypic heterogeneity of drug abuse; 4) causal mechanisms leading to onset, maintenance, and remittance of drug abuse, as well as protective mechanisms that reduce the risk of drug abuse; and 5) drug abuse over the life course, including developmental processes that influence drug use trajectories and behavioral, health and social consequences of drug abuse.

On April 10, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Prescription Drug Abuse (R21) (PA-06-339). The purpose of this PA is to encourage research aimed at reducing prescription drug abuse while supporting appropriate medical use of therapeutic agents with abuse liability. A range of research is needed to combat prescription drug abuse—from specifying the extent and nature of the problem (including health and social consequences) and identifying their determinants, to discovering effective clinical practices that identify those at risk and designing and disseminating prevention and treatment interventions.

On April 10, 2006, NIDA issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Prescription Drug Abuse (R03) (PA-06-340). The purpose of this PA is to encourage research aimed at reducing prescription drug abuse while supporting appropriate medical use of therapeutic agents with abuse liability. A range of research is needed to combat prescription drug abuse—from specifying the extent and nature of the problem (including health and social consequences) and identifying their determinants, to discovering effective clinical practices that identify those at risk and designing and disseminating prevention and treatment interventions.

PAs and RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On February 16, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NINDS, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Preclinical Therapeutics Development for NeuroAIDS (R21) (PA-06-139). The purpose of this PA is to invite applications proposing novel models of HIV-related central or peripheral nervous system damage that can be used to screen for compounds showing promise as treatments in the patient population. This PA will use the NIH Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21) award mechanism.

On February 16, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NINDS, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Preclinical Therapeutics Development for NeuroAIDS (R03). (PA-06-140). The purpose of this PA is to invite applications proposing novel models of HIV-related central or peripheral nervous system damage that can be used to screen for compounds showing promise as treatments in the patient population. This PA will use the NIH Small Research Grant (R03) award mechanism.

On March 2, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled NIH Small Research Grant Program (Parent R03) (PA-06-180). The NIH Investigator-Initiated Small Grant (R03) funding opportunity supports small research projects that can be carried out in a short period of time with limited resources. The R03 grant mechanism supports different types of projects including pilot and feasibility studies; secondary analysis of existing data; small, self-contained research projects; development of research methodology; and development of new research technology.

On March 2, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21) (PA-06-181). The Exploratory/Developmental Grant (R21) mechanism is intended to encourage exploratory and developmental research projects by providing support for the early and conceptual stages of these projects. These studies may involve considerable risk but may lead to a breakthrough in a particular area, or the development of novel techniques, agents, methodologies, models, or applications that could have a major impact on a field of biomedical, behavioral or clinical research.

On March 3, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Characterization, Behavior and Plasticity of Pluripotent Stem Cells (R21) (PA-06-198). This PA invites applications for studies on the characterization, behavior and plasticity of human and non-human stem cells, regulation of their replication, differentiation, integration and function in the nervous system, and the identification and characterization of normal and tumor stem cells.

On March 2, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Health Research with Diverse Populations (R01) (PA-06-218). The purpose of this PA is to invite grant applications for biological, behavioral, social, mental health and drug and alcohol abuse research bearing on the health of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and related populations. Proposed research should be appropriate for the missions of one or more of the participating Institutes.

On March 8, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Exploratory Collaborations with National Centers for Biomedical Computing (R21) (PAR-06-223). This PA is for projects from individual investigators or small groups to collaborate with the recently-formed NIH Roadmap for Medical Research National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBCs).

On March 8, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with several other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Gene Discovery for Complex Neurological and Neurobehavioral Disorders (R21) (PAS-06-204). The goal of this funding opportunity announcment (FOA) is to promote the identification of susceptibility genes for complex neurological and neurobehavioral disorders.

On March 9, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Interactions Between Stem and Progenitor Cells and the Microenvironment (R03) (PAS-06-207). Through this PA, the sponsoring Institutes invite applications for studies on the molecular and cellular signaling between the local environment within organisms and stem and progenitor cells that are either introduced as transplants or are normally resident within host tissues and organs. The objective of this initiative is to promote a thorough exploration and characterization of the bi-directional communication between multipotent cells and the three-dimensional local milieu or niche that they encounter in vivo under normal and compromised states, such as with aging or following injury, disease or drug exposure.

