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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - February, 2003



Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On September 25, 2002, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled NIDA Small Grants Program (PA-02-170). This announcement updates and replaces PAR-00-059, NIDA Small Grants Program, published in the NIH Guide for Contracts and Grants, February 10, 2000. NIDA provides research support of up to $50,000 per year (direct costs) for up to two years in order to conduct research relevant to any area of NIDA's programmatic mission.

On September 25, 2002, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Exploratory/ Developmental Grant Applications (R21) for NIDA (PA-02-171). This PA is a reissuance of PA-01-012, published in the NIH Guide for Contracts and Grants, November 6, 2000. The objective of the exploratory/developmental grant (R21) mechanism is to encourage applications from individuals who are interested in testing innovative or conceptually creative ideas that are scientifically sound and may advance the understanding of drug abuse and addiction.

On October 17, 2002, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Services Research in the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (PA-03-011). This PA invites applications to conduct health services research on the practice and delivery of drug treatment in the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN). By encouraging the use of the existing CTN network of treatment providers and research centers as a platform for new research, this PA enhances research efforts to improve the delivery of drug abuse treatment, and translate science-based treatments into practice in community treatment settings.

On October 30, 2002, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Cutting-Edge Basic Research Awards (CEBRA) (PAR-03-017). The purpose of this PA is to invite applications for Cutting-Edge Basic Research Awards (CEBRA) to foster highly innovative or conceptually creative research that advances our understanding of drug abuse and addiction and how to prevent and treat them. The CEBRA is a new mechanism designed by NIDA to foster novel research approaches and represents the high priority placed by NIDA on identifying such research.

NIDA's International Program issued a Program Announcement, International Research Collaboration on Drug Addiction (PAS-03-023) on November 7, 2002 to support new and/or competitive continuation R01 grants for projects conducted in whole or in part outside the United States. The research must be conducted by U.S. investigators in collaboration with non-U.S.-based investigators. Either the U.S. or the non- U.S. investigator may serve as principal investigator, but the project must include significant contributions of resources (including in-kind resources) by each participant. This broad call for innovative research and applications encourages proposals in all areas of science addressing drug addiction, particularly projects which take advantage of a unique set of resources or subject populations. By supporting international collaborative research on drug abuse and addiction, NIDA will continue to generate important new information on the causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of drug abuse and addiction and will also help address the growing problems related to illegal drug use and addiction around the world.

On September 16, 2002, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Chronic Stress and Its Relation to Drug Abuse and Addiction (DA-03-004). This RFA encourages research on adaptive changes within the brain brought about by chronic stress or repeated stressors and their functional relevance to drug use, abuse, and addictive processes. The relationship between drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin, activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and neural substrates subserving cognitive or behavioral processes under conditions of chronic stress is complex, but studies of these relationships may provide clues as to how drugs of abuse can produce persistent changes in the brain that, in turn, modulate behavioral processes, including drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.

On September 16, 2002, NIDA issued a Request for Applications entitled Guidance For Behavioral Treatment Providers: Research on Knowledge and Skill Enhancement (DA-03-005). The purpose of this announcement is to support studies for developing and testing novel, creative approaches to clinical training and supervision that will enhance community treatment providers' knowledge and skills to administer behavioral treatments with some evidence of efficacy for drug abuse and/or interventions for HIV/AIDS risk reduction among in-treatment drug abusers. This RFA especially encourages theory-driven approaches to the development of novel training and supervision methods, i.e., approaches that apply knowledge derived from cognitive neuroscience, psychology, medical education, and other fields of science to training and supervision.

On December 9, 2002 NIDA issued a Request for Applications entitled Improving Behavioral Health Services and Treatment For Adolescent Drug Abuse (DA-03-003). The purpose of this initiative is to build on recent studies of drug abuse treatment for adolescents to improve and expand the delivery of efficacious treatments to drug abusing youth. The RFA encourages research to: (1) investigate ways to broaden youth access to treatment services; (2) examine improvements in treatment delivery, including breadth, integration, and targeting of services for adolescents at different developmental stages in both their own maturation and their drug use and treatment careers; (3) develop, modify, or test behavioral treatments, or combined behavioral and pharmacological treatments, targeting adolescent drug abusers; and (4) analyze strategies for translating efficacious clinical treatments into effective community interventions.

On December 10, 2002, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Translating Tobacco Addiction Research to Treatment (DA-03-010). The purpose of this RFA is to support research designed to translate knowledge about the targets, mechanisms and processes of nicotine addiction into treatments that are immediately applicable or demonstrably exportable to the treatment of tobacco addiction in humans. It is expected that the research will be conducted using laboratory studies with human volunteers, or Stage I style clinical studies.

On December 18, 2002, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Diffusion of HIV Infection Through Sexual Risk Behaviors of Drug Users (DA-03-001). The purpose of this RFA is to stimulate collaborative research to further understanding of sexual transmission of HIV within and across drug-using population subgroups and to non-drug using populations. Through this RFA, NIDA invites cooperative agreement applications to participate in the Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program (SATH-CAP). The goal of this program is to support multi-disciplinary research that seeks to better understand the dynamic behavioral, biological and environmental processes implicated in the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) among drug users and the diffusion of infections from drug using populations to non-drug using populations.

On December 19, 2002, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Transdisciplinary Prevention Research Centers (DA-03-008). Through this RFA, NIDA invites exploratory center grant applications (P20) to support the development of transdisciplinary prevention research centers (TPRCs). These centers will extend the work of NIDA's National Prevention Research Initiative by creating environments in which scientists from the basic and applied/clinical disciplines can come together to develop a coherent program of transdisciplinary research. The ultimate goal of these centers is to overcome the barriers inherent in integrating cross-disciplinary concepts, methods, and findings that hold promise for the development of innovative prevention intervention questions and approaches.

On December 30, 2002, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Immunotherapy for Addiction Treatment: SBIR/STTR Initiative (DA-03-015). This RFA encourages small businesses or small businesses in collaboration with research institutions, to develop effective methods for the large-scale production and clinical testing of monoclonal antibodies or vaccines as therapeutic agents for drug or nicotine addiction and/or overdose.

