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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
May, 2001

Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On February 6, 2001, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Cutting-Edge Basic Research Awards (CEBRA) (PAR-01-047). The CEBRA is a new mechanism designed by NIDA to foster novel research approaches. It is specifically designed to support research that is high-risk and potentially high-impact and that is underrepresented or not included in NIDA's current portfolio. There are two stages to the award: an early R21 exploratory phase, and a subsequent R01 development phase. Both will be reviewed on an expedited basis by NIDA, and innovation will be an important consideration.

On February 12, 2001, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Prescription Drug Abuse (PA-01-048). This PA encourages research aimed at reducing prescription drug abuse while supporting appropriate medical use of therapeutic agents with abuse liability. To promote the Nation's health, research is needed to understand the factors contributing to prescription drug abuse, to characterize the adverse medical and social consequences associated with this abuse, and to develop effective prevention and service delivery approaches and behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Applications to address this issue are encouraged across a broad range of experimental approaches including basic, clinical, and epidemiological studies.

On February 2, 2001, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Therapeutic Community Research (DA-01-015). This RFA encourages new directions in behavioral treatment and services research in Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that provide treatment for drug abuse and addiction. Specifically, this RFA encourages research aimed at improving the therapeutic efficacy and efficiency of TCs. Research on therapeutic approaches that include behavioral treatments, alone or in combination with pharmacotherapies is encouraged. In addition, this RFA encourages studies on TC treatment processes; research to integrate new research-based interventions into TC treatment; and research on TC organizational and managerial processes. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: March 19, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 19, 2001.

PAs and RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On January 25, 2001, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH Institutes and other agencies, issued a Program Announcement entitled Research on Emergency Medical Services for Children (PA-01-044). This multi-agency announcement is designed to improve the quality and quantity of research related to emergency medical services for children (EMSC). The types of research included under the term EMSC are: prevention research to reduce the need for emergency care; clinical research to ensure that children receive high quality and appropriate medical, nursing and mental health care in an emergency; health systems research, from pre-hospital care, to the emergency department, to inpatient care and return to the community; cost-effectiveness analyses; and methodological studies to improve the quality of research conducted.

On February 28, 2001, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH Institutes and other agencies, issued a Program Announcement entitled Research on Child Neglect (PA-01-060). This PA is a follow-up to the NIH Consortium RFA on Child Neglect. It is complemented by PA-99-133 Career Development Awards: Child Abuse and Neglect Research issued August 5, 1999, and a Notice concerning supplements to expand current studies to include child neglect issues and additional data analyses.

On March 19, 2001, NIDA, together with numerous other NIH Institutes issued a Program Announcement entitled Development of Zebrafish Mutagenesis and Screening Tools (PA-01-070). This PA is intended to encourage investigator-initiated applications for research designed to exploit the power of mutagenesis screening in zebrafish in order to detect and characterize genes, pathways, and phenotypes of interest in development and aging, organ formation, behavior, and disease processes.

On March 20, 2001, NIDA, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) issued a joint Program Announcement entitled HIV-1 Infection of the Central Nervous System (PA-01-072). The objective of this cooperative effort is to foster investigations that will provide the foundation for the rapid development of therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat the effects of HIV-1 on the central nervous system (CNS). Application ranging from basic research to clinical diagnosis and treatment are of interest.

On March 20, 2001, NIDA, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a Program Announcement entitled HIV Treatment Adherence Research (PA-01-073). This PA identifies gaps in the understanding of antiretroviral medication therapies (ART) adherence, and encourages studies to address the role of adherence through all phases of treatment and illness, the need to broaden the scope of intervention to enhance treatment adherence, and the importance of tailoring methodological and intervention advances to the special needs and context of affected populations. Emphasis is on the development of innovative approaches to adherence and behavior change, especially models of interventions to improve adherence.

On April 3, 2001, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH Institutes issued a Program Announcement entitled Novel Approaches to Enhance Animal Stem Cell Research (PA-01-076). The purpose of this PA is to encourage research to enhance stem cells as a model biological system. Research to isolate, characterize, and identify totipotent and multipotent stem cells from nonhuman biomedical research animal models, as well as to generate reagents and techniques to characterize and separate those stem cells from other cell types is encouraged.

