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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - February, 2004



Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

The R25 grant mechanism, newly titled Research Education Grants in Drug Abuse and Addiction, has been re-issued. The objective of the R25 is to be a flexible and specialized mechanism designed to foster the development of drug addiction researchers through creative and innovative educational programs. These educational experiences will attract, train, and further the career development of physician scientists and other health professionals, underrepresented minority scientists, and adolescent, pediatric and geriatric researchers interested in pursuing research relevant to the mission of NIDA.

On October 10, 2003, NIDA re-issued the Program Announcement, Drug Abuse Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Other Infections (PA-04-007). This PA supports a range of investigator-initiated studies on drug abuse aspects of HIV/AIDS and other serious infections that cut across multiple disciplines, including, among others: virology, bacteriology, molecular epidemiology, etiology, therapeutics and vaccines, ethnography and behavioral epidemiology, mathematical modeling and simulations, and the behavioral and social sciences. Program officials in NIDA's Center on AIDS and Other Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse may be contacted for inquiries.

On September 15, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Novel Approaches to Phenotyping Drug Abuse (RFA-DA-04-005). Through this RFA, NIDA requests applications that propose and evaluate novel approaches to understanding the drug abuse phenotype(s). Specifically, the purpose of this initiative is to support innovative studies that better describe, discriminate and predict the complex nature and course of drug abuse so as to offer more precise phenotypic indicators for testing the hypothesized underlying genetic and environmental risk for drug abuse. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA was December 22, 2003; Application Receipt Date was January 22, 2004.

On October 31, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Behavioral and Cognitive Processes Related to Adolescent Drug Abuse (RFA-DA-04-009). This RFA invites applications in the area of behavioral, cognitive and social cognitive research that have the potential to address issues related to drug abuse and addiction during adolescence. The objective of this RFA is to stimulate research that has the potential to advance our understanding of the causes, consequences, prevention and treatment of adolescent drug abuse and addiction. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA was January 20, 2004; Application Receipt Date is February 20, 2004.

On October 31, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Animal Models of Adolescent Drug Abuse: Integrative Studies of Brain and Behavioral Development (RFA-DA-04-011). Through this RFA, NIDA seeks to stimulate research that uses an integration of neurobiological and behavioral approaches to study adolescent brain development. Applicants are expected to use animal models and an integrated approach to focus on the development of regions of the brain that are involved in drug-taking behavior and/or altered by acute or chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is February 17, 2004; Application Receipt Date is March 17, 2004.

On December 1, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Medications Development for Cannabis-Related Disorders (RFA-DA-04-014) to focus on the identification, evaluation and development of safe and effective pharmacological treatments for cannabis-related disorders (CRDs), such as cannabis abuse or dependence, and cannabis-induced disorders (e.g., intoxication, delirium, psychotic disorder, and anxiety disorder), and their comorbidity with other medical and psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression), with special interest in the treatment of children and adolescents. Cannabis use includes marijuana, hashish, and other tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) containing substances.

On December 4, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Prevention Research for the Transition to Adulthood (RFA-DA-04-013). Through this RFA, NIDA seeks research grant applications focused on the transitional period spanning late adolescence and young adulthood that test the efficacy of interventions to prevent and/or reduce drug use, abuse and related problems including HIV-risk behaviors. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is February 20, 2004; Application Receipt Date is March 23, 2004.

On December 10, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled HIV/AIDS and Other Infections Among Drug Users in the Criminal Justice System (RFA-DA-04-015). The purpose of this RFA is to support innovative research projects (R21s and R03s) to advance knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment service needs of drug users in the criminal justice system who have or are at high-risk for HIV and other infectious diseases, and who receive legal supervision in the community setting. The RFA is a collaborative effort between NIDA's Center on AIDS and Other Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse (CAMCODA) and the Services Research Branch of the Division of Epidemiology, Services, and prevention Research (DESPR). Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is February 23, 2004; application Receipt Date is March 23, 2004. Program contacts are Elizabeth Lambert, CAMCODA and Redonna Chandler, DESPR.