On January 6, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Enhancing HIV Vaccine Efficacy in High-Risk Drug Users (DA-03-002). The purpose of this RFA is to determine the validity of novel approaches to address the prevention of HIV and related blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections as well as to establish and study cohorts of high-risk drug users in the context of the developing HIV vaccine.

On January 14, 2003, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Stress and Drug Abuse: Epidemiology, Etiology, Prevention and Treatment (DA-04-001). The purpose of this RFA is to solicit applications for innovative research on chronic stress and drug abuse or dependence. Research is encouraged on the epidemiology, etiology, prevention and treatment of drug abuse/dependence, as it relates to either chronic stress or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). More specifically, research is sought to examine the relationship between chronic stress or PTSD and drug use, abuse and dependence. Also of interest is the relationship between chronic stress or PTSD and withdrawal/abstinence, remission and relapse.

PAs and RFAs Issued With Other NIH Components/Agencies

On September 17, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement entitled Implementation of Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol-Related Problems (PA-02-168). The purpose of this announcement is to solicit research on the delivery of screening, identification, and brief intervention services for alcohol-related problems in medical and other similar service settings.

On September 25, 2002, NIDA, in conjuction with several other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled Complications of Antiretroviral Therapy (PA-02-172). The intent of this PA is to encourage research in the fundamental biochemical or pathogenic mechanisms of the metabolic complications associated with HIV-disease and antiretroviral therapy.

On October 10, 2002, NIDA, along with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Novel Genetic Methods to Map Functional Neuronal Circuits and Synaptic Change (PAR-03-007). This PA solicits applications to develop new genetic-based methods and technologies for the purpose of mapping functional neuronal circuits and synaptic changes in the mammalian nervous system. Emerging genetic and transgenic technologies can be used to single out functionally related cells or neuronal populations for analysis or intervention.

On October 31, 2002, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled AIDS International Training and Research Program (PA-03-018). The purpose of this announcement is to invite applications from eligible institutions for innovative, collaborative training programs that would contribute to the long-term goal of building sustainable research capacity in HIV/AIDS and HIV-related conditions at developing country institutions. These research-training programs will strengthen scientific knowledge and skills to enhance prevention of and treatment and care for HIV/AIDS and HIV-related conditions in developing countries.

On November 7, 2002, NIDA and several other NIH Institutes jointly issued a Program Announcement entitled Molecular Epidemiology of Cancers Associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency (PA-03-024). This PA invites grant applications for interdisciplinary studies to better understand the molecular epidemiology and role of cofactors in the etiology and pathogenesis of pre-neoplastic conditions and cancers occurring among persons infected with HIV.

On November 18, 2002, NIDA and NIAAA jointly issued a Program Announcement entitled Pharmacotherapy to Treat the Comorbidity of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders (PAS-03-029). This PA encourages research grant applications on pharmacological treatment for patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and a comorbid substance use disorder (SUD).

On December 3, 2002, NIDA, along with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Institutional Mentored Research Scientist Development Award for Neuroinformatics (PAR-03-034). The purpose of this program announcement (PA) is to encourage and support the development of applications from U.S. educational institutions for Institutional Mentored Research Scientist Development Awards (K12). These awards are intended to provide funding for departments of institutions of higher education to foster the career development of individuals with interdisciplinary expertise bridging the fields of neuroscience and behavioral science research with that of informatics. This institutional career development program is offered to provide excellence in neuroscience informatics (neuroinformatics) research competency.

On December 3, 2002, NIDA, along with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled The Human Brain Project (Neuroinformatics): Phase I Feasibility; Phase II - Refinements, Maintenance and Integration (PAR-03-035). This PA replaces PAR-99-138. The purpose of this initiative is to encourage and support investigator-initiated research on neuroscience informatics (neuroinformatics). This research will lead to the development of new web-based databases, analytical tools, and knowledge management systems to foster sharing of data for all domains of neuroscience research. This program combines neuroscience and informatics (neuroinformatics) research to develop and apply advanced tools and approaches essential for efficient understanding of the structure, function and development in health and disorders of the nervous system, from the genetic to whole systems level.

On December 4, 2002, NIDA, along with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled Innovative Exploratory Studies and Technology Development in Neuroinformatics Research (R21) (PAR-03-036). The purpose of this PA is to encourage applications for a one-time grant award to support: innovative research directions requiring preliminary testing or development of neuroscience databases or analytical tools (neuroinformatics) research; exploration of the use of approaches and concepts new to a particular substantive area of neuroscience informatics (neuroinformatics) research; or research and development of new technologies, techniques or methods in informatics that will have a high impact upon the advancement of neuroscience research.

On December 4, 2002, NIDA, along with numerous other NIH components, issued a PA entitled, Research Core Centers (P30) for Advanced Neuroinformatics Research (PAR-03-037). The purpose of this program announcement is to support shared coordinated resources that facilitate collaborative, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary efforts in neuroscience informatics (neuroinformatics). This research effort through data sharing will create new capabilities in neuroinformatics and facilitate the solution of complex systems research.

On November 20, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Bioengineering Research Partnerships (PAR-03-032). This PA invites applications for R01 awards to support Bioengineering Research Partnerships (BRPs) for basic and applied multidisciplinary research that addresses important biological or medical research problems. A BRP is a multi-disciplinary research team applying an integrative, systems approach to develop knowledge and/or methods to prevent, detect, diagnose or treat disease or to understand health and behavior. The partnership must include appropriate bioengineering or allied quantitative sciences in combination with biomedical and/or clinical investigators.

On December 10, 2002, NIDA and NIMH issued a Program Announcement entitled Risk Factors for Psychopathology Using Existing Data Sets (PA-03-044). This PA encourages extensive and innovative use of existing data sets to study the development of psychopathology, including drug abuse, in order to guide the development of prevention and early intervention strategies. The aims of the PA are to mine the full potential of public use and other extant data sets to increase our knowledge of risk and protective factors for the development of psychopathology or resilience in community-based and and clinical populations and to encourage applications from new investigators to examine these research areas using state-of-the-art data analytic procedures.