On March 9, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Interactions Between Stem and Progenitor Cells and the Microenvironment (R21) (PAS-06-208). Through this PA, the sponsoring Institutes invite applications for studies on the molecular and cellular signaling between the local environment within organisms and stem and progenitor cells that are either introduced as transplants or are normally resident within host tissues and organs. The objective of this initiative is to promote a thorough exploration and characterization of the bi-directional communication between multipotent cells and the three-dimensional local milieu or niche that they encounter in vivo under normal and compromised states, such as with aging or following injury, disease or drug exposure.

On March 9, 2006, NIDA, in conjunction with several other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled International Neuroscience Fellowship (F05) (PAR-06-227). The goal of this International Neuroscience Fellowship Program is to provide a unique opportunity to qualified foreign neuroscientists, at junior or mid-career level, to receive one to two years of research training in the United States.

On March 10, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Research on Social Work Practice and Concepts in Health (R03) (PA-06-233). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) issued by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research solicits Small Research Grant (R03) applications from organizations/institutions that propose to develop empirical research on social work practice, concepts, and theory as they relate to the NIH public health goal of improving health outcomes for persons with medical and behavioral disorders and conditions.

On March 10, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Research on Social Work Practice and Concepts in Health (R21) (PA-06-234). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) issued by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research solicits Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant (R21) applications from organizations/institutions that propose to develop empirical research on social work practice, concepts, and theory as they relate to the NIH public health goal of improving health outcomes for persons with medical and behavioral disorders and conditions.

On March 16, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Research on Sleep and Sleep Disorders (R21) (PA-06-238). This PA invites submission of grant applications proposing research to advance biomedical knowledge related to sleep or sleep disorders, improve understanding of the neurobiology or functions of sleep over the lifespan, enhance timely diagnosis and effective treatment for individuals affected by sleep-related disorders, or implement and evaluate innovative community-based public health education and intervention programs.

On March 17, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Community Participation in Research (R21) (PA-06-247). The ultimate goal of this PA is to support research on health promotion, disease prevention, and health disparities that is jointly conducted by communities and researchers.

On March 17, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement entitled Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Research Opportunities (R03) (PAR-06-249). This PA is intended to support mental health and/or substance abuse services research, as well as broader based alcohol or drug abuse research in rapidly evolving areas (e.g., changes in service systems, health care financing, policy, etc.) where opportunities for empirical study are, by their very natures, only available through expedited award of support.

On March 24, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Neurotechnology Research, Development, and Enhancement (R21) (PA-06-278). This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) for Exploratory/Developmental (R21) grant applications seeks to enable neuroscience and behavioral research by soliciting research and development of novel, or significant enhancement of existing, tools and approaches to be used in brain and behavioral research.

On March 24, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Neurotechnology Research, Development, and Enhancement (R01) (PA-06-279). This PA seeks to enable neuroscience and behavioral research by soliciting research and development of novel, or significant enhancement of existing, tools and approaches to be used in brain and behavioral research.

On March 24, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NINDS and NIMH, issued a Program Announcement entitled Non-Human Lentiviral Models of the Neurological Complications of AIDS (R03) (PAS-06-275). This PA invites research grant applications aimed at developing non-human lentiviral in-vivo model systems for study of the neurologic complications of AIDS, without without a history of drug use.

On March 24, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NINDS and NIMH, issued a Program Announcement entitled Non-Human Lentiviral Models of the Neurological Complications of AIDS (R21) (PAS-06-276). This PA invites research grant applications aimed at developing non-human lentiviral in-vivo model systems for study of the neurologic complications of AIDS, without without a history of drug use.

On March 29, 2006, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Understanding Mechanisms of Health Risk Behavior Change in Children and Adolescents (R21) (PA-06-298). This PA invites research grant applications that will enhance our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that determine changes in health risk behaviors during childhood and adolescence. Interdisciplinary research is sought to explore the biological, genetic, physiological, psychological, and social/environmental factors and mechanisms that influence health risk behavior change in children and adolescents.