On April 3, 2001, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH components issued a Program Announcement entitled Strategies for Germ-Line Modification in the Rat (PAR-01-077). This PA invites applications for the purpose of establishing methods for the efficient production of rat models that contain germ-line mutations that will facilitate the transfer of biological concepts to human health problems. Development of rat embryonic stem cell (ESC) technology by modification of current techniques or development of new approaches will meet the needs of researchers using the rat to study human health and disease.

On February 13, 2001, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH components issued an RFA entitled International Clinical, Operational and Health Services Research and Training Award (ICOHRTA) (TW-01-003). This RFA will support training to facilitate collaborative, multidisciplinary, international clinical, operational, health services and prevention sciences research between U.S. institutions and those in developing countries, as well as emerging democracies of Eastern Europe, Russia and the Newly Independent States (NIS). The ICOHRTA will address global health problems by extending and enhancing the research of the collaborating U.S. and foreign scientists while increasing the clinical, operational, health services and prevention research capacity of the collaborating scientists and their institutions. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: March 15, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 27, 2001.

On February 28, 2001, NIDA, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) issued an RFA entitled Community Implementation of HIV Prevention Interventions (MH-01-006). This RFA invites research grant applications that target research on the translation and adoption of empirically tested and proven Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research-based prevention interventions into community-based public health settings. This initiative is intended to foster partnerships among researchers and community-based organizations in the process of adapting and adopting proven interventions. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: April 13, 2001; Application Receipt Date: May 11, 2001.

On April 19, 2001, NIDA, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) issued a joint RFA entitled Institutional Research Training Programs: Increasing Diversity (MH-01-009). The purpose of this RFA is to encourage National Research Service Award (NRSA) institutional research training grant (T32) applications designed to recruit, train, and retain minority individuals in doctoral and/or postdoctoral programs in research areas encompassed by the missions of one or more of the three sponsoring institutes. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: July 10, 2001; Application Receipt Date: August 10, 2001.

Other Program Activities

NIDA/VACSP #1018 Buprenorphine Best Practices Trial

Enrollment for the study closed on December 31, 2000 with a total of 583 patients being enrolled. 33.3% of the patients enrolled were female. The mean age at baseline was 36.8 years (38.0 median) with a range of 16 to 66. Patients can participate up to one year from the date of their enrollment. As of March 12, 2001, 379 patients were still following the protocol. The main reasons for dropout were failure to return to clinic (57%) followed by the patient's request to discontinue (9%).

As of March 12, 2001, 56.8% the adverse events (AEs) reported, were considered mild, 37.5% were moderate, and 5.7% severe. Of the 583 patients participating, 46.3% reported no adverse events while 53.7% reported one or more AEs. There were 43 serious adverse events (SAEs) reported of which only 3 were considered possibly study drug related. The remaining SAEs were considered to be unrelated to study drug by the study physicians.

Annual reviews were held with the Perry Point VA Human Rights Committee and the NIDA/VA Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Both committees have approved the study to continue.

Clinical Trials Network (CTN) Update

Three additional awards were made in January to increase the number of nodes from 11 to 14. The new nodes are located at: University of Washington, Duke University, and New York State Psychiatric Institute.

The CTN began enrolling patients in January 2001 at multiple sites across the United States in its first study, Buprenorphine/Naloxone vs. Clonidine for Outpatient Detoxification. A total of 360 patients at 7 different sites in 6 states are being recruited.

In March 2001, the CTN began enrolling patients at multiple sites for its second study, Buprenorphine/Naloxone vs. Clonidine for Inpatient Detoxification. A total of 360 patients at 6 different sites in 5 states are being recruited.

In April 2001, the CTN began enrolling pilot patients in 4 additional behavioral studies. Motivational Enhancement Therapy is conducted at 6 sites; Motivational Interviewing is carried out at 5 sites; and Motivational Incentives is at 7 methadone clinic sites and at 7 drug free clinic sites. The sites are located throughout the 14 nodes including the new nodes awarded in January 2001.

Seventeen new protocol concepts were submitted March 20, 2001 for review and consideration for further development into new protocols.