On January 9, 2003, NIDA, along with numerous other NIH components, issued a Program Announcement entitled Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) (PA-03-053). AREA funds are intended to support new "type1" and continuing "renewal" or "competing continuation" or "type 2" health related research projects proposed by faculty members of eligible schools and components of domestic institutions. The AREA will enable qualified scientists to receive support for small-scale research projects. These grants are intended to create a research opportunity for scientists and institutions otherwise unlikely to participate extensively in NIH programs to support the Nation's biomedical and behavioral research effort.

On January 16, 2003, NIDA, together with numerous other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled Exploratory/Developmental (R21) Bioengineering Research Grants (EBRG) (PA-03-058). This PA invites applications to support innovative, high risk/high impact bioengineering research in new areas that are lacking preliminary testing or development. This research can explore approaches and concepts new to a particular substantive area; research and development of new technologies, techniques or methods; or initial research and development of data upon which significant future research may be built.

On January 16, 2003, NIDA, in conjunction with several other NIH Institutes, issued a Program Announcement entitled Social and Demographic Studies of Race and Ethnicity in the United States (PA-03-057). The goal of this PA is to encourage research that will improve understanding of race and ethnicity in social science and demographic research. Demographic and and social aspects of race and ethnicity include issues related to understanding how the changing composition and conceptualization of race and ethnicity are affecting the U.S. socially, economically, and demographically.

On February 3, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with NIAAA, issued a Program Announcement entitled Behavioral Therapies Development Program (PA-03-066). This PA reaffirms NIDA's and NIAAA's continued and ongoing commitment to major programs of research on behavioral therapies and replaces in its entirety PA-99-107 published in the NIH Guide, Volume 22, No. 26 on May 25, 1999.

On October 7, 2002, NIDA, in collaboration with NIDCR, issued an RFA entitled Translational Research in Dental Practice-Based Tobacco Control Interventions (DE-03-007). This RFA aims to stimulate research to: 1) develop and test interventions that translate findings from alcohol, tobacco and other drug prevention and treatment research into effective, dental practice-based tobacco control strategies, 2) translate findings from other theoretically-grounded basic or behavioral science research into effective dental practice-based tobacco control strategies, or 3) clarify processes that underlie or influence the translation of tobacco-related knowledge into clinical dental practice.

On October 10, 2002, NIDA, in conjunction with NIMH and NIA, issued an RFA entitled HIV/AIDS and Aging: Basic and Clinical Research (MH-03-004). This RFA invites research grant applications to support research about older adults (greater than 50 years of age) infected with HIV. This is an age group that has been overlooked or ignored by many researchers throughout the pandemic. A major goal of this RFA is to begin a process where basic and clinical scientists from various disciplines can overcome barriers to cross-disciplinary aging research in the context of HIV disease and its treatment.

On October 15, 2002, NIDA and NIMH issued a joint RFA entitled The Impact of Child Psychopathology and Childhood Interventions on Subsequent Drug Abuse (DA-03-007). The goal of this announcemnt is to stimulate both new studies and the addition of drug abuse-related measures to ongoing studies that will further understanding of the associations between certain psychiatric conditions and substance use disorders.

On October 17, 2002, NIDA, a number of other NIH components, and several other Federal agencies jointly issued an RFA entitled International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) (TW-03-004). The unifying theme underlying the ICBG program is the concept that the discovery and development of pharmaceutical and other useful agents from natural products can, under appropriate circumstances, promote economic opportunities and enhanced research capacity in developing countries while conserving the biological resources from which these products are derived. This third RFA of the ICBG program represents a maturation of the 10-year old program and includes several changes from the previous RFAs, to now include increased emphasis on drug development and increased integration of conservation and development activities.

On October 15, 2002, NIDA and several other NIH components, collectively issued an RFA entitled Health, Environment and Economic Development (TW-03-005). This RFA is intended to encourage developmental and exploratory research and research capacity-building in developing countries on topics that combine the issues of health, environment and economic development in order to improve scientific understanding of the relationships among those factors and suggest guidance for policy.

On November 4, 2002, NIDA, in conjunction with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Global Health Research Initiative Program for New Foreign Investigators (R01) (TW-03-006). This RFA is intended to promote productive re-entry of NIH-trained foreign investigators into their home countries as part of a broader program to enhance the scientific research infrastructure in developing countries, to stimulate research on a wide variety of high priority health-related issues in these countries, and to advance NIH efforts to address health issues of global import.

On November 7, 2002, NIDA, in conjunction with a number of other NIH components and several agencies of foreign governments, issued an RFA entitled Brain Disorders in the Developing World: Research Across the Lifespan (TW-03-007). This RFA solicits applications to plan and develop collaborative research and capacity building projects on brain disorders throughout life relevant to low- and middle-income nations. Applicants are expected to develop innovative, collaborative research programs that would contribute to the long-term goal of building sustainable research capacity in neurological/neurodevelopmental (including sensory, motor, cognitive and behavioral) impairment throughout life.

On January 6, 2003, NIDA, along with several other NIH Institutes, issued an RFA entitled Hepatitis C: Natural History, Pathogenesis, Therapy and Prevention (DK-03-011). This RFA invites grant applications for both basic and clinical research in the areas of pathogenesis, natural history, therapy for and prevention of hepatitis C.

On January 9, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Mind-Body Interactions and Health: Research Infrastructure Program (R24) (OB-03-004). This RFA invites grant applications for infrastructure grants in support of research on mind-body interactions and health. "Mind-body interactions and health" refers to the relationships among cognitions, emotions, personality, social relationships, and health. Applicant institutions may request funds to support infrastructure and research designed to: (1) enhance the quality and quantity of mind-body and health research and (2) develop new research capabilities to advance mind-body and health research through innovative approaches.

