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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
May, 2002


NIDA Publications

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume I - December 2002
NIH Pub. No. 02-5109

This report provides an ongoing assessment of drug abuse in major metropolitan areas of the United States with the purpose of keeping both public and private sector policymakers and researchers informed with current and accurate data.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume II - December 2002
NIH Pub. No. 02-5110

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.

Problems of Drug Dependence 2001: Proceedings from the 63rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence
NIH Pub. No. 02-5097

This publication documents plenary symposia and reports from the annual meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc., including comprehensive, up-to-date reviews of research in progress from many disciplines in drug abuse and dependence.

Serie De Reportes De Investigación Esteroides Anabolicos Abuso
NIH Pub. No. 02-3721(S)

This Spanish language translation provides an overview of anabolic steroid use and effects.

NIDA INVEST Letter, Winter/Spring 2002
The lead stories in this issue reported on a contract with Thai researchers to conduct clinical trials of methamphetamine-dependence treatments and the U.S. - Netherlands Workshop on Bi-National Research Collaboration on Drug Abuse and Drug Addiction, held September 6 and 7, 2001, in Cumberland, Maryland. The 2002 WHO/NIDA/CPDD International Traveling Fellowships and the 2002-2003 NIDA Hubert H. Humphrey Drug Abuse Research Fellows were announced.


NIDA NOTES, Volume 16, Issue No. 5
NIH Pub. No. 02-3478

The front-page story for this issue of NIDA NOTES describes the international NIDA-sponsored conference on MDMA/Ecstasy. The article summarizes a number of the presentations at the meeting relating to the epidemiology for the drug, its acute effects and its long-term effects. A companion story describes the many different types of individuals who abuse this drug. A research story describes cocaine's effects on dopamine cells in mice brains, indicating that cocaine causes alterations in the way the brain works. Another story reports on the different patterns of drug abuse by cocaine and methamphetamine users.

NIDA NOTES, Volume 16, Issue No. 6
NIH Pub. No. 02-3478

The front-page story for this issue of NIDA NOTES describes the Second National Conference on Drug Abuse Prevention held in August 2001 in Washington, D.C. The article describes the components of NIDA's new National Drug Abuse Prevention Research Initiative and summarizes a number of presentations relating to risk and protective factors for drug use, elements of effective prevention programs, and the number and type of prevention programs used by junior high and middle schools. In the Director's Column, Dr. Glen Hanson describes NIDA's past and current prevention efforts and indicates a number of areas for new research efforts.

Another story reports on research using a blood pressure medication to reduce the withdrawal symptoms of cocaine addiction. An update on the activities of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network is the focus of another story, and two related stories detail the first groups of research protocols underway in the network and the activities of special interest groups.

Another article announces the appointment of Dr. Glen Hanson as NIDA Acting Director, following the departure of Dr. Alan I. Leshner. The Tearoff highlights the results of the annual Monitoring the Future study, which surveys alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders in more than 400 schools across the country.

The annual index of topics, publications, events, and people is included in this issue of NIDA NOTES.

NIDA Science and Practice Perspectives, Vol. 1
The National Institute on Drug Abuse has developed a new publication directed towards a combined specialized audience of drug abuse researchers and practitioners. This bi-annual publication aims to enhance the practical use of research and the rapid adaptation of research-based practices in drug abuse treatment. The first issue of this publication will be available in May 2002.

Principles of HIV Prevention in Drug-Using Populations: A Research-Based Guide In March 2002, NIDA released a research-based guide on the principles of HIV prevention in drug-using populations. The Guide, prepared by staff in NIDA's Center on AIDS and Other Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse and Office of Science Policy and Communications, contains information reflecting more than 15 years of NIDA-sponsored research on the co-occurring epidemics of drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. This research has yielded a set of scientifically-based principles that should prove useful to community planners, policymakers, service providers, and medical practitioners as they develop and implement programs to prevent the spread of HIV and other infections among injecting and non-injecting drug users and their sexual partners. The Guide summarizes the basic overarching principles that characterize effective HIV/AIDS prevention in drug-using populations; provides answers to frequently asked questions; and describes the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. It also provides an overview of major research programs that NIDA has supported since the mid-1980s to gauge the effectiveness of outreach-based interventions in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases among drug users and their sex partners. Although research has shown clearly that HIV/AIDS can be prevented in drug-using populations, the epidemic continues to spread. This Guide, as an important contribution to the ever-expanding prevention toolbox, helps to ensure that research-based findings on HIV/AIDS prevention are adapted for use within diverse drug-using groups and their communities. NIDA. Principles of HIV Prevention in Drug-Using Populations: A Research-Based Guide. NIH Publication No. 02-4733, March 2002.

The Challenging Interactions Between Antiretroviral Agents and Addiction Drugs: Khalsa et al. of CAMCODA, NIDA note that while advances in antiretroviral treatment have provided significant benefit for persons infected with HIV, the population of drug users continues to have limited access to and poor utilization of available therapies. They also point out that it is important to further define the drug interactions of significance to the treatment of the substance abuser with HIV disease. Khalsa, J.H., Genser, S., Vocci, F., Francis, H.F., and Bean, P. HIV Forum, Am. Clin. Lab, 21(3), pp. 10-13, 2002.