On December 23, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Targeted Integrative Research in Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Pregnancy (RFA-DA-04-010). Through this RFA, NIDA invites targeted integrative research on epidemiological, prevention and treatment service approaches that focus on drug abuse, HIV/AIDS and other medical consequences of drug abuse specifically relevant to pregnant women and females of childbearing age. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is February 17, 2004; Application Receipt Date is March 17, 2004.

On January 9, 2004, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Consequences of Marijuana Use on the Developing Brain (RFA-DA-04-016). The purpose of this RFA is to support investigations of the effects of exposure to marijuana--the most commonly used illicit drug among teenagers in the U.S.-on the developing brain. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is March 16, 2004; Application Receipt Date is April 16, 2004.

PAs/RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On October 16, NIDA, in collaboration with NIMH, NIAAA, and NCI, issued a new Program Announcement (PA) entitled National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups for the Treatment of Mood Disorders or Nicotine Addiction (NCDDG-MD/NA) (PAR-04-009). The intent of this solicitation is to invite applications from academic and pharmaceutical industry investigators interested in participating with the sponsoring NIH Institutes in a National Cooperative Drug Discovery Group (NCDDG-MD/NA) Program to accelerate innovative drug discovery, the development of pharmacologic tools for basic and clinical research in mood disorders or nicotine addiction, and, in the case of mood disorders, the development and validation of models for evaluating novel therapeutics.

On October 8, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA and NIDDK, issued a PA entitled Mechanisms of Alcoholic Pancreatitis (PA-04-005). Through this PA, the sponsoring Institutes are seeking research grant applications that will investigate the underlying molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which long-term alcohol ingestion leads to the development of pancreatitis.

On October 8, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH Institutes, issued a PA entitled Neurotechnology Research, Development and Enhancement (PA-04-006). The purpose of this PA is to encourage submission of new research project grant (R01) and exploratory/developmental grant (R21) applications to research and develop innovative technologies, methodologies, or instrumentation for basic or clinical studies of the brain or behavior in humans or animal models.

On November 18, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH Institutes, issued a PA entitled Bioengineering Research Partnerships (PAR-04-023). The purpose of this PA is to encourage submission of new research project grant (R01) applications to support Bioengineering Research Partnerships (BRPs) for basic, applied, and translational multidisciplinary research that addresses important biological or medical research problems.

On November 18, 2004, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA and NIMH, issued a PA entitled HIV/AIDS, Severe Mental Illness and Homelessness (PA-04-024). The goal of this PA is to refocus research on persons with severe mental illness (SMI), either before or after HIV infection, and to expand HIV-related research to homeless persons. This PA solicits studies on the SMI population and/or homeless persons with special attention to the development, implementation, and evaluation of effective HIV-prevention interventions and their dissemination and translation to the community and public health service organizations.

On December 8, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH Institutes, issued a PA entitled Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards for Individual Predoctoral Fellows (F31) (PA-04-032). This program will provide predoctoral training support for doctoral candidates who have successfully completed their comprehensive examinations or the equivalent by the time of award and will be performing dissertation research and training.

On January 15, 2004, NIDA and a number of other NIH components jointly issued a PA entitled ELSI Regular Research Program (R01) (PA-04-050). This PA is designed to solicit research projects that anticipate, analyze and address the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of the discovery and use of new information and technologies resulting from human genetic and genomic research.

On January 15, 2004, NIDA and a number of other NIH components jointly issed a PA entitled ELSI Small Grant Research Program (R03) (PA-04-051). This PA is designed to solicit research projects that anticipate, analyze and address the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of the discovery and use of new information and technologies resulting from human genetic and genomic research.

On October 3, 2003, NIDA, together with NIAAA and NCI issued an RFA entitled Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Centers (RFA-CA-04-012). The reissue of this RFA reflects recognition of the public health impact of tobacco use and the scientific need for integrative transdisciplinary research across the full spectrum of basic and applied research on tobacco use and control. Letter of Intent Date for this RFA was December 26, 2003; Application Receipt Date was January 23, 2004.