On January 9, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with numerous other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Mind-Body Interactions and Health: Exploratory/Developmental Research Program (R21) (OB-03-005). This announcement invites grant applications for R21 Exploratory/Developmental Awards which are intended to support the development and demonstrate the feasibility of programs at institutions that have high potential for advancing mind-body and health research, but have not yet fully achieved the necessary resources and mechanisms to qualify for a R24 Research Infrastructure Award.

On January 9, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components and several other Federal agencies, issued an RFA entitled Phase II International Clinical, Operational and Health Services Research Training Awards for AIDS and Tuberculosis (Comprehensive ICOHRTA AIDS/TB) (TW-03-003). Through this RFA, the sponsoring agencies invite Phase I awardees to submit applications for Phase II cooperative agreements to develop comprehensive international clinical, operational, and health services research training programs. These applications should foster the development of integrated strategies to successfully implement evidence-based interventions pertinent to the global health crises created by HIV/AIDS and TB.

On January 14, 2003, NIDA and NIMH jointly issued an RFA entitled Drug Abuse and HIV Prevention in Youth (DA-03-012). The major purpose of this RFA is to fill the need for theory-driven and research-based drug abuse-related HIV prevention interventions that will be effective in decreasing the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS in youth.

On January 15, 2003, NIDA, in collaboration with a number of other NIH components, issued an RFA entitled Maintenance of Long Term Behavioral Change (OB-03-003). This RFA invites grant applications that: (1) examine biopsychosocial processes and test interventions designed to achieve long-term health behavior change and (2) a Resource Center to provide coordination for this set of research projects. Past research has typically focused on short-term behavioral change, yielding little information on how change, once achieved, is maintained over the long term. This RFA encourages investigators to expand on the current theoretical base of change processes and intervention models, as well as to consider new conceptualizations from basic research in the social and behavioral sciences.

Other Program Activities

As a result of previous international funding announcements, NIDA announced FY 2002 funding for collaborative international research through three Institute Divisions and one Center.

  • DESPR: Dr. Geoffrey P. Hunt, Scientific Analysis Corporation, San Francisco, California, is investigating club drug use in San Francisco and Hong Kong; Dr. John Lochman, University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, is studying prevention efforts among high-risk boys in The Netherlands; Dr. Richard F. Catalano, University of Washington, Seattle, is studying the etiology of drug abuse in the United States and Australia; Dr. Leona L. Eggert, University of Washington, Seattle, is researching school-based prevention programs in Russia; and Dr. Linda B. Cottler, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, is investigating club drugs in the United States and Australia; Dr. Dwayne Simpson, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, is studying transferring drug abuse treatment and assessment resources in the United States and the United Kingdom; Dr. Thomas Dishion, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, along with researchers in Canada and Italy will be researching understanding and preventing adolescent drug abuse.
  • DNBR: Dr. Robert C. Malenka, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, and English scientists are studying the effects of drugs of abuse on synaptic processes in dopamine systems; Dr. Michael J. Kuhar, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, and colleagues in Turkey are researching the cocaine-regulated neurochemicals referred to as CART peptides; Dr. Barry E. Kosofsky, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and colleagues in France are investigating cocaine-induced disturbances of mouse brain development; Dr. Victor J. Hruby, University of Arizona, Tucson, and colleagues in Russia are studying novel nonpeptide opiate ligands; and Dr. Susan G. Amara, University of Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, and Canadian researchers are investigating expression profiling of psychostimulant-regulated genes; Dr. Rosemary Booze, University of South Carolina at Columbia, and researchers from the United Kingdom are studying HIV/cocaine neurotoxicity in females.
  • DTR&D: Dr. Shi-Jiang W. Li, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and Chinese researchers are using brain imaging to investigate the roles of the orbitofrontal cortex in cocaine abuse; Dr. Lirio S. Covey, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, and colleagues in The Philippines are investigating maintenance treatment to prevent smoking relapse; and Dr. Chris-Ellyn Johanson, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, and German scientists are using fMRI to investigate brain regions affected by tobacco craving. Dr. Joel Gelertner, Yale University, West Haven, Connecticut, and researchers from Thailand are studying the genetics of opioid dependence; Dr. Linda Buydens-Branchey, Veterans Administration New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn, NY, along with researchers from Belgium will be studying the effects of Buspirone in withdrawal from opiates
  • CAMCODA: Dr. Holly C. Hagan, National Development and Research Institutes, New York, New York, and Bulgarian researchers are studying the etiology and prevention of blood-borne viruses in injection drug users; Dr. Richard S. Schottenfeld and Iranian researchers are investigating HIV risk reduction programs and drug abuse treatments; Dr. Mark L. Williams, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, and colleagues in Tanzania are testing peer-delivered HIV risk reduction programs stressing condom use among out-of-treatment crack cocaine smokers; and Dr. Xiao-Fang Yu, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and Chinese colleagues are investigating the effect of viral and host genetic factors on HIV transmission and pathogenesis.

NIDA's South African Initiative

Under NIDA's South African Initiative, 10 collaborative research projects were funded. All 10 feature collaborations between NIDA grantees in the United States and researchers in South Africa. The primary goal of NIDA's South African Initiative is to stimulate bi-national collaborative drug abuse research between the United States and Southern Africa in the areas of: Epidemiology/Early Interventions, Clinical, Prevention, Treatment or Health Services Research aimed at reducing drug abuse/addiction and its associated adverse behavioral, social, and health consequences (e.g. violence, infectious disease HCV, HIV/AIDS, pulmonary diseases). The Southern African countries included within the general description of the region of Southern Africa are South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Seychelles, Mauritius, Tanzania, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

CTN Update

Protocols CTN 0001 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Inpatient Opiate Detoxification), Protocol CTN 0002 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone versus Clonidine for Outpatient Opiate Detoxification), and Protocol CTN 0005 (Motivational Interviewing to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome in Subjects Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) have closed enrollment. Nearly 800 patients were randomized across 17 community treatment programs in 8 states.

Protocols CTN 0004, CTN-0006, and CTN-0007 are currently active and have enrolled over 1250 subjects in 20 community treatment programs across 9 states.

Protocol CTN 0008 (Baseline Survey) is actively collecting survey information.

