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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
May, 2001


The Problems of Drug Dependence, 2000: Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence
NIH Pub. No. 01-4918

This publication is more than just a "proceedings" from a meeting-as the most comprehensive gathering of scientific information on all aspects of substance abuse this document is invaluable to researchers and other scientists.

Research Report Series: Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs
NIH Pub No. 01-4209

This publication summarizes current knowledge about rates of use, methods of action, effects, and acute and long-term dangers of two important classes of drugs of abuse. Hallucinogenic drugs, which include LSD and mescaline, act on the serotonin system to produce profound distortions of the user's sense of reality. The dissociative drugs include the anesthetic agents PCP and ketamine and the cough suppressant dextromethorphan, all of which cause feelings of separation from the body. Ketamine use has increased in recent years; in addition to its conscious abuse, it has also been given to unsuspecting victims to incapacitate them for sexual assaults.

Research Report Series: Prescription Drugs-Abuse and Addiction
NIH Pub. No. 01-4881

This publication provides concise but detailed research findings of national interest regarding the increasing trend in abuse of prescription drugs and why they are prescribed, how they work in the brain and body, and what happens with improper use. It covers interactions of prescription drugs with other drugs and alcohol, abuse rates among various populations, as well as what is known about diagnosing and treating prescription drug abuse. This publication is geared to the educated lay public-particularly the elderly. In addition, this publication includes a list of references and resources for further information.

Research Report Series: Inhalant Abuse (Spanish)
NIH Pub. No. 01-3818(S)

This publication provides information based on research on the use and prevalence of inhalants, presents information on the types of inhalants, the consequences of use, who abuses inhalants, and where to get help.

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Spanish)
NIH Pub. No. 01-4180(S)

This publication provides research-based information about addiction, drug treatment, and recovery for new patients undergoing treatment for addiction, and for their friends and families. The publication helps guide new patients in getting the most from their treatment and warns about possible difficulties during treatment and recovery.


NIDA NOTES, Volume 16, Number 1

The lead story in this issue reports on research indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with toddler negativity and with early smoking experimentation by children. Researchers queried mothers about their smoking habits before, during, and after pregnancy and on their children's behavior. In the Director's Column, Dr. Leshner details the health disparities that exist among minority populations in relationship to drug abuse treatment and what NIDA is doing to address this issue. Another research article discusses how an alcohol-treatment medication, disulfiram, is being used to reduce cocaine abuse among heroin treatment patients, with a sidebar about a large clinical study on disulfiram's effects on cocaine use. Other stories discuss the nicotine patch as a treatment for smokeless tobacco use, the extent of smokeless tobacco use by women, release of a high school curriculum supplement on addiction, and NIDA's participation in meetings and programs about methamphetamine abuse in Southeast Asia. The Tearoff provides information about the NIDA Community-Based Outreach Model: A Manual To Reduce the Risk of HIV and Other Blood-Borne Infections Among Drug Users. The Bulletin Board announces the receipt of a prestigious Federal service award by a senior NIDA administrator.

NIDA NOTES, Volume 16, Number 2

The lead story in this issue reports on brain imaging studies that indicate that the same brain sites are involved in cue-induced cocaine craving and normal rewards. In a Director's Column titled "Reducing Drug Abuse and Addiction is Not a Multiple Choice Test," Dr. Leshner explains why thinking about drug abuse and addiction in simple either/or categories, such as "brain disease" versus "personal choice," "treatment" versus "holding the addict responsible," and "inhibiting supply" versus "reducing demand" oversimplifies the dynamic complexity of the problem. To make progress, he says, we will need to use comprehensive approaches that blend public health and public safety components. Other articles report on the annual Monitoring the Future survey, the increased risk of adolescents, women, and whites to becoming nicotine dependent, and the equal effectiveness of three types of opioid treatment medications. Other stories highlight a NIDA-sponsored conference on the club drug GHB, and drug abuse-related products developed by small businesses with NIDA support. The Tearoff provides information on LSD and related drugs. The Bulletin Board presents information on three new members of NIDA's National Advisory Council.

CTN Publications

The third news report for the CTN was approved on April 19, 2001. The newsletter was distributed to all CTN nodes and posted on the CTN web page.

Several protocol brochures for patients were translated into Spanish this period. The CTN brochure entitled "What Are Clinical Trials?" was also translated into Spanish.

Fourteen editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed this period. The Bulletin Board is a weekly electronic report on the activities of the various protocol teams and subcommittees of the CTN.

Other Publications

Glantz, M.D., and Leshner, A.I. Drug Abuse and Developmental Psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 12, pp. 795-814, 2000. This article discusses the application of principles of developmental psychopathology to understanding recent drug abuse research findings and to identifying critical directions for future research. Among the issues discussed and viewed from this perspective are: antecedent and co-occurring psychopathological conditions and other problem behaviors; the diversity of the nature of, paths to, and processes and outcomes related to drug abuse; the role of intermediary influences; the interaction of individual and environmental predisposing and protective factors; directions for prevention research; the role of families and other social institutions in intervention; and, developmental stage characteristics.

In the May issue of Nature Biotechnology, Dr. Rebekah Rasooly co-authored a short report describing a meeting of microarray researchers funded through NIDA's microarray initiative, DA-00-003. The report describes the plans formulated by the investigators to facilitate progress in this field through improved methods for data standardization and sharing. This arrangement may serve as a model for other national/international microarray data curation/storage efforts.