On October 28, 2003, NIDA issued a Notice entitled Testing Mechanisms of Action for Behavioral Therapies for Substance Use Disorders (NOT-DA-04-002). The purpose of this initiative is to provide supplemental funding to existing behavioral treatment studies to encourage studies of how behavioral treatments operate. NIDA views the identification of therapy mechanisms of action as a key step in developing efficacious behavioral treatments that can be delivered in community settings. This supplement program is intended to stimulate research on the causal mechanisms of behavioral treatments, including studies of particular treatments, studies of possible common mechanisms across multiple treatments, and studies developing psychometrically-sound instruments for assessing therapeutic mechanisms of action.

On December 10, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA, issued an RFA entitled Group Therapy for Individuals in Drug Abuse or Alcoholism Treatment. The purpose of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to invite research applications addressing group-format behavioral treatments for drug abuse and/or alcohol use disorders (AUD). Applications that focus on interventions to reduce the spread of infectious disease in substance abuse treatment populations are also of interest. This RFA builds on a meeting convened by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in 2003 on the challenges in conducting research on group therapy, and is part of an ongoing commitment of NIDA and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) to support the development and testing of behavioral treatments for drug abuse and AUD that can be delivered in community substance abuse treatment settings. Letter of Intent Date for this RFA was January 20, 2004; Application Receipt Date is February 20, 2004.

On December 16, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with SAMHSA, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), issued an RFA entitled Screening and Intervention for Youth in Primary Care Settings (RFA-DA-04-006). This RFA seeks to build on recent efforts to address problematic alcohol and nicotine use in primary care settings in order to similarly expand the availability and delivery of efficacious drug abuse interventions. Letter of Intent Date for this RFA was January 19, 2004; Application Receipt Date is February19, 2004.

On January 15, 2004, NIDA and NIMH issued a joint RFA entitled HIV/AIDS, Drug Use and Highly Vulnerable Youth: Targeting Research Gaps (RFA-DA-04-012). Through this RFA, NIDA and NIMH invite innovative applications to address critical gaps in research on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and related health issues among highly vulnerable youth. For the purpose of this RFA, highly vulnerable youth are those children, adolescents, and young adults aged 10-24 years who are using or are at high risk for using drugs (both injection and non-injection drug use) and who are (a) at high risk for HIV and other infectious diseases, (b) living with HIV/AIDS, and/or (c) affected by HIV/AIDS.

Other Program Activities

CTN Protocol Update
Wave 1 Protocols:

  • Five CTN studies have closed enrollment. A total of 5,234 patients have been screened with 2,547 of those enrolling in all the trials. Other studies as listed below are starting in the next few months.
  • Protocol CTN-0004 (Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) is actively enrolling at sites across 3 states. A total of 455 participants have enrolled in this study so far. Three of the five participating sites have reached their targeted enrollment of 100 clients.
Wave 2 Protocols:
  • Protocol CTN 0003 (Bup/Nx: Comparison of Two Taper Schedules) began enrollment on June 30, 2003. This study will be carried out at 11 sites across 8 nodes. The targeted enrollment is 480 participants. Participation is currently at 10% of the targeted enrollment.
  • Protocol CTN 0008 (Baseline Survey) has been actively collecting survey information in all 17 Nodes since January 2002.
  • Protocol CTN 0009 (Smoking Cessation Treatment With Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs) started enrolling on April 9, 2003. This study will be carried out at 12 Community Treatment Programs across 7 Nodes. One-hundred twenty-seven participants have been enrolled in the last six months at nine sites. The other 3 sites will be enrolling once IRB approvals are finalized. Participation is currently less than 10% of the targeted enrollment.
  • CTN 0010 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults) began enrollment on July 17, 2003. This is the first adolescent protocol in the CTN. This study will be carried out at 5 CTP sites across 4 nodes. The targeted enrollment is 240 adolescent/young adult participants.
  • CTN 0011 (A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure - TELE - to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities) began enrollment in January 2003. A total of 339 patients in four sites have enrolled since the beginning of the study. This is a feasibility study and is carried out at four sites across three nodes. Three of the four sites have reached the targeted enrollment. Participation is at 94% of the targeted enrollment of 360.
  • Protocol CTN 0012 (HIV/AIDS, Hep C, and Infections Screening in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs) was approved for implementation. This was initiated and data has begun to be collected.
  • Protocol CTN 0013, Motivational Enhancement Therapy to Improve Treatment Utilization and Outcome in Pregnant Substance Abusers, has started enrolling participants.
  • Protocol CTN 0021(Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) has begun enrollment. This is the first Spanish only protocol in the CTN. It will be conducted at 6 bi-lingual sites across 5 nodes.
Wave 3 Protocols: The third wave of protocols is progressing and some are near implementation.
  • Protocol CTN 0014, Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abusers (BSFT) has been approved by NIDA. Therapist training and implementation will take place in waves. The first wave of sites has finished protocol training. Pilot family cases are being recruited for therapist training. BSFT will be implemented at 13 sites across 10 nodes plus Puerto Rico. This intervention is the first CTN study to target adolescents and their families.
  • Protocol CTN 0015, Women's Treatment for Trauma and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial, is working towards protocol implementation in February or March of 2004 for its first "wave" of sites. At this point, all counselors and supervisors have completed the required centralized training on the intervention. Many have also been certified, which requires submitting four videotapes to be rated by the staff at the Lead Node. Staff are also in the process of being certified to administer the ASI and CIDI, which are two of the CTN's required battery of assessment instruments. All sites are in the process of obtaining certification of their data systems, as well as scheduling their local QA initiation monitoring visits.
  • Protocol CTN 0016, Patient Feedback: A Performance Improvement in Outpatient Settings, is progressing towards implementation in the spring of 2004. The Quality Assurance Plan for this feasibility study was recently approved. Currently, sites are scheduling their local node QA monitoring visits, as well as those to be conducted by NIDA's contract monitoring organization.
  • Three HIV protocols (CTN 0017 HIV and HCV Risk Reduction Intervention in Drug Detoxification and Treatment Settings, CTN 0018 HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Groups for Men in Methadone Maintenance or Drug Free Outpatient Programs, and CTN 0019 HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Groups for Women in Methadone Maintenance or Drug Free Outpatient Programs) were reviewed at the April 2003 Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) Meeting. Sites are being finalized for those protocols. They will be carried out at numerous sites across the Network. It is expected that these will start enrolling in January/February 2004.
  • Protocol CTN 0020, Job Seekers Training for Patients with Drug Dependence, was also reviewed at the April 2003 Data Safety and Monitoring Board Meeting. The protocol team very recently created an operations manual. Training in the intervention will occur in the spring of 2004, separately in three different regions of the country. The Case Report Forms have been drafted and are currently being reviewed by the Data Management and Analysis Subcommittee.
Wave 4 Protocols: These are still being revised and approved.
  • ·These protocols include: CTN 0022 Family Management Skills for Drug Involved Women in Treatment; CTN 0023 12-Step Facilitation as an Intervention to Increase 12-Step Involvement and Improve Outcomes Among Substance Dependent Individuals; CTN 0024 Reducing HIV Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in Community Based Substance Abuse Programs; CTN 0025 Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT); and CTN 0026 Treatment of Depression in Adult Substance Abusers with Escitalopram.

NIDA/SAMHSA-ATTC Blending Initiative
The interagency agreement called the NIDA/SAMHSA-ATTC Blending Initiative encourages the use of current evidence-based treatment interventions by professionals in the drug abuse treatment field. "Blending Teams," comprised of staff from CSAT's Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network and NIDA researchers, will develop a strategic dissemination plan for introducing particular research findings using a number of different mechanisms for effective adoption within communities, such as trainings, self-study programs, workshops, and distance learning opportunities. Two NIDA-CSAT Blending Teams have been created to date. The first team, which convened in October 2003, is developing Buprenorphine awareness training and materials for non-physicians in the drug abuse and addiction field. The second team met in December 2003, and they are charged with the development of training materials and products to assist program managers, supervisors, administrators, and policy makers to use the results of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) for management and program planning decisions. Dr. Suman Rao, OSPC, serves as the NIDA point-of-contact and liaison with SAMHSA.