Protocols CTN 0009 (Smoking Cessation Treatment With Transdermal Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs), CTN 0010 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone Facilitated Rehabilitation for Opioid Dependent Adolescents/Young Adults) and CTN 0011 (A Feasibility Study of a Telephone Enhancement Procedure - TELE - to Improve Participation in Continuing Care Activities) have received approval and are expected to begin enrollment in January 2003.

Protocol CTN 0021(Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse) is in the final stages of approval before being launched in the CTN. Enrollment is expected to begin in March 2003.

Protocol CTN 0012 (Infections Screening in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs) is in the final stages of approval and will begin training for survey procedures in March 2003.

Protocols comprising a third wave are in various stages of development and review. These will be launched in the summer or fall 2003.

Five new research concepts have been approved for further development into protocols.

Three new nodes: California-Arizona Node (University of California, San Francisco); Northern New England Node (McLean Hospital); and Southwest Node (University of New Mexico), were awarded in September 2002 in response to RFA, DA-02-003.

Approval of Buprenorphine Products for the U. S. Market

On October 8, 2002 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Subutex (buprenorphine hydrochloride) and Suboxone (buprenorphine combined with naloxone) for prescription and sale in the U.S. NIDA, through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Reckitt Benckiser, Inc. co-developed these products. The FDA approval of both of these products culminated a successful research and development activity for NIDA.

In addition to methadone and LAAM, buprenorphine can be used to treat dependence on heroin and other opioid-based prescription drugs. Buprenorphine is subject to less-stringent regulation than methadone or LAAM, meaning more doctors can prescribe it in more settings.

Buprenorphine is a partial opiate agonist: it blocks withdrawal and craving without producing a strong narcotic high. Naloxone is an opiate antagonist that is commonly used to treat opiate overdose. In addicted individuals it causes unpleasant withdrawal effects. It was added to buprenorphine to prevent diversion and abuse because its effects are felt most acutely when the pills are crushed for injection. In approving the medications, the FDA indicated that Subutex should be used at the beginning of treatment, while Suboxone should be used for maintenance.

Because these products are thought to have lower diversion potential than methadone and other full opiate agonist medications (such as morphine) the FDA concurred with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) Oct. 7 decision to list both forms of buprenorphine under Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act.

Immediately subsequent to FDA approval, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Department of Health and Human Services, formally announced its certification and training program for physicians who desire to prescribe buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate addiction.

New changes to existing law were enacted by the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000, as contained in P.l07-273, "The Children's Health Act of 2000." These changes were enacted to allow for the possibility of treatment outside of Opiate Treatment Programs (OTPs, sometimes referred to as "methadone" programs), and specify criteria for training of physicians who would enter this field. Physicians are required to have a minimum of eight hours of training to prescribe buprenorphine, and must obtain a waiver from SAMHSA. Physicians who are already certified as addiction specialists are "grandfathered" under the law and are exempt from the additional training requirements. Thus, those who are currently working in OTPs and dispensing methadone and/or LAAM will be able to begin using buprenorphine immediately. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment will establish a national registry of physicians who have received certification. Currently, about 2,000 physicians have received training through CSAT, and over 1,000 have applied for waivers.

In order to monitor this new program the new law specifies that each physician outside an OTP setting is limited to treating 30 patients per year. Additionally, SAMHSA and the Drug Enforcement Administration will receive data on the amount of Subutex versus Suboxone that is being prescribed, as well as information on prescribing patterns that would indicate if a problem with a physician or pharmacy were occurring in violation of the law.

The combination product, Suboxone, is expected to be the dominant form prescribed as it is undesirable for parenteral (injection) abuse by opiate-dependent individuals. Because the effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone predominate when injected, NIDA expects that in addition to preventing its use via injection (a major vector for HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis), this product will have a relatively low street value as compared to all other forms of opiates that may be available. However, when the product is administered sublingually, as a treatment for existing opiate addiction, the FDA has determined it to be safe and efficacious.

Health Disparities Research

In FY 2002, NIDA awarded 24 supplements in response to its Administrative Supplements for Health Disparities Research announcement. The purpose of the solicitation was to give NIDA-funded researchers the opportunity to (1) recruit additional study participants, or (2) expand analyses of existing cohorts, which already have sufficient representation from various racial /ethnic populations, in order to assess patterns of drug use, effects, and potential adverse behavioral, social and health consequences, or differential treatment outcomes within and across racial/ethnic groups.

NIH Summer Internship Program (SIP) and the Minority Recruitment & Training Program (MRTP)

The NIH Summer Internship Program (SIP) and the Minority Recruitment & Training Program (MRTP) are now accepting applications for the Summer 2003. Both programs provide training opportunities for students who are interested in the scientific basis of drug abuse. In this program, students gain basic science and/or clinical laboratory experience, attend student seminars, and participate in a summer poster presentation. The goal of this program is to expose students to the realities of research, from experimental design to data analysis, interpretation and presentation. For information and an application for the SIP, go to www.training.nih.gov or contact Dr. Stephen Heishman (sheish@intra.nida.nih.gov). For an application or to receive information about the MRTP, contact Christie Brannock (cbrann@intra.nida.nih.gov)

NIDA's New and Competing Continuation Grants Awarded Since September 2002

Aharonovich, Efrat -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Cognitive Deficits: Treatment Outcome In Cocaine Abusers

Alexander, Andrew -- University of Wisconsin Madison
Structural & Functional Measures of Brain Development

Anderson, Carl M. -- Mc Lean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
High Field MRI of Stimulants In Adolescents At Risk

Baer, John S. -- University of Washington
Brief Substance Abuse Treatment For Homeless Adolescents

Bandstra, Emmalee S. -- University of Miami
Brain MRI/MRSI In Children Exposed In Utero To Cocaine

Bechara, Antoine -- University of Iowa
Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Substance Abuse

Belcher, Harolyn -- Kennedy Krieger Research Institute, Inc.
Children With Drug Exposure: Behavior and MRI Study

Bellair, Paul E. -- Ohio State University
Neighborhood Disadvantage, Gangs, Drugs, and Violence