NIDA's New and Competing Grants Awarded Since February 2001

Agar, Michael H. -- Friends Research Institute
Trend Theory In Community Context

Ahmed, Mahmoud S. -- University of Missouri
Medications Development for the Pregnant Opiate Addict

Beaudoin, Alison O. -- Yale University
Disulfiram for Cocaine Abuse In Methadone Patients

Bell, Jeanne E. -- University of Edinburgh
Neurodegeneration In HIV Infected Drug Users

Bentler, Peter M. -- University of California
New Psychometric Methods for Substance Abuse Research

Berridge, Craig W. -- University of Wisconsin
Amphetamine-Like Stimulants: Norepinephrine & Behavior

Brecht, Mary-Lynn -- University of California, Los Angeles
Methamphetamine Abuse: Natural History, Treatment Effect

Buhusi, Catalin V. -- Duke University
Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Interval Timing & Drug Abuse

Cabeza De Vaca, Soledad -- New York University School of Medicine
Regulation of Drug Addiction By Feeding-Related Peptides

Carlezon, William A. -- McLean Hospital
Biobehavioral Mechanisms of Drug Reward and Addiction

Carroll, Marilyn E. -- University of Minnesota
A Primate Model of Drug Abuse: Intervention Strategies

Casada, John H. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio
Emotional Control of Sedative Self-Medication In PTSD

Catley, Delwyn -- University of Kansas Medical Center
Role of Controllability In Scheduled Smoking Reduction

Chandra, Siddharth -- University of Pittsburgh
Opium Addiction: A Behavioral/Economic Analysis

Colwill, Ruth M. -- Brown University
Murine Model of Marijuana-Induced Executive Dysfunction

Cunningham, Kathryn A. -- University of Texas
Neuropsychopharmacology of MDMA: Monoaminergic Mechanisms

Cunningham, Kathryn A. -- University of Texas
Neuropsychopharmacological Interactions - Cocaine & Serotonin

Deadwyler, Samuel A. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Electrophysiological Assessment of Cannabinoid Receptors

Devane, Carl L. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Pharmacogenetics of Methadone

D'Souza, D. Cyril -- Yale University
Altered Cannabinoid Sensitivity In Schizophrenia

Eisenstein, Toby K. -- Temple University School of Medicine
Opioid Dependence, Immunity and Infection

El-Bassel, Nabila -- New York University
Preventing HIV and Other STDs Among Drug-Involved Women

Epstein, Joel -- University of Missouri
Analysis of Differing Drug Abuse Education Technologies

Evins, Anne E. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Nicotine and Smoking Cessation In Schizophrenia

Fillmore, Mark T. -- University of Kentucky
Cognitive Processes In Cocaine and Polydrug Abuse

Finn, Kristin V. -- Research Institute on Addictions
Alcohol and Marijuana Use In School Settings

Flanagan, Constance A. -- Pennsylvania State University
Prevention As A Civic Issue

Frederick, Blaise D. -- McLean Hospital
fMRI Technique Development for Substance Abuse Research

Galanter, Marc -- Nathan S. Kline Institute
Methadone Anonymous: Behavioral Therapy Development

Galli, Aurelio A. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center
Amphetamine Regulation of Dopamine Transport

Gascoigne, Nicholas R. -- Scripps Research Institute
Cannabinoid Receptor Dynamics In T Cell Activation

Gauda, Estelle B. -- Johns Hopkins University
Nicotine Induced Neuroplasticity In the Carotid Body

George, Tony P. -- Yale University
Nicotinic Receptors and Cognitive Function In Schizophrenia

Goeders, Nicholas E. -- Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Role for the HPA Axis In Methamphetamine Reinforcement

Greenblatt, David J. -- Tufts University
Chronic Benzodiazepines: Behavior and Neurochemistry

Greengard, Paul -- Rockefeller University
Drugs of Abuse -- Role of Protein Phosphorylation

Grobe, James E. -- University of Kansas
Smoking Controllability/Moderation of Tobacco Effects

Grodzicker, Terri I. -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cellular Biology of Addiction

Henderson, Leslie P. -- Dartmouth Medical School
Steroid Regulation of Ion Channels

Hersh, Louis B. -- University of Kentucky
Degradation of Opioid Peptides

Hien, Denise A. -- St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital
Cocaine, Self-Regulation, and Maternal/Child Aggression

