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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - May, 2003



Publications

National Survey Results on Drug Use - Overview of Key Findings 2002
NIH Pub. No. 03-5374

This publication provides a concise review of the findings of the Monitoring the Future Study and comparison of data from previous years.

Problems of Drug Dependence 2002: Proceedings from the 64th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence
NIH Pub. No. 03-5339

This publication summarizes the activities of the most recent meeting of the nation's most influential drug abuse professionals and measures progress in a variety of areas. It also discusses outcomes of symposia, meetings, and presentations, and provides abstracts of current research.

NIDA INVEST Letter, Winter 2003 - This issue introduces newly appointed NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow, and announces the NIDA Supplement Program (PAS-03-023) to fund international collaborative research on drug abuse and addiction. Other stories profile former NIDA INVEST Fellow Dr. Irena Martin-Kleiner, Croatia, and focus on the NIDA International Forum, to be held June 13-19, 2003 in conjunction with the College on Problems of Drug Dependence Annual Scientific Meeting in Miami, Florida.

NIDA NOTES

NIDA NOTES, Volume 17, Issue 5
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

The lead article discusses a study by Dr. Thomas Dishion of the Oregon Child and Family Center. Dr. Dishion found that preventive interventions that put high-risk youths into groups can, under certain circumstances, produce worse rather than better behavior.

Other articles include the first study to clearly show an association between cocaine exposure before birth and cognitive impairments in toddlers. Researchers at Case Western Reserve University found that nearly twice as many cocaine-exposed children scored in the mental retardation range of a test that assesses mental development compared to unexposed children. Also described is a study that found that when a group of monkeys were moved from isolation to cages with other monkeys and developed social hierarchies, the monkeys that became dominant developed higher brain dopamine levels and were significantly less inclined to self-administer cocaine than subordinate monkeys--a finding that may have implications for understanding the interaction between environmental factors and drug abuse vulnerability in humans. Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey results are reported showing that from 2001 to 2002 the use of MDMA (ecstasy), marijuana, and cigarettes declined among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders. The finding that youths' opportunities to experiment with drugs in later drug use is also discussed.

NIDA NOTES, Volume 17, Issue 6
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

The lead article discusses recent research on nicotine's effects on the brain's reward system. Adding to their knowledge of how nicotine directly stimulates this reward system, researchers have discovered that nicotine also indirectly stimulates two types of neurons that intensify the pleasure from smoking and makes it last longer.

In the Director's Column, Dr. Glen R. Hanson discusses NIDA's continued commitment to nicotine research. The column notes NIDA's research partnership with the National Institute of Mental Health to identify and develop pharmacological compounds for use in investigating the roles of specific neurochemical receptors in mood disorders and nicotine addiction. Also discussed is Translating Tobacco Addiction Research to Treatment, a NIDA initiative that supports the development of new treatment and prevention options.

Other articles on NIDA-funded research address cocaine's effect on blood components and the link to heart attack and stroke; middle schools' selection and implementation of drug prevention programs; the use of vouchers to reward naltrexone treatment for heroin-dependent patients; and sex differences in the success of strategies to reduce drug-seeking. News articles note Dr. Nora D. Volkow's appointment as the new NIDA Director, and the addition of four new Advisory Council members. The Tearoff page discusses Monitoring the Future findings of dramatic declines in adolescents' smoking in 2002.

CTN Publications

Eight editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed this period. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the activities of the various protocol teams and subcommittees of the CTN.

The CTN brochure "Successfully Including Women in Clinical Trials" was translated into Spanish and distributed throughout the Network.

The CTN brochure, "What is the CTN?" was revised and translated into Spanish.

Two new patient brochures written for the Smoking Cessation Protocol (CTN 0009) have been approved and printed for distribution to the clinical trial sites.

A revised CTN Directory was approved and printed during this period.

  • Three new brochures for the TELE Protocol (CTN 0011) have been written and approved for printing and distribution.
  • A pre-printed rolodex card was approved for the CTN and was distributed to node staff at the Albuquerque meeting in March 2003.

Other Publications

Ashby, C.R. Jr., Paul, M., Gardner, E.L., Heidbreder, C.A., and Hagan, J.J. Acute Administration of the Selective D3 Receptor Antagonist SB-277011A Blocks the Acquisition and Expression of the Conditioned Place Preference Response to Heroin in Male Rats. Synapse, 48, pp. 154-156, 2003.

Carlezon, W.A., Jr., and Wise, R.A. Unmet Expectations: The Brain Minds. Nature Medicine, 9(1), pp. 15-16, 2003.