Beyrer, Chris R. -- Johns Hopkins University
Risks for HIV and STIS Among Moscow Sex Workers

Bluthenthal, Ricky N. -- Rand Corporation
Community Context, Sep Operations, & HIV Risk Among IDUs

Boger, Dale L. -- Scripps Research Institute
Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)

Booth, Brenda M. -- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock
Rural Stimulant Use & Mental Health:Services & Outcomes

Booze, Rosemarie M. -- University of South Carolina at Columbia
Neurodevelopmental Basis(es) of Nicotine Sensitization

Bowen, Scott E. -- Wayne State University
Behavioral Effects of Gestational Inhalant Abuse In Rats

Bracken, Michael B. -- Yale University
Paraxanthine and Reproductive Effects of Caffeine

Broadhead, Robert S. -- University of Connecticut Storrs
Preventing HIV Among IDUs In Yaroslavl Russia

Brody, Arthur L. -- Brentwood Biomedical Research Institute
Treatments for Nicotine Dependence: Brain Mechanisms

Brown, Emery N. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Dynamic Signal Processing Analyses of Neural Plasticity

Buydens-Branchey, Laure -- Narrows Institute for Biomedical Research, Inc.
Cholesterol and Fatty Acids In Cocaine Addiction Relapse

Cabral, Guy A. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Functional Relevance of Microglial Cannabinoid Receptors

Carroll, Kathleen M. -- Yale University
Computer-Based Training In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cascio, Michael -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Structural Studies of the Glycine Receptor

Casey, Betty J. -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Development of Prediction and Reward Related Circuitry

Chamberlain, Patricia -- Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
Preventing Health-Risking Behaviors In Delinquent Girls

Childress, Anna R. -- University of Pennsylvania
Brain Blood Flow Imaging of Cocaine Withdrawal & Craving

Chiu, Daniel T. -- University of Washington
Profiling Individual Synaptic Vesicles With Nanofluidics

Cochran, Susan D. -- University of California Los Angeles
Mental Health Disorders In A Sexual Minority Population

Colon, Hector M. -- Universidad Central Del Caribe
HIV Risks and Transitions To Injection Among Non-IDUs

Crits-Christoph, Paul -- University of Pennsylvania
Community-Friendly Manual Guided Drug Counseling

Dakof, Gayle -- University of Miami
Long-Term Outcomes of Adolescents In Drug Treatment

De Felice, Louis J. -- Vanderbilt University
Catecholamine Uptake, Micro-Fluorometry/Drug Screening

Deck, Dennis D. -- RMC Research Corporation
Impact of Financing on Outcomes of Methadone Maintenance

Detre, John A. -- University of Pennsylvania
Perfusion FMRI In Cocaine Addiction

Dewey, Stephen L. -- Brookhaven Science Assoc-Brookhaven National Laboratory
Optimizing Intensity and Duration of GVG Pharmacotherapy

Dingman, Sherry -- Marist College
Pf-L-Dopa: A MRI Tool For Developmental Neurobiology

Dishion, Thomas J. -- University of Oregon
Early Family-Centered Prevention of Drug Use Risk

Dluzen, Dean E. -- Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine
Gender, Estrogen/Tamoxifen Modulation of Amphetamine

Dovichi, Norman J. -- University of Washington
Protein Mapping In Single Neurons: Cannabinoid Tolerance

Edwards, Ruth W. -- Colorado State University
Inhalant Use Among Rural Children: A Multicultural Study

Fals-Stewart, William -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Behavioral Couples Therapy for Drug Abuse

Feaster, Daniel -- University of Miami
Adherence In Recently Sober HIV+ Women: Ecosystemic Treatment

Fernandez-Sandin, Maria I. -- University of Miami
HIV and Hispanic Men: Impact of Drugs and Culture

Finlinson, H.A. -- Universidad Central Del Caribe
HIV, Drugs & Sexual Identity In Young Puerto Rican MSM

Fishbein, Diana H. -- Research Triangle Institute
Precursors, Insulators, and Consequences of Inhalant Use

Forgatch, Marion S. -- Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
Implementing Parent Management Training In Norway

Fox, Aaron P. -- University of Chicago
Nicotine Addiction: ACH Receptors and Secretion

Fried, Peter A. -- Carleton University
Prenatal Cannabis & Cigarette Exposure - Outcome

Friedmann, Peter D. -- Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, RI)
Continuity of Care for Drug-Addicted Offenders In RI

Frisman, Linda K. -- Connecticut State Department of Mental Health & Addiction Services
Connecticut Criminal Justice-DATS Research Initiative

Frost, William N. -- Finch University of Health Sciences/Chicago Medical School
Cellular Basis of Amphetamine-Induced Hallucinations

Fung, Ho-Leung -- State University of New York at Buffalo
Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of Nitrite Inhalants

Gabrielli, John D. -- Stanford University
Development of Face Processing

Galli, Aurelio A. -- Vanderbilt University
Molecular Mechanisms of Stimulant Abuse

Gatley, Samuel J. -- Brookhaven Science Assoc-Brookhaven National Laboratory
Feto-Maternal Pharmacokinetics of Abused Inhalants

Gee, James C. -- University of Pennsylvania
Pediatric Template for Neuroimaging Data Analysis

Gerbert, Barbara -- University of California San Francisco
Positive Choice: Prevention for Positive Health

Goldsamt, Lloyd A. -- National Development & Research Institutes
Behavioral Aspects of HIV/HBV/HCV Risks In New Injectors

Gourevitch, Marc N. -- Yeshiva University
Addiction Medicine Physicians and Care For Hepatitis C

Greenfield, Shelly F. -- Mc Lean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
Recovery Group for Women With Substance Use Disorders

Gu, Howard H. -- Yale University
Mechanism of Drug Addiction

Gutstein, Howard B. -- University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
From Drug Use To Addiction: Unearthing the Switches

Gyarmathy, V.A. -- National Development & Resesarch Institutes
Young Drug Users and HIV Risk In Budapest, Hungary

Hall, Sharon M. -- University of California San Francisco
Maintaining Abstinence In Chronic Cigarette Smokers