Honda, Christopher N. -- University of Minnesota
Opioid Receptors and Spinal Nociception

Howell, Leonard L. -- Emory University
Neuropharmacology of Cocaine

Hurt, Hallam -- Albert Einstein Healthcare Network
In Utero Cocaine Exposure: Child Neurocognitive Outcome

Itzhak, Yossef -- University of Miami
Substituted Amphetamines: No-Dependent Mechanisms

Johanson, Chris-Ellyn -- Wayne State University
Brain Imaging of Tobacco Craving Using fMRI

Kandel, Denise B. -- Columbia University
Substance Dependence/Abuse In the U.S.Population

Kellar, Kenneth -- Georgetown University
Nicotinic Receptors Autonomic Ganglia and Adrenal Gland

Klein, Thomas W. -- University of South Florida
Cannabinoid Receptors On Immune Cells

Knuepfer, Mark M. -- Saint Louis University
Sympathetic Regulation of Endotoxemia In Drug Abuse

Kornetsky, Conan -- Boston University School of Medicine
Drugs of Abuse and Brain-Stimulation Reward In the Mouse

Kumar, Mahendra -- University of Miami
HIV-1 + IDUs: Endocrine Consequences & Medical Outcomes

Labar, Kevin S. -- Duke University
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Emotional Memory Networks

Leslie, Frances M. -- University of California, Irvine
Nicotine Regulation of Developing Brain Catecholamines

Lewis, David E. -- University of Wisconsin
An Abef Synthon for Norditerpenoid Alkaloids

Lewis, Deborah L. -- Medical College of Georgia
Brain Cannabinoid Receptor Signaling and Pharmacology

Lewis, John W. -- University of Bath
Discovery of New Treatments for Drug Abuse

Liddle, Howard A. -- University of Miami
Economic Evaluation of Adolescent Drug Services

Lombardi, Emilia L. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Substance Use and Treatment Within a Transgender Sample

Madden, John J. -- Emory University
8th Conference: Drug Abuse, Immunomodulation and AIDS

Maier, Steven F. -- University of Colorado
Stressor Controllability, Drugs of Abuse, and Serotonin

Makriyannis, Alexandros -- University of Connecticut
Endocannabinoid Active Sites As Therapeutic Targets

Maragos, William F. -- University of Kentucky Medical Center
Methamphetamine and HIV Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity

Mccance-Katz, Elinore F. -- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Enhancing Health Care of Drug Users With HIV

Mccance-Katz, Elinore F. -- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Cocaethylene-Cocaine Agonist Therapy/Tolerance Induction

McCarty, Dennis -- Oregon Health Sciences University
Client and Counselor Attitudes Toward Medication

McKay, James R. -- University of Pennsylvania
Effectiveness and Costs of Enhanced Cocaine Treatments

Meisel, Robert L. -- Purdue University
Dopamine Sensitization By Motivated Behaviors

Melega, William P. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Brain and Behavioral Alterations After Methamphetamine

Mello, Nancy K. -- McLean Hospital
Buprenorphine: A Behavioral Analysis

Micevych, Paul E. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Sex Steroid Activation of Opioid Circuits In the CNS

Michael, Adrian C. -- University of Pittsburgh
Extracellular Neurochemistry and Substance Abuse

Middaugh, Lawrence D. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Cocaine Self Administration And Relapse In Mice

Milby, Jesse B. -- University of Alabama at Birmingham
Cost Effective Treatment for Dually Diagnosed Homeless

Morgan, Drake -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Vulnerability To the Reinforcing Effects of Opioids

Nair, Madhavan P. -- SUNY at Buffalo
Heroin-AIDS Encephalopathy: Neuropathogenesis Mechanisms

Nation, Jack R. -- Texas A & M University
Heavy Metals and Polydrug Self-Administration

Neisewander, Janet L. -- Arizona State University
Neural Mechanisms of Drug-Seeking Behavior

Nishith, Pallavi -- University of Missouri
Substance Use and Dissociation As Risk Factors for PTSD

Ondersma, Steven J. -- Wayne State University
Brief Intervention In At-Risk First-Time Mothers