NRC and IOM report
The NRC and IOM report on "New Treatments for Addiction: Behavioral, Ethical, Legal, and Social Questions" has been completed. NIDA Senior Staff were briefed in January 2004 by members of the NRC/IOM Committee that compiled this report. The full report will be distributed to the NACDA Taskforce on Bioethics for their review, endorsement, and for discussion with NIDA on how best to develop research in this emerging field.

VMAT2 Blockade and Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity: Implications for Medications Development
On December 5, 2003, in Bethesda, MD, Dr. Nathan Appel, DTR&D, chaired a consultants meeting entitled "VMAT2 Blockade and Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity: Implications for Medications Development." Dr. Frank Vocci presented the Medications Discovery Program to the consultants, describing its history, organization, accomplishments, and current undertakings. Dr. Bryan Yamamoto (Boston University) then spoke on effects of methamphetamine on brain neurochemistry and neuroanatomy, Dr. Annette Fleckenstein (University of Utah) spoke on effects of methamphetamine on brain membrane monoamine transporters and VMAT2, Dr. Raul Gainetdinov (Duke University) spoke on effects of methamphetamine in VMAT2 knockout animals compared to wild types, and Dr. Linda Dwoskin (University of Kentucky) spoke on biochemistry and behavioral pharmacology of lobeline. A group of listening consultants - consisting of experts in toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and pathology related to medications discovery - provided feedback to NIDA. The consultants recommended in vivo animal studies and a number of endpoints that NIDA could use to evaluate the safety of a potential methamphetamine abuse medication whose effects include VMAT2 blockade.

NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since September 2003

Adinoff, Bryon H. -- University of Texas South West Medical Center/Dallas
Limbic Sensitivity In Cocaine Addiction

Al'absi, Mustafa N. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Psychobiological Mechanisms of Stress & Smoking Relapse

Andersen, Susan L. -- Mc Lean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Early Drug Exposure And Drug Reward Mechanisms

Anthony, James C. -- Johns Hopkins University
Cross-National Studies of Drug Involvement: WMH2000

Arkes, Jeremy -- Rand Corporation
Do Changes In The Economy Affect Teenage Drug Use?

Baizer, Joan S. -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Methylphenidate & Gene Expression In the Rat Brain

Balsam, Peter D. -- Barnard College
Timing: Pharmacology and Conditioning

Bardo, Michael T. -- Yaupon Therapeutics, Inc.
Novelty, Dopamine and Response To Amphetamine

Barth, Alison L. -- Carnegie-Mellon University
Experience Dependent Plasticity In A FosGFP Mouse

Becker, Jill B. -- University of Michigan At Ann Arbor
Gender Differences In Drug Abuse

Bernstein, Ilene L. -- University of Washington
Neural Plasticity and Sensitization of Salt Appetite

Bickel, Warren K. -- University of Vermont & State Agricultural College
Delay Discounting In Drug Dependence

Blanco, Carlos -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Screening For Comorbidity In Substance Abuse Clinics

Bolland, John M. -- University of Alabama In Tuscaloosa
Strengthening Neighborhood Investment: An Evaluation

Brown, Richard A. -- Butler Hospital, Providence, RI
Distress Tolerance Treatment For Early Smoking Lapsers

Cahill, Lawrence F. -- University of California Irvine
Investigation of Dopamine Function In Human Amygdala

Clair, Scott D. -- Iowa State University of Science & Technology
Assessing Oral HIV Testing Among Brazilian Drug Users

Comer, Sandra D. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Prescription Opioid Effects In Drug and Non-Drug Abusers