On March 29, 2006, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Centers for AIDS Research: D-FAR, C-FAR (P30) (PAR-06-291). This PA solicits applications for the Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) program to provide administrative and shared research support to enhance AIDS research. CFARs provide core facilities, expertise, resources, and services not readily obtained otherwise through more traditional funding mechanisms.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled The Effect of Racial and Ethnic Discrimination/Bias on Health Care Delivery (R21) (PA-06-306). The purposes of this PA are 1) to improve the measurement of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care delivery systems through improved instrumentation, data collection, and statistical/analytical techniques; 2) to enhance understanding of the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care delivery and its association with disparities in disease incidence, treatment and outcomes among disadvantaged racial/ethnic minority groups; and 3) to reduce the prevalence of racial/ethnic health disparities through the development of interventions to reduce the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination of health care delivery systems in the United States.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled The Effect of Racial and Ethnic Discrimination/Bias on Health Care Delivery (R03) (PA-06-348). The purposes of this PA are 1) to improve the measurement of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care delivery systems through improved instrumentation, data collection, and statistical/analytical techniques; 2) to enhance understanding of the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care delivery and its association with disparities in disease incidence, treatment and outcomes among disadvantaged racial/ethnic minority groups; and 3) to reduce the prevalence of racial/ethnic health disparities through the development of interventions to reduce the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination of health care delivery systems in the United States.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA and NIAAA issued a joint Program Announcement entitled Health Services Research on the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (R21) (PA-06-307). This PA solicits health services research on the prevention and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse. Proposed research might emphasize any of the following subjects: 1) Factors that affect the delivery of drug and alcohol abuse intervention and related services, such as social factors, personal behaviors and attributes, financing, organization, management and health technologies; 2) Dimension of drug and alcohol abuse intervention and related services, such as accessibility, utilization, quality, effectiveness and costs; 3) Processes of blending science-based practices into community-based provision of drug and alcohol abuse prevention services; and 4) Research tools to facilitate higher quality health services research on drug and alcohol abuse.

On March 31, 2006, NIDA and NIAAA issued a joint Program Announcement entitled Health Services Research on the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (R03) (PA-06-308). This PA solicits health services research on the prevention and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse. Proposed research might emphasize any of the following subjects: 1) Factors that affect the delivery of drug and alcohol abuse intervention and related services, such as social factors, personal behaviors and attributes, financing, organization, management and health technologies; 2) Dimension of drug and alcohol abuse intervention and related services, such as accessibility, utilization, quality, effectiveness and costs; 3) Processes of blending science-based practices into community-based provision of drug and alcohol abuse prevention services; and 4) Research tools to facilitate higher quality health services research on drug and alcohol abuse.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA and NIAAA issued a joint Program Announcement (PA) entitled Economics of Prevention and Treatment Services for Drug and Alcohol Abuse (R21) (PA-06-319). This PA solicits research projects on the economics of prevention and treatment services for drug and alcohol abuse. Such research projects might emphasize any of the following subjects: 1) financing, including health insurance and/or payment mechanisms; 2) alternative delivery systems and managed care; 3) cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analyses; 4) service costs and production; and 5) methodological research.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA and NIAAA issued a joint Program Announcement (PA) entitled Economics of Prevention and Treatment Services for Drug and Alcohol Abuse (R03) (PA-06-320). This PA solicits research projects on the economics of prevention and treatment services for drug and alcohol abuse. Such research projects might emphasize any of the following subjects: 1) financing, including health insurance and/or payment mechanisms; 2) alternative delivery systems and managed care; 3) cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analyses; 4) service costs and production; and 5) methodological research.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NCI, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Cross-Disciplinary Translational Research at NIH (R21) (PA-06-321). The purpose of this PA is to foster research that furthers the translation of existing knowledge into treatment and treatment practice, or research that, in and of itself, will readily translate to clinical research or practice. This PA is intended to encourage projects that provide tools and resources that serve as platforms for the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NCI, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Cross-Disciplinary Translational Research at NIH (R03) (PA-06-322). The purpose of this PA is to foster research that furthers the translation of existing knowledge into treatment and treatment practice, or research that, in and of itself, will readily translate to clinical research or practice. This PA is intended to encourage projects that provide tools and resources that serve as platforms for the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies.