Robarge, M.J., Agoston, G.E., Izenwasser, S., Kopajtic, T., George, C. and Newman, A.H. Highly Selective Chiral N-Substituted 3_-[bis(4'-fluorophenyl)methoxy]tropane Analogues for the Dopamine Transporter: Synthesis and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 43, pp. 1085-1093, 2000.

Newman, A.H. Novel Pharmacotherapies for Cocaine Abuse 1997-2000. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 10, pp. 1095-1122, 2000. Invited review.

Hoffman, B.T., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L., and Newman, A.H. 2D QSAR Modeling of Dopamine Transporter Inhibitor Affinity Using Genetic Algorithm Variable Selection of Molconn Z Descriptors. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 43, pp. 4151-4159, 2000.

Katz, J.L. and Alling, K.L. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Putative D3 Dopamine Receptor Agonists in Rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 11, pp. 483-493, 2000.

Bergman, J., Koek, W., Holtzman, S.G., Stephens, D.N., Katz, J.L., Balster, R.L. and France, C.P. Agonist Efficacy, Drug Dependence, and Medications Development. Psychopharmacology, 153, pp. 67-84, 2000.

Newman, A.H., Robarge, M.J., Howard, I.M., Wittkopp, S.L., George, C., Kopajtic, T., Izenwasser, S., and Katz, J.L. Structure-Activity Relationships at the Monoamine Transporters and Muscarinic Receptors for N-substituted-3_-[3'-Cl-, 4'-Cl-, 4',4"-diCl-substituted)diphenyl] methoxytropanes. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 44, pp. 633-640, 2001.

Katz, J.L., Agoston, G.E., Alling, K.L., Kline, R.H., Forster, M.J., Woolverton, W.L., Kopajtic, T.A. and Newman, A.H. Dopamine Transporter Binding without Cocaine-like Behavioral Effects: Synthesis and Evaluation of Benztropine Analogs Alone and In Combination with Cocaine. Psychopharmacology, 154, pp. 362-374, 2001.

Woolverton W.L., Hecht G.S., Agoston G.E., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. Further Studies of the Reinforcing Effects of Benztropine Analogs in Rhesus Monkeys. Psychopharmacology, 154, pp. 375-382, 2001.

Hayashi, T., Hirata, H., Asanuma, M., Ladenheim, B., Tsao, L.I., Cadet, J.L. and Su, T.P. Delta Opioid Peptide [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]Enkephalin Causes a Near Complete Blockade of the Neuronal Damage Caused by a Single High Dose of Methamphetamine: Examining the Role of p53. Synapse, 39(4), pp. 305-312, 2001.

Imam, S.Z., Newport, G.D., Itzhak, Y., Cadet, J.L., Islam, F., Slikker, W. and Ali, S.F. Peroxynitrite Plays a Role in Methamphetamine-induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity: Evidence from Mice Lacking Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene or Overexpressing Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase. J. Neurochem., 76(3), pp. 745-749, 2001.

Moolchan, E.T., Berlin, I., Robinson, M.L., and Cadet, J.L. African-American Teen Smokers: Issues to Consider for Cessation Treatment. J Natl Med Assoc., 92(12), pp. 558-562, 2000.

Frost, D.O. and Cadet, J.L. Effects of Methamphetamine-induced Neurotoxicity on the Development of Neural Circuitry: A Hypothesis. Brain Res Rev 34(3), pp. 103-118, 2000.

Huestis, M.A., Gorelick, D.A., Heishman, S.J., Preston, K.L., Nelson, R.A., Moolchan, E.T. and Frank, R.A. Blockade of Smoked Marijuana Effects in Humans by the Oral CB1-Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonist SR141716. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, pp. 322-328, 2001.

Woods, A.S. and Huestis, M.A. A Study of Peptide-Peptide Interaction by MALDI. Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 12, pp. 88-96, 2001.

Huestis, M.A., Cone, E.J., Wong, C.J., Umbricht, A. and Preston, K.L. Monitoring Opiate Use in Substance Abuse Treatment Patients by Sweat and Urine Testing. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 24, pp. 509-521, 2000.

Moolchan, E.T., Cone, E.J., Wtsadik, A., Huestis, M.A., and Preston, K.L. Cocaine and Metabolite Elimination Patterns in Chronic Cocaine Users During Cessation: Plasma and Saliva Analysis. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 24, pp. 458-466, 2000.

Wang, Y., Hayashi, T., Chang, C.F., Chiang, Y.H., Tsao, L.I., Su, T.P., Borlongan, C.V., and Lin, S.Z. Methamphetamine Potentiates Ischemia/Reperfusion Insults after Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Ligation in Mice. Stroke, 32, pp. 775-782, 2001.

Hayakawa, T., Chang, M.C.J., Rapoport, S.I. and Appel, N.M. Selective Dopamine Receptor Stimulation Differentially Affects [3H]arachidonic acid Incorporation, a Surrogate Marker for Phospholipase A2-mediated Neurotransmitter Signal Transduction, in a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 296, pp. 1074-1084, 2001.

Myers, C.S., Contreras, M.A., Chang, M.C.J., Rapoport, S.I. and Appel, N.M. Haloperidol Downregulates Phospholipase A2 Signaling in Rat Basal Ganglia Circuits. Brain Res., 896, pp. 96-101, 2001.

Acri, J.B., Thompson, A.C., and Shippenberg T.S. Modulation of Pre and Postsynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptor Function by the Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist U69593. Synapse, 39, pp. 343-350, 2001.

Miller, D.K., Crooks, P.A., Teng, L-H, Witkin, J.M., Munzar, P., Goldberg, S.R., Acri, J.B., and Dwoskin, L.P. Lobeline Inhibits the Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 296, pp. 1023-1034, 2001.

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