Hallfors, Denise D. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
HIV In Young Adulthood: Pathways and Prevention

Hasselmo, Michael -- Boston University
A Spiking Model of Hippocampus for Guiding Behavior

Henggeler, Scott W. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Implementing Evidenced-Based Treatment for Youths

Heyman, Gene M. -- Mc Lean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
Individual Differences In Choice Study Predict Drug Use

Ho, Wenzhe -- Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
HCV, HIV and Opioids: Cellular Interactions

Hohmann, Andrea G. -- University of Georgia
Peripheral Cannabinoid Modulation of Pain Transmission

Holmes, Todd C. -- New York University
Transgenic Electrical Silencing of a Neural Circuit

Howard, Matthew O. -- Washington University
Neuropsychiatric Impairments In Adolescent MDMA Abusers

Howard, Matthew O. -- Washington University
Neuropsychiatric Impairment In Adolescent Inhalant Users

Huettel, Scott A. -- Duke University
Functional Neuroimaging of Executive Processing

Humfleet, Gary L. -- University of California San Francisco
LGBT Internet Based Smoking Treatment

Hurd, Yasmin L. -- Karolinska Institute
Dynorphin /Kappa Mesolimbic System In Heroin Abuse

Hwang, Dah-Ren -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
Kappa Receptor Selective PET Ligands

Inciardi, James A. -- University of Delaware
Delaware and New Jersey CJ-DATS Research Center

Irwin, Michael R. -- University of California Los Angeles
Cocaine Dependence: EEG Sleep and Cytokines

Jenkins, Bruce -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Imaging Dopamine-Mediated Neuro-Vascular Coupling

Johnson, Rolley E. -- Johns Hopkins University
Medications for Comorbid Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

Jones, Hendree E. -- Johns Hopkins University
Recovery Housing for Pregnant Women

Jones, S.P. -- University of California San Diego
Effects of Abused Inhalants On VTA Neurons

Jordan, Thomas W. -- Victoria University of Wellington
A Proteomic Analysis of Drug Abuse

Kellam, Sheppard G. -- American Institutes for Research
Prevention Services In Schools for Early Drug Abuse Risk

Kelly, Brian C. -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Club Drug Initiation & HIV Risk of Mobile Suburban Youth

Kidorf, Michael S. -- Johns Hopkins University
Community-Based Intervention at Needle Exchange Sites

Kim, Mimi M. -- University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Impact of Trauma on Substance Abusing Homeless Men

Kirby, Kimberly C. -- Treatment Research Institute, Inc.
Community Reinforcement Through Religious Communities

Koenig, Barbara A. -- Stanford University
Genetics of Nicotine Addiction-Examining Ethics & Policy

Kosten, Thomas R. -- Yale University
Cocaine Vaccine for Methadone Maintained Patients

Kral, Alexander H. -- University of California San Francisco
Evaluating Impact of a Resource Center for Drug Users

Kuhn, Cynthia M. -- Duke University
Gender Differences In Stimulant Action

Lai, Shenghan -- Johns Hopkins University
HIV, Cocaine & Regional Left Ventricular Dysfunction

Lang, Annie -- Indiana University Bloomington
Motivation, Sensation Seeking & Designing Effective PSAs

Laudet, Alexandre -- National Development & Research Institutes
Pathways To Long-Term Abstinence: Self-Help Processes

Letendre, Scott L. -- University of California San Diego
Neurocognitive Effects of HCV, HIV, and Drug Use

Leukefeld, Carl G. -- University of Kentucky
Central States Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Center

Lewandowski, Cathleen A. -- Wichita State University
Timing of Social Service Events on Women's Drug Recovery

Lewis, Michael -- University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey Newark
Developmental Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

Lichstein, Kenneth L. -- University of Memphis
Treating Addiction To Sleep Medication

Liddle, Howard A. -- University of Miami
Brief Family-Based Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse

Lightfoot, Marguerita -- University of California Los Angeles
Homeless Youth's Reductions In HIV Risk Acts

Liu, Yijun -- University of Florida
Impaired Brain-Leptin Interaction In Chronic Tobacco Users

Lochman, John E. -- University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
Field Trial of Effects of the Coping Power Program

Lowy, Franklin D. -- Columbia University Health Sciences
Social Networks of S. Aureus Carriage Among Drug Users

Mach, Robert H. -- Washington University
Dopamine D3 Receptor Imaging Agents for PET and SPECT

Magura, Stephen -- National Development & Research Institutes
Trial of Self-Help Groups For Dually-Diagnosed Persons

Malison, Robert T. -- Yale University
Cocaine, Disulfiram & DBH: A Pharmacomechanistic Study

Mandal, Tarun K. -- Xavier University of Louisiana
SR Drug Delivery for the Treatment of Drug Abuse

Mantsch, John R. -- Marquette University
Stress Response and HPA Regulation In Cocaine Addiction

Margolin, Arthur -- Yale University
Spirituality Guided HIV Prevention for Drug Users

Marsch, Lisa A. -- University of Vermont
Computer-Assisted HIV Prevention for Young Drug Users

Martin, Billy R. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Endogenous Cannabinoids and Brain/Immune Function

Mathews, William B. -- Johns Hopkins University
Development of PET Radioligands for Glutamate Receptors

McCann, Una D. -- Johns Hopkins University
PET Imaging MDMA Neurotoxicity

McClernon, Francis J. -- Duke University
Drug Cue Reactivity In Smokers: An fMRI Investigation

Mcginnis, Marilyn Y. -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Effects on Brain & Behavior

McMillan, Donald E. -- University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Little Rock
Drugs of Abuse: Chronic Interactions and Behavior

Melikian, Haley E. -- University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester
Monoamine Transporter Phosphorylation and Trafficking

Mohamadzadeh, Mansour -- Tulane University of Louisiana
Dendritic Cell Targeted Hepatitis C Virus Immunotherapy

Montague, P. Read -- Baylor College of Medicine
Computational Substrates of Addiction and Reward

Morgenstern, Jonathan -- Mount Sinai School of Medicine of NYU
Club Drug Use and Risky Behaviors Among Men