Conklin, Cynthia A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Personalized Cues As Factors In Smoking Relapse

Costello, Elizabeth -- Duke University
Multi-Site Longitudinal Analysis-Psychiatric Risk of SUD

Cunningham-Williams, Renee M. -- Washington University
Validity and Measurement Issues In Pathological Gambling

Dakof, Gayle A. -- University of Miami-Medical
Family-Based Juvenile Drug Court Services

De Biasi, Mariella G. -- Baylor College of Medicine
Mouse Models For Nicotine's Interaction With Stress

Dennis, Michael L. -- Chestnut Health Systems
Early Re-Intervention Experiment2 (Er12)

Dey, Sudhansu K. -- Vanderbilt University
Endocannabinoid Signaling During Early Pregnancy

Dodge, Kenneth A. -- Duke University
Development and Prevention of Substance Use Problems

Dorsey, Cynthia M. -- Mc Lean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Neurochemical Substrates of Sleep Homeostasis

Dunlap, Eloise -- National Development & Research Institutes
Transient Domesticity & Violence In Distressed Household

Dwoskin, Linda P. -- University of Kentucky
Development of Novel Treatments For Nicotine Addiction

Ellickson, Phyllis L. -- Rand Corporation
Long Term Results of Alert Plus

Evans, Suzette M. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Effects of Smoked Heroin Across the Menstrual Cycle

Farah, Martha J. -- University of Pennsylvania
Normal Impulsivity: A Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis

France, Charles P. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio
Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Opioid Withdrawal

Fuchs, Perry N. -- University of Texas Arlington
Supraspinal Processing of Pain Affect

Fuller, Bret E. -- Oregon Health & Science University
Methadone Benefit Elimination--Oregon Health Plan

Galizio, Mark -- University of North Carolina Wilmington
Drugs of Abuse and Complex Behavior

Gariti, Peter -- University of Pennsylvania
Light Smoking Program

Gauda, Estelle B. -- Johns Hopkins University
Clonidine Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Gifford, Andrew N. -- Brookhaven Science Associates-Brookhaven Lab
Animal Model For Inhalant Abuse

Gilbert, David G. -- Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Nicotine: Cognition-Affect Interactions

Goodkin, Karl -- University of Miami-Medical
HIV-1 Cognitive-Motor Disorders: Definition In Argentina

Goodman, Murray -- University of California San Diego
Peptidomimetic Opioids, Synthesis, Structure & Biology

Hanson, Glen R -- University of Utah
Neurotensin and Methamphetamine Effects

Heimer, Robert -- Yale University
Integrating Sex & Drug Related HIV Risk & Transmission

Henggeler, Scott W. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Adoption and Implementation of Adolescent EBT State-Wide

Hirsh, Jay -- University of Virginia Charlottesville
Non-Invasive Self Administration Methodology For Mice

Hollis, Jack F. -- Kaiser Foundation Research Institute
Implementing Tobacco Control In Dental Practice

Honda, Christopher N. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Purinergic Mechansism of Nociception

Houtsmuller, Elisabeth J. -- Johns Hopkins University
Novel Lapse-Responsive Approach To Smoking Cessation

Javitch, Jonathan A. -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Archaeal & Bacterial Homologs of Dopamine Transporter

Johnson, Bankole A. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio
Lab Trials To Develop Medications For Cocaine Dependence

Johnston, Lloyd D. -- University of Michigan At Ann Arbor
A Cohort-Sequential Panel Study of Drug Use, Ages 19-45

Jones, Hendree E. -- Johns Hopkins University
Treating the Partners of Drug Using Pregnant Women: Stage II

Killen, Joel D. -- Stanford University
Behavioral Maintenance Treatment For Smoking Cessation

Killen, Joel D. -- Stanford University
Selegiline Patch for Treatment of Nicotine Dependence

Kirby, Kimberly C. -- Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
A Behavioral Model for Maintenance of Drug Abstinence

Koblin, Beryl -- New York Blood Center
HIV Vaccine Trials In Women

Kozikowski, Alan P. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Chemistry and Pharmacology of New Nicotine Ligands

