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National Institute on Drug Abuse

Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse

February, 1998


Publications


Research Monographs


Beyond Therapeutic Alliance: Keeping The Drug-Dependent Individual in Treatment--Research Monograph 165, NIH Pub. 97-4142.
This monograph reviews current treatment research on the best ways to retain patients in drug dependence treatment and to guide clinicians and clinical researchers on how to deal with this issue. This monograph addresses the issue of keeping addicted individuals in treatment long enough for the treatment to have a positive effect.

The Validity of Self-Reported Drug Use: Improving the Accuracy of Survey Estimates-- Research Monograph 167, NIH Pub. 97-4147.
This monograph examines recent research on validity using internal or external criteria and examines methodological advances that can contribute to improved estimates of drug use in a survey environment.

Rural Substance Abuse: State of Knowledge and Issues--Research Monograph 168, NIH Pub. 97-4177.
This monograph provides significant information about the special nature and context of rural communities, particularly relative to urban settings, that might impact patterns of alcohol and drug consumption and the delivery of services to prevent and treat alcohol and drug abuse.

Meta-Analysis of Drug Abuse Prevention Program--Research Monograph 170, NIH Pub. 97-4146.
The purpose of this monograph is to inform the drug abuse prevention research and practitioner community of the latest advances in research integration methods and scientific findings in the area of drug abuse prevention programs.

Treatment of Drug-Dependent Individuals with Comorbid Mental Disorders--Research Monograph 172, NIH Pub. 97-4172.
The purpose of this monograph is to promote the effective treatment of individuals with comorbid mental and addictive disorders by reporting state-of-the-art science treatment research on individuals with comorbid mental and addictive disorders.

Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism and Pharmaceutics of Drug Abuse--Research Monograph 173, NIH Pub. 97-4141.
This monograph provides the current status of research on metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs of abuse. It also addresses the ability of the drugs to effectively cross the various membrane barriers and to reach receptors depending upon the nature of the drug moiety.

The Problems of Drug Dependence 1996: Proceedings of the 58th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence--Research Monograph 174, NIH Pub. 97-4236.
This publication updates and provides the most current information regarding the findings of preclinical and clinical researchers. The contents are written by the participants at the annual scientific meeting.

Medications Development for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: Issues in Clinical Efficacy Trials--Research Monograph 175, NIH Pub. 97-4125.
This monograph is intended to be used as a state-of-the-art handbook by clinical investigators, pharmaceutical scientists and treatment researchers to effectively conduct clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of potential treatment medications for cocaine addiction.


Other Publications


Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community and Epidemiology Work Group-- December 1996 -Advance Report, NIH Pub. 97-4203.
The Advance Report is biannual and provides descriptive information on the most recent significant trends, emerging problems and populations at risk.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community and Epidemiology Work Group-- December 1996 Volume I: Highlights and Executive Summary, NIH Pub. 97-4204.
This publication provides a detailed and quantitatively driven overview of current drug abuse patterns and trends. The report provides program administrators and officials with specific indicators and ethnographic information on current patterns and trends as well as emerging problems.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community and Epidemiology Work Group-- December 1996 Volume II: Proceedings, NIH Pub. 97-4205.
This publication provides an in-depth analysis of epidemiologic trends and special reports as reported at the annual meeting of the Community Epidemiology Work Group.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community and Epidemiology Work Group--June 1997 -Advance Report.
The Advance Report is biannual and provides descriptive information on the most recent trends, emerging problems and populations at risk.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Community and Epidemiology Work Group--June 1997 Volume I: Highlights and Executive Summary.
Volume I provides a detailed and quantitatively driven overview of current drug abuse patterns and trends. The report provides program administrators and officials with specific indicators and ethnographic information on current patterns and trends as well as emerging problems.

La Marijuana: Lo Que Los Padres Deben Saber (Marijuana: What Parents Should Know) Spanish Version, NIH Pub. 95-4036.
Presents answers to some of the most frequently asked questions of parents about marijuana, the latest scientific information, suggestions about how to talk to teens about marijuana use.