On April 5, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Psychopharmacology of Widely Available Psychoactive Nature Products (R03) (PA-06-323). This PA will support research grant applications that characterize the chemistry, psychopharmacology, and/or toxicology of acute and chronic exposure to psychoactive natural products, as well as the transition in the use of these products to licit or illicit drugs of abuse.

On April 7, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NCI and NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Decision Making in Health: Behavior Maintenance (R21) (PA-06-337). The purpose of this initiative is to invite applications for research projects that will expand our knowledge of basic decision-making processes underlying initiation and long-term maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors that may reduce one's risk of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and addiction.

On April 12, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NICHD, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled The Science and Ecology of Early Development (SEED) (R03) (PA-06-345). This PA invites research grant applications that seek to develop a comprehensive program of research focused on the mechanisms through which social, economic, cultural and community-level factors, and their interactions, impact the early cognitive, neurobiological, socio-emotional, and physical development of children.

On April 13, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Building Translational Research in Integrative Behavioral Science (R21) (PAR-06-355). This PA is intended to encourage the development of translational research partnerships between scientists who study basic behavioral processes and those who study the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders (including alcohol and drug use disorders) and the delivery of services to those suffering from those disorders.

On April 13, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Building Translational Research in Integrative Behavioral Science (R01) (PAR-06-356). This PA is intended to encourage the development of translational research partnerships between scientists who study basic behavioral processes and those who study the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders (including alcohol and drug use disorders) and the delivery of services to those suffering from those disorders.

On April 13, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Building Translational Research in Integrative Behavioral Science (R24) (PAR-06-357). This PA is intended to encourage the development of translational research partnerships between scientists who study basic behavioral processes and those who study the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and behavioral disorders (including alcohol and drug use disorders) and the delivery of services to those suffering from those disorders.

On April 14, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Methodology and Measurement in the Behavioral and Social Sciences (R21) (PA-06-343). The goal of this PA is to encourage research that will improve the quality and scientific power of data collected in the behavioral and social sciences, relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers.

On April 14, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Methodology and Measurement in the Behavioral and Social Sciences (R031) (PA-06-344). The goal of this PA is to encourage research that will improve the quality and scientific power of data collected in the behavioral and social sciences, relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers.

On April 18, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NCI, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Testing Tobacco Products Promoted to Reduce Harm (R21) (PA-06-361). The purpose of this PA is to stimulate multidisciplinary research on potential reduced-exposure tobacco products, both smoked and smokeless, through the interplay of basic, biological, behavioral, surveillance, and epidemiology research.

On April 21, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled NIH Clinical Trial Planning Grant Program (R34) (PA-06-363). The purpose of this PA is to provide support for the development of a Phase III clinical trial. This includes the establishment of the research team, the development of tools for data management and oversight of the research, the definition of recruitment strategies, and the finalization of the protocol and other essential elements of the study included in a manual of operations/procedures.

On April 25, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Research on Ethical Issues In Human Subjects Research (R03)(PA-06-367). Through this PA the NIH invites research grant applications to investigate ethical issues in human subjects research.

On April 25, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Research on Ethical Issues In Human Subjects Research (R21)(PA-06-368). Through this PA the NIH invites research grant applications to investigate ethical issues in human subjects research.

On April 25, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement (PA) entitled Research on Ethical Issues In Human Subjects Research (R01)(PA-06-369). Through this PA the NIH invites research grant applications to investigate ethical issues in human subjects research.

On March 3, 2006, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH and NINDS, issued an RFA entitled Institutional Research Training Programs: Increasing Diversity (T32) (RFA-MH-07-030). Through this RFA, sponsoring Institutes request competing renewal applications from the current grant recipients of RFA-MH-01-009, Institutional Training Programs: Increaing Diversity which were funded in FY 2002. The goal of the Increasing Diversity T32 program is to help ensure that a diverse pool of highly trained scientists is available in adequate numbers and in appropriate research areas to address the Nation's biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research needs in research areas relevant to NIMH, and/or NIDA, and/or NINDS.