Naylor, Magdalena R. -- University of Vermont
Chronic Pain TIVR To Prevent Prescription Drug Abuse

Neisewander, Janet L. -- Arizona State University
Limbic-Cortical Involvement In Drug Seeking

Nierenberg, Jay -- Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research
Brain Recovery Following Abstinence From Cocaine

Nixon, Sara J. -- University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Neurocognition, Nicotine and Polysubstance Abuse

Noll, Douglas C. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Signal Recovery In Susceptibility Based Functional MRI

Novotny, Edward J. -- Yale University
NMR Studies of Brain Glutamate Turnover In Development

Owens, Douglas K. -- Stanford University
Making Better Decisions: Policy Modeling-AIDS/Drug Abuse

Pan, Ying-Xian -- Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Characterizing A Novel Promoter of Mouse Mor-1 Gene

Patrick, Kennerly S. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Methylphenidate-Ethanol Interaction In ADHD and Coabuse

Pentel, Paul R. -- Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Vaccine Effects on Fetal Nicotine Exposure In Rats

Perkins, Kenneth A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Affect, Context, and Placebo Responses To Nicotine

Pollio, David E. -- Washington University
Homeless Drug Abusers: Testing A Spatial Use of Services

Prendergast, Michael L. -- University of California Los Angeles
The Pacific Coast Research Center of the NIDA CJ-DATS

Ridenuor, Ty A. -- Washington University
Inhalant Abuse and Dependence

Ringwalt, Christopher L. -- Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Promoting Fidelity Using Remote and Onsite Support

Robinson, Leslie A. -- University of Memphis
Developing A Smoking Cessation Program For Adolescents

Ronen, Itamar -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Effects of Drug Use and Cessation On Monkey Brain

Schmitz, Joy M. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center Houston
Combined Treatment for Cocaine-Alcohol Dependence

Shafer, Kimberly P. -- University of California San Francisco
Acute Hepatitis C Infection In Young Injectors

Shedlin, Michele -- National Development & Research Institutes
Drug Use and HIV Risk In Nicaragua

Silverman, Kenneth -- Johns Hopkins University
A Reinforcement-Based Therapeutic Workplace

Simpson, D.D. -- Texas Christian University
Criminal Justice Addiction Treatment In Texas (CJ-DATS)

Smalheiser, Neil R. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
RNAI-Mediated Gene Suppression In Adult Mammalian CNS

Smith, Austin G. -- University of Edinburgh
Precision Transgenesis Rats Via Embryonic Cell Lines

Snoddy, Jay R. -- University of Tennessee Knoxville
Bioinfomatics for Mouse Phenotype Analysis

Solomon, Daniel H. -- Brigham and Women's Hospital
Pain Medication Use & Risk Factors for Opioid Dependence

Sowell, Elizabeth R. -- University of California Los Angeles
Analyzing Functional and Structural MRI In FAS Children

Steketee, Jeffery D. -- University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center
Toluene as a Gateway Drug: Role of Dopamine Systems

Stenger, V.A. -- University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Pediatric fMRI Technology Development

Surratt, Hilary L. -- University of Delaware
HIV/AIDS Prevention Research In St. Croix, U.S.V.I.

Sylvestre, Diana L. -- O.A.S.I.S.
HCV Treatment of IDUs after Buprenorphine Stabilization

Tamagnan, Gilles -- Yale University
Development of PET and SPECT Ligands for Mglur5 Imaging

Tardiff, Kenneth J. -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Changes In Homicide and Drug Overdose In New York City

Taxman, Faye S. -- University of Maryland
Action Research To Advance Drug Treatment In the Criminal Justice System

Taylor, Jill -- Wadsworth Center
Predicting Liver Disease In HIV-HCV-Infected Women

Terhaar, Edward J. -- Gonzaga University
Prevalence of Use and Efficacy of Family Intervention

Thomas, David L. -- Johns Hopkins University
The Progression of Hepatitis C Among IDUs

Turner, R. Jay -- Florida State University
Physical Disability and Drug Use: Longitudinal Analyses

Turrigiano, Gina G. -- Brandeis University
Homeostatic Tuning of Synapses In Recurrent Networks

Walker, David D. -- Duke University
GHB Effects on Extracellular Dopamine

Walker, Diana J. -- University of Chicago
A Model of Inhalant Abuse Using Inhalant Responders

Walker, Ellen A. -- Albert Einstein Healthcare Network
Behavioral Pharmacology of Serotonin Inverse Agonists

Wall, Diana L. -- University of Georgia
Addiction Counseling: Career Paths & Professionalization

Weiss, Roger D. -- Mc Lean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
Modifying Group Therapy for Bipolar Abusers

Wexler, Harry K. -- National Development & Research Institutes
NDRI Colorado Research for CJ-DATS

Wilcox, George L. -- University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Peripheral Interactions of Opioid-Adrenergic Analgesics

Wiley, Ronald G. -- Vanderbilt University
MOR Expressing Neurons In Pain and Morphine Analgesia

Williams, Mark L. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center Houston
Social Network of a Highly Active HIV/STD Core Group

Williamson, Celia -- University of Toledo
Typology of Street Prostitutes: Risk & Well-Being

Woods, James H. -- University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
CRH Antagonists for Treatment of Drug Abuse

Wu, Elwin -- Columbia University New York Morningside
Service Use By Men On Methadone Commiting Partner Abuse

Yen, T.S.B. -- Northern California Institute for Research & Education
Hepatitis C Virus Ns5a Protein and Lipid Droplets

Yin, Jerry C. -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Circadian Influences In Drosophila Memory Formation

Ziedonis, Douglas M. -- University of Medicine/Dentistry of NJ-RW Johnson Medical School
Modifying MET For Use With ASI Data

Zule, William A. -- Research Triangle Institute
Chronic Hepatitis Intervention Project for Drug Users

Zurier, Robert -- University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester
Cannabinoid Acids as Anti-inflammatory Agents

Zvolensky, Michael J. -- University of Vermont
Sensitivity To Emotional Distress


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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