La Marijuana: Informacions Para Los Jovenes (Marijuana: Facts for Teens) Spanish Version, NIH Pub. 95-4037.
Presents answers to some of the most frequently asked questions of teens about marijuana, the latest scientific information and the words of teenage users and non-users who communicate their own reactions to marijuana use.

National Survey Results on Drug Use From The Monitoring The Future, 1975-1995, Volume I -Secondary School Students, NIH Pub. 96-4139.
This two-volume publication reports the results of the 21st national survey of drug use and related attitudes among American high school seniors, the 16th such survey of American college students, and the fifth such survey of eighth and tenth grade students. Volume I contains the results from the secondary school samples of eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders. The results from college students and young adults are reported in Volume II.

National Survey Results on Drug Use From The Monitoring The Future, 1975-1995, Volume II: College Students and Young Adults, NIH Pub. 96-4140.
This is the second volume in a two-volume set reporting the results of all surveys through 1995 from the Monitoring the Future study of American secondary school students, college students, and young adults. This volume provides the results of follow-up surveys of the graduating high school classes of 1976 through 1994 as these respondents have progressed through young adulthood.

Preventing Drug Abuse Among Children and Adolescents, NIH Pub. 97-4212 -(Also reprinted in 1997 with minor revisions).
This guide is designed to provide important research-based concepts and information to further efforts to develop and carry out effective drug abuse prevention programs. The answers were developed in consultation with prevention scientists. This guide presents an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people.


Research Report Series


Heroin: Abuse and Addiction, NIH Pub. 97-4165.
This publication provides information on the prevalence of heroin abuse, methods of use, short-and long-term effects of heroin abuse, and the medical complications of chronic abuse. Describes effective treatment for heroin addiction. Lists resources to learn more about heroin abuse.


Research Dissemination Package


Drug Abuse Prevention Package: Brochure -NIH Pub. 97-4109.
Drug Abuse Prevention: What Works -NIH Pub. 97-4110.
Drug Abuse Prevention: Community Readiness for Drug Abuse Prevention: Issues, Tips, and Tools -NIH Pub. 97-4111.
Drug Abuse Prevention and Community Readiness: Training Facilitator's Manual -NIH Pub. 97-4112.

This package provides drug abuse prevention practitioners with information they can use to prepare their communities for drug abuse prevention programming and to select prevention strategies that effectively address the needs of their local communities. It discusses factors associated with community readiness and ways to assess and increase such readiness. The materials provide an overview of three prevention strategies, the research which has shown these models to be effective and program descriptions which illustrate each prevention approach.


Stand Alone


Drug Abuse Prevention for the General Population -NIH Pub. 97-4113.
This publication discusses the history and key features of universal prevention programs. Project START--a community-wide program to teach adolescents skills to counteract psychosocial influences that can lead to drug abuse--is described as an illustration.

Drug Abuse Prevention for At-Risk Groups -NIH Pub. 97-4114.
This publication discusses the history and key features of selective prevention programs. The Strengthening Families Program--a family-focused program targeted children ages 6 to 10 whose parents are substance abusers--is described as an illustration.

Drug Abuse Prevention for At-Risk Individuals -NIH Pub. 97-4115.
This publication discusses the history and key features of indicated prevention programs. The Reconnecting Youth Program--a school-based program targeting 9th-through 12th-grade students who are at risk for substance abuse, school failure, social problems, delinquency or antisocial behaviors or psychological problems--is described as an illustration.


NIDA NOTES


July/August 1997 -NCADI NN0023.
This issue highlights drug abuse treatment for the homeless, describing one in New York City and one in Birmingham, Alabama. The issue announces the launching of a NIDA drug abuse treatment initiative, and the Director's Column discusses that initiative. A special report on understanding the genetic roots of addiction is included. Two other stories look at a steroid abuse prevention program and how gender affects drug abuse and psychiatric disorders.