Other Program Activities

The Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse, with support from the NIDA OSPC, arranged for the participation of NIDA as an exhibitor at both the joint meeting of Screening Europe and MedChem Europe in Prague (February 20-22, 2006) and at the PharmaDiscovery meeting in Rockville (May 10-12, 2006). These meetings provided opportunities for NIDA/pharmaceutical company discussions at the NIDA booth related to ongoing and future collaborations.

CTN Update

A total of 26 protocols and surveys have been initiated since 2001. A total of 11,585 participants were screened and 7,056 enrolled in studies as of April 7, 2006. Of these studies, 12 have completed enrollment and locked the data; seven completed enrollment and are in the follow-up phase; four are currently enrolling; two will begin enrollment within the next month, and one is in the protocol development phase.

Twelve protocols have locked the data:
Protocol CTN 0001, Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

Protocol CTN 0002, Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Outpatient Opiate Detoxification

Protocol CTN 0003, Bup/Nx: Comparison of Two Taper Schedules

Protocol CTN 0004, MET (Motivational Enhancement Treatment) To Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse

Protocol CTN 0005, MI (Motivational Interviewing) To Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse

Protocol CTN 0006, Motivational Incentives for Enhanced Drug Abuse Recovery: Drug Free Clinics

Protocol CTN 0007, Motivational Incentives for Enhanced Drug Abuse Recovery: Methadone Clinics

Protocol CTN 0008, A Baseline for Investigating Diffusion of Innovation

Protocol CTN 0009, Smoking Cessation Treatment with Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs

Protocol CTN 0011, A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure (TELE) to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities

Protocol CTN 0012, Characteristics of Screening, Evaluation, and Treatment of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C Viral Infection, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

Protocol CTN 0016, Patient Feedback: A Performance Improvement Study in Outpatient Addiction Treatment

Seven protocols have ended enrollment and are in the follow-up phase:
Protocol CTN 0010 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults) began enrollment in July 2003. Recruitment ended January 31, 2006.

Protocol CTN 0015 (Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial) began in March 2004. The study reached its enrollment target in October 2005, and follow-up continues until fall 2006.

Protocol CTN 0017 (HIV and HCV Intervention in Drug Treatment Settings). The study began enrollment in November 2004 and enrolled at eight community treatment sites across five Nodes. Enrollment ended in February 2006; follow-up will be complete in summer 2006.

Protocol CTN 0018 (Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Men in Drug Abuse Treatment) began enrolling in April 2004 and reached its target enrollment in September 2005. Follow-up will be complete in summer 2006.

Protocol CTN 0019 (Reducing HIV/STD Risk Behaviors: A Research Study for Women in Drug Abuse Treatment) began enrollment in May 2004 and reached its target in October 2005. Follow-up will continue until fall 2006.

Protocol CTN 0020 (Job Seekers Training for Substance Abusers). The protocol began enrollment in October 2004 and reached its enrollment target in February 2006. This study is also being conducted in a Navajo American Indian site, the Na'nizhoozhi Center, Inc. in Gallup, New Mexico, the first CTN study to be conducted there. Follow-up will continue through August 2006.

Protocol CTN 0021 (Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) began enrollment in November 2003 and reached its target goal in October 2005, and will complete the follow-up phase this spring. This is the first Spanish-only protocol in the CTN.

Four protocols are currently enrolling:
Protocol CTN 0013 (Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome In Pregnant Substance Abusers) began enrollment in November 2003 and has enrolled 96% of the projected target enrollment with 193 randomized participants.

Protocol CTN 0014, Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers (BSFT), has been implemented at eight sites. The study has reached 63% enrollment. There currently are a total of 301 randomized participants.

Protocol CTN 0028, Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Enrollment began March 17, 2006 in three sites; eight more sites should begin enrollment in June 2006.

Protocol CTN 0029, A Pilot Study of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate (OROS MPH) in Initiating and Maintaining Abstinence in Smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study is being carried out at six community treatment sites across five Nodes. Enrollment began at three sites in November 2005. There are a total of 22 randomized participants. Two participants have completed the active treatment phase and are currently in follow-up.

Two protocols will begin enrollment spring 2006:
Protocol CTN 0027, Starting Treatment with Agonist Replacement Therapies (START) is a randomized, open-label, multi-center study that was developed in collaboration with the Division of Pharmacotherapies & Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse (DPMCDA). Implementation is planned for April 2006 and will include nine sites. The National Protocol Training was held in Gaithersburg, MD on March 27-28, 2006. The first randomization is anticipated to take place on April 24, 2006. A genetics component was included in this study.