Eight editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed this period. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the activities of the various protocol teams and subcommittees of the CTN. The Fall/Winter 2001 edition of the CTN Report, a quarterly newsletter on the CTN, was distributed in January 2002. A poster on good clinical practice strategies entitled "Be on Target with Your Protocols!" was approved and will be distributed to all clinical trial sites within the CTN.

Other Publications

Crombag, H.S., and Shaham, Y. Renewal of Drug Seeking by Contextual Cues after Prolonged Extinction in Rats. Behav Neurosci., 116(1), pp. 169-173, February 2002.

Shalev, U., Grimm, J.W., and Shaham, Y. Neurobiology of Relapse to Heroin and Cocaine Seeking: A Review. Pharmacol Rev. 54(1), pp. 1-42, March 2002.

De Vries, T.J., Shaham, Y., Homberg, J.R., Crombag, H., Schuurman, K., Dieben, J., Vanderschuren, L.J., and Schoffelmeer, A.N. A Cannabinoid Mechanism in Relapse to Cocaine Seeking. Nat Med., 7(10), pp. 1151-1154, October 2001.

Borlongan, C.V., Su,T.P., and Wang, Y. Delta Opioid Peptide Augments Functional Effects and Intrastriatal Graft Survival of the Fetal Rat Ventral Mesencephalic Cells. Cell Transplantation, 10, pp. 53-58, 2001.

Borlongan, C.V., Zhou, F.C., Hayashi,T., Su, T.P., Hoffer, B.J., and Wang,Y. Involvement of GDNF in Neuronal Protection against 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonism Following Intracerebral Transplantation of Fetal Kidney Tissues in Adult Rats. Neurobiol. Dis., 8, pp. 636-646, 2001.

Chiang,Y.H., Morales, M., Zhou, F.C., Borlongan, C.V., Hoffer, B.J., and Wang, Y. Fetal Intranigral Ventral Mesencephalon and Kidney Tissue Bridge Transplantation Restores the Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway in Hemiparkinsonian Rats. Brain Res., 889, pp. 200-207, 2001.

Deng, X., Wang,Y., Chou, J., and Cadet, J.L. Methamphetamine Causes Widespread Apoptosis in the Mouse Brain: Evidence from Using an Improved TUNEL Histochemical Method. Mol. Brain. Res., 93, pp. 64-69, 2001.

Sarabi, A., Chang, C.F., Wang, Y., Hoffer, B.J., and Morales, M. Time Course Study of GFR alpha-1 expression In An Animal Model of Stroke. Exp.Neurol., 170, pp. 283-289, 2001.

Wang, J.Y., Wu, J.N., Cherng, T.L., Hoffer, B.J., Chen, H.H., Borlongan, C.V., and Wang, Y. Vitamin D3 Attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Neurotoxicity in Rats. Brain Res., 904, pp. 67-75, 2001.

Wang,Y., Chang, C.F., Morales, M., Chou, J., Chen, H.L., Chiang, Y.H., Lin, S.Z., Cadet, J., Deng, X., Wang, J.Y., Chen, S.Y., Kaplan, P.L., and Hoffer, B.J. Bone Morphorgenetic Protein-6 Reduces Ischemia-induced Brain Damage in Rats. Stroke, 32, pp. 2170-2178, 2001.

Wang, Y., Hayashi, T., Chang, C.F., Chiang, Y.H., Tsao, L.I., Su, T.P., Borlongan, C.V., and Lin, S.Z. Methamphetamine Potentiates Ischemia/Reperfusion Insults after Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Ligation in Mice. Stroke, 32, pp. 775-782, 2001.

Wu, W.C., Wang, Y., Su, C.K., and Chai, C.Y. The nNOS/cGMP Signal Transducing System is Involved in the Cardiovascular Responses Induced by Activation of NMDA Receptors in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Cats. Neurosci. Lett., 310, pp. 121-124, 2001.

Heishman, S. J. Tobacco - The Once and Future Addiction. Addiction, 96, pp. 1389-1390, 2001.

Singleton, E.G., Trotman, A.J.-M., Zavahir, M., Taylor, R.C., and Heishman, S.J. Determination of the Reliability and Validity of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire Using Imagery Scripts. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, pp. 47-53, 2002.

Conway, K.P., Swendsen, J.D., Rounsaville, B.R., and Merikangas, K.R. Personality, Drug of Choice, and Psychiatric Comorbidity among Substance Abusers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65, pp. 225-234, 2002.

Conway, K.P., and McCord, J. A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation between Co-offending with Violent Accomplices and Violent Crime. Aggressive Behavior, 28, pp. 97-108, 2002.

McCord, J. and Conway, KP. Patterns of Juvenile Delinquency and Co-offending. In Waring, E. & Weisburd, D. (Eds.), Crime & Social Organization: Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 10 (pp. 15-30). Transaction: New Brunswick, 2002.

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