Kuhn, Cynthia M. -- Duke University
GHB Tolerance and Dependence

Lam, Wendy K. -- Research Triangle Institute
Family Intervention For Children and Crack-Using Mothers

Latimer, William W. -- Johns Hopkins University
Neurological Influences on Drug Prevention Intervention

Lerman, Caryn E. -- University of Pennsylvania
Pharmacogenetic Investigation of Naltrexone

Lewis, Sarah J. -- Barry University
Antiretroviral-Tip for Substance Users

Li, Kui -- University of Texas Medical Galveston
Impact of HCV Ns3/4a Protease On Host Innate Immunity

Linehan, Marsha M. -- University of Washington
Emotion Regulation In Suicidal Patients With BPD

Lum, Paula -- University of California San Francisco
A Randomized Trial of Vaccine Adherence In Young IDU

Lynch, Thomas R. -- Duke University
Evaluation of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

Madden, Gregory J. -- University of Wisconsin Eau Claire
Behavioral Economics In Closed Economies

Malcolm, Robert J. -- Medical University of South Carolina
CBT and Modafinil for Cocaine Addiction

Mannelli, Paolo -- Thomas Jefferson University
Place of Low-Dose Naltrexone In Opiate Detoxification

Marlowe, Douglas B. -- Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
Matching Services To Client Needs In Drug Court

Martino, Steve -- Yale University
Training Strategies For Motivational Interviewing

Mayes, Linda C. -- Yale University
Arousal and Attention In Cocaine-Exposed Children

McCann, Una D. -- Johns Hopkins University
Sleep and Nocturnal Endocrine Function In MDMA Usera

Mccurdy, Christopher R. -- University of Mississippi
Salvinorin A: A Structurally Novel Opioid Agonist Lead

McMahon, James M. -- National Development & Research Institutes
Couples HIV Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial

McMahon, Lance R. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio
Drug Discrimination and THC Withdrawal In Monkeys

Miesenbock, Gero -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Genetically Encoded Phototriggers of Neuronal Activity

Miller, Laurie -- New England Medical Center Hospitals
Neurodevelopmental Outcome In Russian Orphanage

Miranda, Robert -- Brown University
Mechanisms Relating Conduct Disorder and Drug Abuse

Mitchell, Suzanne H. -- Oregon Health & Science University
Interactions Between Impulsivity and Cigarette Smoking

Moore, Richard D. -- Johns Hopkins University
HIV Disease Outcomes In Drug Users In Clinical Practice

Morral, Andrew -- Rand Corporation
Case-Mix Adjustment For Adolescent Treatment Evaluations

Murrin, Leonard C. -- University of Nebraska Medical Center
Regulation of Mu Opioid Receptor Signal Transduction

Napier, T. Celeste -- Loyola University Medical Center
5-HT & Medication Development For Methamphetamine Abuse

Nelson, Elliot C. -- Washington University
Opioid Dependence: Candidate Genes and G X E Effects

Neumaier, John F. -- University of Washington
The Role of Serotonin Receptors In Brain Reward Circuits

Newton, Thomas .F -- University of California Los Angeles
Perindopril-Methamphetamine Interaction Study

Nunes, Edward V. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
MI Training: Live Supervision By Tele-Conference

O'Leary, Daniel S. -- University of Iowa
Acute Marijuana Effects on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow

Oser, Carrie B. -- University of Georgia
Adoption & Implementation of Naltrexone In Private Treatment Centers

Ouellet, Lawrence J. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
HIV and the Sexual Networks of IDUs and Drug-Using MSM

Overman, William H. -- University of North Carolina Wilmington
Decision Making In Adolescent Substance Abusers

Pentel, Paul R. -- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Immunization To Block the Effects of Nicotine

Pollio, David E. -- Washington University
Family Services For Runaway Homeless Youth

Rao, Uma -- University of Texas Southwest Medical Center Dallas
Stress Response and Smoking Cessation In Depressed Youth