Protocol CTN 0030, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) is a randomized 2-phase, open-label, multi-center study in outpatient treatment settings. Implementation is planned for May 2006 and will be carried out in 12 sites. The National Protocol Training Meeting was held in Gaithersburg, MD on March 29-31, 2006.

One protocol is in the development phase:
Protocol CTN 0031, Twelve-Step Facilitation: Evaluation of an Intervention to Improve Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes by Increasing 12-Step Involvement.

In addition to the primary CTN trials, there are currently 11 funded studies supported by independent grants that use CTN studies as a platform.

NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since May 2006

Abrams, Donald I. -- University of California San Francisco
Opioid and Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetic Interactions

Altice, Frederick L. -- Yale University
Improving Health Outcomes for Released HIV+ Prisoners

Anand, Rene -- Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans
Proteomics of Nicotinic Receptor Complexes

Anderson, Kristen G. -- University of California, San Diego
Cognitions in Youth Substance Use Relapse Contexts

Angulo, Jesus A. -- Hunter College
Methamphetamine and the Striatal Nk-1 Receptors

Barker, Eric L. -- Purdue University West Lafayette
Psychostimulant Recognition by Serotonin Transporters

Beckham, Jean C. -- Duke University
The Effect of Smoking on Startle & PPI In PTSD

Blendy, Julie A. -- University of Pennsylvania
Molecular Genetic Analysis of Drug Addiction

Bouhamdan, Mohamad -- Wayne State University
Rgs9-2 Protein: Novel Partners and Functional Roles

Boutros, Nashaat N. -- Wayne State University
Cortical Excitability In Cocaine-Dependent Subjects

Buch, Shilpa J. -- University of Kansas Medical Center
HIV-Encephalitis and Cocaine Abuse: Mechanism of Synergy and Therapy

Burdzovic-Andreas, Jasmina -- Harvard University Medical School
Substance Use In Adolescents From High-Risk Neighborhoods: Risk and Protection

Chamberlain, Patricia -- Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
Preventing Behavior and Health Problems In Foster Teens

Chang, Sulie L. -- Seton Hall University
Opiate's Effects on the Inflammation and Cytotoxicity In HIV-1 Transgenic Rat

Corbin, Joshua G. -- Georgetown University
Development of the Basal Telencephalic Limbic System

Cravatt, Benjamin F. -- Scripps Research Institute
Drug Abuse Related Polymorphism In Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

Dallery, Jesse -- University of Florida
Effects of Nicotine on Environmental Stimuli

Davies, Robert D. -- University of Colorado Denver/Health Science Center, Aurora
Martial Arts As Early Intervention For Teen Drug Abuse

Deleo, Joyce A. -- Dartmouth College
Alternatives To Opioids For Chronic Pain: Part IV

D'esposito, Mark -- University of California, Berkeley
Dopaminergic Modulation of Frontostriatal Function

Dishion, Thomas J. -- University of Oregon
Understanding and Preventing Early Adult Drug Abuse

Dunlap, Eloise E. -- National Development & Research Institutes
Disruption and Reformulation of Illicit Drug Markets Among New Orleans Evacuees

Easton, Caroline J. -- Yale University
A Therapy Approach For SADV

Epperson, Cynthia N. -- Yale University
Sex, GABA and Nicotine: A 1h-MRS Study

Evans, Suzette M. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Vulnerability To Anxiolytic Abuse In Women

Fantegrossi, William E. -- Emory University
Effects of Self-Administered MDMA on Brain and Behavior In Rhesus Monkeys

Feelisch, Martin -- Boston University Medical Campus
A Nitric Oxide (NO)-Based Metabonomic Approach To Investigate Tobacco Addiction

Fendrich, Michael -- University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
Secondary Analysis of Substance Use In Men

Filizola, Marta -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Opioid Receptor Oligomerization: Prediction & Validation

Fleckenstein, Annette -- University of Utah
Drug Abuse and Regulatory Enzymes of Biogenic Amines