Pan, Zhizhong Z. -- University of California, San Francisco
Opioid Receptors In the Mechanisms of Opioid Tolerance

Pasternak, Gavril W. -- Sloan Kettering Institute-Cancer Research Center
Biochemical Characterization of Opioid Binding Sites

Paulus, Martin P. -- University of California, San Diego
MDMA & Amphetamine: Behavioral Organization In Mice

Paulus, Martin P. -- University of California, San Diego
Neuroimaging of Decision Making In Stimulant Addiction

Pelham, William E. -- University of New York
Development of Drug Use and Abuse In ADHD Adolescents

Porreca, Frank -- University of Arizonia
Opioid and Non-Opioid Actions of Dynorphin In Pain

Rayport, Stephen G. -- Columbia University
Glutaminase Knockouts and Drug Dependence

Reilly, Mark P. -- Arizona State University
Toward a General Theory of Drug Behavior Dynamics

Reti, Irving M. -- Johns Hopkins University
NARP Expression and Drugs of Abuse

Rhee, Soo H. -- University of Colorado
Causes of Comorbidity:Substance Use Disorder, ADHD & CD

Richards, Jerry B. -- University of Buffalo
Models of Impulsive Behavior In Mice

Roberts, David C. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
A Novel Animal Model of Cocaine Addiction

Roberts, David C. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
GABA Modulation of Cocaine & Heroin Self-Administration

Rogers, Thomas J. -- Temple University School of Medicine
Opioid & Chemokine Receptor Interactions Relative To HIV

Rohsenow, Damaris J. -- Brown University
Motivating Substance Abusers To Quit Smoking

Samuolis, Jessica -- Fordham University
Autonomy/Relatedness In Families of Drug Abusing Teens

Schoffelmeer, Anton N. -- Free University
Gene Expression Patterns During Heroin Seeking Behavior

Siegal, Harvey A. -- Wright State University
Crack & Health Service Use: A Natural History Approach

Simon, Eric J. -- New York University School of Medicine
32nd International Narcotics Research Conference (INRC)

Singer, Lynn T. -- Case Western Reserve University
Cocaine Exposed Infants and Their Mothers -- Follow-Up

Smith, James B. -- Mercer University
Behavioral Influences on Drug Tolerance

Snow, Diane M. -- University of Kentucky Medical Center
Maternal Cocaine Use and Neurite Outgrowth

Sorkin, Alexander D. -- University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Dopamine Transporter Regulation By Endocytosis

Spealman, Roger D. -- Harvard Medical School
Nonhuman Primate Model of Cocaine Relapse and Treatment

Steketee, Jeffery D. -- Louisiana State University
The Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Cocaine Sensitization

Stitzer, Maxine L. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Recovery Housing and Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes

Stout, Julie C. -- Indiana University
Cognitive Modeling of Risky Decisions In Substance Users

Strathdee, Steffanie A. -- Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore Needle Exchange Program Evaluation

Tsuang, Ming T. -- Massachusetts Mental Health Research Corporation
Molecular Genetics of Heroin Dependence

Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J. -- Jefferson Medical College
Opioid Modulation of the Coeruleo-Cortical Pathway

Van De Kar, Louis D. -- Loyola University, Chicago
Treatment of Cocaine-Induced 5-HT Dysfunction

Villanueva, Miguel -- University of New Mexico
Zuni Pueblo Veteran Project

Vlahov, David -- New York Academy of Medicine
Expanded Syringe Access Program: New York Evaluation

Ware, Norma C. -- Harvard Medical School
Social Course of Adherence To HAART In Active Drug Users

Weisner, Constance M. -- University of California, San Francisco
Integrated Drug and Medical Care-Cost and Effectiveness

White, Francis J. -- Finch University of Health Sciences
Mouse Behavior Models of Cocaine Addiction

Wills, Thomas A. -- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Young Children's Vulnerability To Substance Use

Wills, Thomas A. -- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Vulnerability and Protective Factors For Early Onset

Wood, Ruth I. -- University of Southern California
Neurobiology of Androgen Reward

Woods, James H. -- University of Michigan
Evaluation of Protein Based Medications Against Cocaine

Yoburn, Byron C. -- St. John's University
Protein Kinase In Opioid Receptor Regulation & Tolerance

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