May/June 1997 -NCADI NN0022.
The lead articles in this issue make up a special section, "Children on the Brink: Youths at Risk of Drug Abuse." The three articles in the section describe two prevention programs that work with families, two prevention programs that work in high schools, and an epidemiologic study of drug abuse among runaway and homeless youths. The Director's Column highlights advances in drug abuse prevention research. Other articles look at compounds that show strong promise for treating cocaine addiction and gender differences in nicotine addiction. The tear-off guides researchers to sources of information on applying for grants.


Science Education Materials


Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Steroids -NIH Pub. 97-3860.
Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Hallucinogens -NIH Pub. 97-3858.
Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Stimulants -NIH Pub. 97-3857.
Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Opiates -NIH Pub. 96-3856.
Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Inhalants -NIH Pub. 96-4038.
Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana -NIH Pub. 96-3859.

This eye-catching series encourages teens in grades 5 through 9 to reject drug use by teaching them about the effects of drugs on the brain. In each magazine, "Sara Bellum" takes students on a scientific journey to learn about the brain's complex responses to specific drugs. A brightly colored poster appears on the back of each magazine.

Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Drugs: Teacher's Guide, NIH Pub. 98-4248.
It includes chapters on stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, marijuana, opiates, and steroids; each of which describes the effects of specific drugs or drug types on the anatomy and physiology of the brain and the body. Each chapter also contains activities that can be used in the classroom. The background information and lesson plans contained in this guide, when used in combination with the magazines in the series, will promote an understanding of the physical reality of drug use, as well as curiosity about neuroscience.

Cohen, P.J. Immunization for Prevention and Treatment of Cocaine Abuse: Legal and Ethical Implications. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 48, pp. 167-174, 1997.

Cohen, P.J. The Placebo is not Dead: Three Historical Vignettes, IRB, In Press.

Glowa, J., LeSage, M., Stafford, D., and Vocci, F. Novel Pharmacotherapies for Cocaine Abuse-1995 to Present. Expert Opinion in Therapeutic Patents, 7(12), pp. 1459-1476, 1997.

Sparenborg, S., Vocci, F., and Zukin, S. Peripheral Cocaine-Blocking Agents: New Medications for Cocaine Dependence: An Introduction to Immunological and Enzymatic Approaches to Treating Cocaine Dependence reported by Fox, Gorelick, and Cohen in the immediately succeeding articles, (see pages 153-174). Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 48, pp. 149-151, 1997.

Hamawy, M.M., Swieter, M., Mergenhagen, S.E. and Siraganian, R.P. Reconstitution of High Affinity IgE Receptor-Mediated Secretion by Transfecting Protein Tyrosine Kinase pp125FAK. J Biol Chem 272: pp. 30498-30503, 1997. This work showed that secretion from mast cells initiated by aggregating cell surface receptors for IgE requires focal adhesion kinase. It also showed that neither the ATP binding site nor the autophosphorylation site on FAK were needed to subserve this function.

Sagawa, K., Kimura, T., Swieter, M. and Siraganian, R.P. The Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase SHP-2 Associates with Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Adhesion Molecule PECAM-1 (CD31). J Biol Chem 272: pp. 31086-31091, 1997. This work showed that specific physical and functional interactions of a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase and a transmembrane cellular adhesion molecule were dramatically influenced by the secretory process in mast cells.

Pilotte, N.S., Neurochemistry of Cocaine Withdrawal. Current Opinions in Neurology, 10, pp. 534-538, 1997.

Robertson, E.B. and Donnermeyer, J.F. Illegal Drug Use among Rural Adults: Mental Health Consequences and Treatment Utilization. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 23(3): pp. 467-484, 1997.

Gfroerer, J., Wright, D., and Kopstein, A. Prevalence of Youth Substance Use: The Impact of Methodological Differences between Two National Surveys. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 47(1): pp. 19-30, July 25, 1997.

Yesalis, C.E., Barsukiewicz, C.K., Kopstein, A.N., and Bahrke, M.S. Trends in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among Adolescents. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 151: pp. 1197-1206, December 1997.


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