Ganapathy, Vadivel -- Medical College of Georgia (MCG)
Molecular Analysis of a Novel Opioid Peptide Transporter

Gewirtz, Jonathan C. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Neural Substrates of Anxiety In Acute Opiate Dependence

Gifford, Elizabeth J. -- Duke University
Multilevel Modeling of Inpatient Care: Comorbid Youth

Gilbert, David G. -- Southern Illinois University
Carbondale NRT & Bupropion Mechanisms of Efficacy In Smokers

Gordon, Judith S. -- Oregon Research Institute
Tobacco Cessation Via Doctors of Chiropractic

Greengard, Paul -- Rockefeller University
Drugs of Abuse -- Role of Protein Phosphorylation

Grigson, Patricia S. -- Pennsylvania State University Hershey Medical Center
Drugs of Abuse, Reward Comparison, and the Thalamus

Guydish, Joseph R. -- University of California, San Francisco
Organizational Change and Nicotine Dependence Treatment

Hanson, Glen R. -- University of Utah
Neurochemical Alterations By Designer Drugs

Hargreaves, Kenneth M. -- University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio
Cannabinoid Modulation of Capsaicin-Sensitive Nociceptors

Hayashi, Yasunori -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Molecular Processes Underlying Hippocampal LTP

Heberlein, Ulrike A. -- University of California, San Francisco
Molecular Genetics of Psychostimulant Action

Heinemann, Stephen F. -- Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Role of Brain Nicotinic Receptors In Addiction Behaviors

Hogue, Aaron T. -- National Center on Addiction & Substance Abuse
Quality Community Services for Adolescent Drug Abuse

Hooven, Carole -- University of Washington
Understanding Parent Retention In Indicated Prevention

Hough, Lindsay -- Albany Medical College of Union University
Histaminergic Mechanisms of Antinociception

Huang, Bin -- Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati
Innovative Modeling of Puberty and Substance Use Risk

Kahler, Christopher W. -- Brown University
Mechanisms Linking Hostility and Smoking

Kauer, Julie A. -- Brown University
Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission and Drugs of Abuse

Klein, Thomas W. -- University of South Florida
Role of Cannabinoid 2 Receptors In B Lymphocyte Function

Knudsen, Hannah K. -- University of Georgia
Smoking Cessation Practices In Community Treatment Programs

Kogan, Steven M. -- University of Georgia
HIV Risk Behavior In Out-Of School Rural African American Young Adults

Kressel, David -- National Development & Research Institutes
Therapeutic Communities: A Three Country Comparison

Kulak, Jennifer M. -- Thomas Jefferson University
Improving an Animal Model of Tobacco Addiction

Leigh, Barbara C. -- University of Washington
Daily Self-Reports of Injection Drug Use and Risk

Lejuez, Carl W. -- University of Maryland, College Park
Drug Choice, Impulsivity, and Risky Sexual Behavior

Leslie, Frances M. -- University of California, Irvine
Role of Monoamine Oxidases In Tobacco Addiction

Li, Ming D. -- University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Fine Mapping Susceptibility Loci for Nicotine Dependence

Loeber, Rolf -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Development of Substance Use In Girls

Magura, Stephen -- National Development & Research Institutes
Buprenorphine Maintenance for Opioid Addicted Persons In Jail and Post-Release

Marenco, Luis N. -- Yale University
Mediated Integration of Neuroscience Resources

Mason, Barbara J. -- Scripps Research Institute
Gabapentin for Cannabis Withdrawal and Use

Mccabe, Sean E. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Epidemiology of Prescription Drug Abuse in the United States

Micevych, Paul E. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Sex Steroid Activation of Opioid Circuits in the CNS

Miller, Gregory M. -- Harvard University Medical School
A Monkey Model of Human Mu-Opioid Receptor Physiogenetics

Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A. -- Research Triangle Institute
Analyzing Data Generated From Therapy Groups With Rolling Admissions

Nair, Madhavan P. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection: Role of Methamphetamine

Nicola, Saleem M. -- Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center
Nucleus Accumbens Processing of Reward-Predictive Cues

Nirenberg, Sheila A. -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Imaging Neuronal Activity One Population at a Time

Oliveto Beaudoin, Alison -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock
Opioid Antagonist Discrimination: A Model of Withdrawal