Richardson, Gale A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Use: 15-Year Follow-Up

Riley, Elise D. -- University of California San Francisco
Drugs, Gender and Healthcare Use Among HIV+ Homeless

Ringwalt, Christopher L. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Diffusion of Drug Prevention Curricula Nationwide

Robertson, Angela A. -- Mississippi State University
HIV Risk Reduction Among Young Incarcerated Females

Roll, John M. -- Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Behavior Change: Reinforcement Schedule Effects

Roth, Bryan L. -- Case Western Reserve University
Diterpines As Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonists

Saewyc, Elizabeth M. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Enacted Stigma, Gender & Risk Behaviors of School Youth

Schnitzer, Mark J. -- Stanford University
Chronic Brain Imaging Using Fluorescence Endoscopy

Severson, Herbert H. -- Oregon Research Institute
Tobacco Quitlines: An Adjunct To Dental Interventions

Shannon, Richard Patrick -- Allegheny-Singer Research Institute
Chronic Cocaine Effects On Normal and Diseased Hearts

Sheidow, Ashli J. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Development of Outpatient MST For Dually Diagnosed Youth

Siegel, Steven J. -- University of Pennsylvania
Evoked Potentials and Vulnerability To Ketamine In Mice

Singer, Lynn T. -- Case Western Reserve University
Cocaine Exposed Children At School Age

Singhal, Pravin C. -- North Shore-Long Island Jewish Research Institute
HIV Associated Nephropathy In Drug Addicts

Sinha, Debasish -- Johns Hopkins University
Modulation of Ciita By Cannabinoids In Human Microglia

Slomkowski, Cheryl -- Miriam Hospital
Sibling Influence On Smoking In Everyday Settings

Solarsh, Geoffrey C. -- University of Natal
Developmental Disabilities In A Time of AIDS

Sulkowski, Mark S. -- Johns Hopkins University
Management/Hepatitis C/HIV-Infected and Uninfected IDUs

Swan, Gary E. -- SRI International
Biometric and Measured Genetic Research On Smoking

Szeto, Hazel H. -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Systemically-Active Opioid Peptide Analogs

Taylor, Jane R. -- Yale University
Cognitive Dysfunction After Chronic PCP, THC and Cocaine

Taylor, Jane R. -- Yale University
Incentive Motivation In Addiction: PKA Mechanisms

Teicher, Martin H. -- Mc Lean Hospital, Belmont, MA
Early Stress and Neural Substrates Relevant To Addiction

Trudell, Mark L. -- Louisiana State University-University of New Orleans
Synthesis of Potential Cocaine Therapeutics

Upadhyaya, Himanshu P. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Combined Pharmaco/Behavior Therapy In Adolescent Smokers

Vassileva, Jasmin L. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Neuro-Cognitive Aspects af Opiate Abuse & Antisocial Behavior

Wagner, Fernando A. -- Morgan State University
Opportunities and Actual Drug Use Among Hispanics

Wallack, Stanley S. -- Brandeis University
Adoption of Buphenorphine In Office Practice

Walsh, Margaret M. -- University of California San Francisco
Reimbursement and Intensity of Dentists' Training

Winters, Ken C. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Brief Intervention for Drug Abusing Students

Woody, George E. -- University of Pennsylvania
Addiction Treatment In Russia: Oral and Depot Naltrexone

Wu, Gang-Yi -- Baylor College Of Medicine
Map Kinase Signaling and Dendritic Spine Plasticity

Yaksh, Tony L. -- University of California San Diego
Characterization of Toxicity With Spinal Opiates

Yeomans, David C. -- Stanford University
Recombinant Herpes Injection Into Trigeminal Ganglia

Yu, Xiao-Fang -- Johns Hopkins University
Implications of HIV In Low HCV Clearance In Chinese IDUs

Zigmond, Michael J. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Developmental Stress and Vulnerability To Brain Injury

Zule, William A. -- Research Triangle Institute
Modeling HIV Diffusion Through Drug Using Networks


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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