Chefer, V., Zakharova, I., and Shippenberg, T.S. Enhanced Responsiveness to Novelty and Cocaine is Associated with Decreased Basal Dopamine Uptake and Release in the Nucleus Accumbens: Quantitative Microdialysis in Rats under Transient Conditions. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 3076-3084, 2003.

Cheng, D.T., Knight, D.C., Smith, C.N., Stein, E.A. and Helmstetter, F.J. Functional MRI of Human Amygdala Activity during Pavlovian Fear Conditioning: Stimulus Processing Versus Response Extinction. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, pp. 3-10, 2003.

Hayes, R.J., Vorel, S.R., Spector, J., Liu, X., and Gardner, E.L. Electrical and Chemical Stimulation of the Basolateral Complex of the Amygdala Reinstates Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in the Rat. Psychopharmacology, electronic publication ahead of print, January 24, 2003 [PMID 12545331].

Herning R.I., Better, W.E., Tate, K., Umbricht, A., Preston, K.L., and Cadet, J.L. Methadone Treatment Induces Attenuation of Cerebrovascular Deficits Associated with the Prolonged Abuse of Cocaine and Heroin. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(3), pp. 562-568, 2003.

Ikemoto, S., and Witkin, B.W. Locomotor Inhibition Induced by Procaine Injections into the Nucleus Accumbens Core, But Not the Medial Ventral Striatum: Implication for Cocaine-induced Locomotion. Synapse, 47, pp. 117-122, 2003.

Kiyatkin, E.A., and Brown, P.L. Naloxone Depresses Cocaine Self-administration and Delays its Initiation on the Following Day. NeuroReport - Neuropharmacology & Neurotoxicology, 14(2), pp. 251-255, 2003.

Sharan, N., Chong, V.Z., Nair, V.D., Mishra, R.K., Hayes, R.J., and Gardner, E.L. Cocaine Treatment Increases Expression of a 40 kDa Catecholamine Regulated Protein in Discrete Brain Regions. Synapse, 47, pp. 33-44, 2003.

Windels, F. and Kiyatkin, E.A. Modulatory Action of Acetylcholine on Striatal Neurons: Microiontophoretic Study in Awake, Unrestrained Rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, pp. 613-622, 2003.

Xi, Zheng-Xiong and Stein, E.A. Opiate Self-administration. In: Z.Z. Pan (ed.). Methods in Molecular Biology/Biotechnology/Medicine. Opioid Research: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press, 2002.

Xi, Zheng-Xiong and Stein, E.A. GABAergic Mechanisms of Opiate Reinforcement. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37, pp. 485-494, 2002.

Zapata, A., Chefer, V., Shippenberg, T.S. Behavioral Sensitization and Enhanced Dopamine Response in the Nucleus Accumbens after Intravenous Cocaine Self-administration in Mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, pp. 590-596, 2003.

Simons-Morton, B.G. and Crump, A.D. Association of Parental Involvement and Social Competence with School Adjustment and Engagement Among Sixth Graders. Journal of School Health, 73(3), pp. 121-126, 2003.

Vocci, F. NIDA is Making Progress in Developing Medications to Treat Stimulant Addiction. Counselor, 4(1), pp. 42-48, 2003.

Brook, D.W., Brook, J.S., Pahl, T. and Montoya I. The Longitudinal Relationship Between Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Colombian Adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 156(11), pp. 1101-1107, November 2002.

DiPaula, B.A., Schwartz, R., Montoya, I.D., Barrett, D. and Tang, C. Heroin Detoxification with Buprenorphine on an Inpatient Psychiatric Unit. J Subst Abuse Treat., 23(3), pp. 163-169, October 2002.

Brook, D.W., Brook, J.S., Rosen, Z., Montoya, I. Correlates of Marijuana Use in Colombian Adolescents: A Focus on the Impact of the Ecological/Cultural Domain. J Adolesc Health, 31(3), pp. 286-298, September 2002.

The proceedings of the symposium "Cannabinoids: Chemistry and Biology" appeared as special issues, Nos. 1-2 of the Journal "Chemistry and Physics of Lipids". These special issues were edited by Rao. S. Rapaka, A. Makriyannis and H.H.O. Schmid. CPL, 121(1-2), December 31, 2002.

Dr. Herbert Weingartner, DNBR, published a paper "Psychopharmacology of Human Memory" (with Val Curran), in Handbook of Memory Disorders, Baddley, Kopelman, & Wilson (Eds.), John Wiley Press, 2002.

Dr. Rao Rapaka, DNBR, organized a symposium on "Structural Biology and Structural Genomics/Proteomics" the proceedings of which have been published as special volumes by the following two journals:

  1. Biopolymers: Peptide Science, 66(5), December 2002-January 2003.
  2. The Journal of Peptide Research, 60(6), December 2002.

Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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