Olney, John W. -- Washington University
Developmental Brain Damage By Drugs of Abuse

Pankratz, Melinda M. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Evidence-Based Prevention Curricula Implementation Over Time

Pollio, David E. -- Washington University
Housing, Homelessness, and Drug Abuse

Porrino, Linda J. -- Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Decision Making In Marijuana Users

Quintero, Gilbert A. -- University of New Mexico, Albuquerque
Prescription Drug Abuse: The Role of the Internet

Read, Jennifer P. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Trauma, Trauma Sequelae, and Substance Use In College

Reti, Irving M. -- Johns Hopkins University
Role of NARP In Drug Abuse

Robertson, Angela A. -- Mississippi State University
Hurricane Katrina Effects on Female Adolescent Offenders

Rogers, Thomas J. -- Temple University
Opioid and Chemokine Receptor Interactions Relative To HIV

Rohrbach, Louise A. -- University of Southern California
Impact of Louisiana Hurricanes on Adolescent Substance Abuse

Roman, Paul M. -- University of Georgia
Adoption of Innovations In Private A&D Treatment Centers

Rotrosen, John P. -- New York University School of Medicine
Patient Feedback Effectiveness Study

Rowe, Cynthia L. -- University of Miami-Medical
Family-Based Drug Services For Young Disaster Victims

Rutherford, Megan J. -- University of Washington
Factors Related To Juvenile Drug Court Completion

Ryan, Andrea K. -- Pennsylvania State University, University Park
The Effects of Alcohol and Illegal Drug Use on Initial Family Formation

Samet, Jeffrey H. -- Boston Medical Center
Enhanced Linkage of Drug Abusers To Primary Medical Care

Scheiffele, Peter -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Regulation of Growth and Pruning of Neuronal Arbors

Schempf, Ashley H. -- Johns Hopkins University
Illicit Drug Use and Associated Social Factors: Effects on Birth Outcomes

Schneider, Jay S. -- Thomas Jefferson University
Nicotine and Cognition In Parkinsonism

Schrott, Lisa M. -- Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport
Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Role of Development and Gender

Schuman, Erin M. -- California Institute of Technology
Towards A Dendritic Proteome

Smith, Mark A. -- Davidson College
Social and Enviromental Influences on Opioid Sensitivity

Sorkin, Alexander D. -- University of Colorado Denver Health Science Center
Aurora Dopamine Transporter Regulation By Endocytosis

Stella, Nephi -- University of Washington
Genetics of Endocannabinoid Biosynthesis and Inactivation

Thomas, Mark J. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Synaptic Plasticity in Animal Models of Addiction

Traynor, John R. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Opioid Receptor Mechanisms

Velicer, Wayne F. -- University of Rhode Island
Tailored Interventions To Prevent Substance Abuse

Vorhees, Charles V. -- Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati
Effects of Neonatal MDMA on Brain and Behavior

Weerts, Elise M. -- Johns Hopkins University
Behavioral Pharmacology and GHB Physical Dependence

Weinshenker, David -- Emory University
Mechanism of Disulfiram-Induced Cocaine Abstinence

Winsauer, Peter J. -- Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans
Effects of Chronic THC In Adolescence

Wolf, Marina E. -- Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine & Science
Glutamate Transmission and Behavioral Sensitization

Woods, James H. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Development of Esterases for the Treatment of Cocaine Overdose and Abuse

Woolverton, William L. -- University of Mississippi Medical Center
Self-Administration of Drug Combinations: Polydrug Abuse

Worley, Paul F. -- Johns Hopkins University
Effector Ieg, Homer and Drug Addiction

Wu, Christine C. -- University of Colorado Denver Health Science Center
Aurora Proteomic Tools for the Comprehensive Analysis of Dopamine Transporter Topology

Wu, Elwin -- Columbia University New York, Morningside
Service Use, ATI Program Outcomes, and Pro-Social Change

Wu, Z. Helen -- University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Effects of Stressors on Drug Use In Young, Poor Women

Yamamoto, Bryan K. -- Boston University Medical Campus
Role of Tyrosine In MDMA Toxicity

Zald, David H. -- Vanderbilt University
Individual Differences In Extrastriatal DA Release


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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