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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse - February, 2003



Publications

NIDA Publications

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume I - June 2002
NIH Pub. No. 02-5109A

This report provides an ongoing assessment of drug abuse in major metropolitan areas of the United States with the purpose of keeping both public and private sector policymakers and researchers informed with current and accurate data.

Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - Community Epidemiology Work Group,
Volume II - June 2002
NIH Pub. No. 02-5110A

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the epidemiologic trends and special reports for a limited audience made up primarily of drug abuse researchers who utilize this volume to identify potential areas for further research.

Public Health Report - Drug Use, HIV/AIDS, and Health Outcomes Among Racial and Ethnic Populations, Volume 117, Supplement 1 - 2002
NCADI #MS914

This publication, a supplement to the Public Health Reports, consists of 17 papers that were presented by researchers at a conference on Health Disparities sponsored by NIDA in April 2001. The volume is organized in three sections. The first section focuses on research examining disparities among the sampled groups; the second section consists of papers that highlight interventions that have been efficacious in their approaches to eliminating disparities. The final section consists of reviews of the literature illuminating the knowledge gaps that still exist and indicating the need of research.

NIDA INVEST Letter, Summer - Fall 2002
The lead story in this issue reports on NIDA international activities within the context of global drug use. The issue profiles NIDA Distinguished Scientist Petra Exnerova, Czech Republic; reports on the Seventh NIDA International Forum, Building International Research on Drug Abuse: Treatment Innovations; and announces the 2003 Forum, which will be held June 14 to 19, 2003, in Bal Harbour, Florida. International researchers were invited to apply for the 2003 WHO/NIDA/CPDD International Traveling Fellowships, offered in conjunction with the Forum. The 2002-2003 INVEST Research Fellows were announced, and a chart lists other international fellowship opportunities.

Meeting Summaries

7th NIDA International Forum
Building International Research on Drug Abuse: Treatment Innovations
This volume provides summaries of oral presentations, workshops, and discussion sessions; abstracts of oral and poster presentations; the agenda; and a participant list from the June 2002 meeting held in Quebec City, Canada, immediately following the Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence.

NIDA NOTES

NIDA NOTES, Volume 17, Issue 4
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

The lead article discusses a study that documents an increase in substance abuse and found high levels of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among New York City residents after the attacks of September 11, 2001.

The Director's Column by Dr. Glen R. Hanson focuses on inhalant abuse—the dangerous practice of inhaling fumes from a variety of widely available products to obtain an intoxicating effect. Educational efforts by NIDA and its partners in the National Inhalant Prevention Coalition have contributed to a downward trend in use here in the United States. NIDA has earmarked $2 million to expand inhalant abuse research and expects to fund studies on topics ranging from the molecular mechanisms of abuse to research based prevention and treatment approaches.

Other articles describe neurological abnormalities and cognitive impairments in chronic solvent abusers; a set of studies on women and smoking finding that smell and taste play a greater role in the smoking behavior of women than men, and that women smokers setting a quit date in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles may suffer less severe tobacco withdrawal symptoms; FDA's approval of buprenorphine as a treatment for opiate dependence and addiction; and the prevalence of inhalant abuse, as reported in NIDA's annual Monitoring the Future survey of adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12.

NIDA NOTES, Volume 17, Issue 3
NIH Pub. No. 03-3478

The lead article discusses the experimental compound SR141716, which may prove to be an effective treatment for marijuana addiction and other disorders. Dr. Marilyn Huestis and her colleagues at NIDA's Intramural Research Program found that the compound effectively reduced highs and changes in heart rate associated with marijuana use.

The Director's Column by Dr. Glen R. Hanson discusses drug abuse relapse and treatment and new research findings that shed light on drug-induced neurological changes that contribute to drug cravings.

Other articles discuss a study with laboratory rats that suggests another possible use for the compound SR141716: reducing the potency of cues associated with past cocaine abuse that trigger relapse; evidence in rats that prenatal exposure to MDMA (ecstasy) may result in long-term learning and memory impairments that are not attributed to the same type of damage to neurotransmitters previously seen in adults; highlights from the NIDA meeting, Blending Clinical Practice and Research: Forging Partnerships to Enhance Drug Treatment, that provided an important opportunity for clinicians and researchers to examine cutting-edge scientific findings about drug abuse and addiction and their application to clinical practice; and the new NIDA Research Report entitled Marijuana Abuse.

OUTREACH TO SPECIAL POPULATIONS

Based on the successful 2001 and 2002 Walking a Good Path Indian Country calendars, NIDA created and distributed a calendar for Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander (AAPI) audiences. Using photos and culturally relevant artwork, the calendar includes the latest information on the health effects of nicotine, methamphetamine, club drugs, MDMA, anabolic steroids, prescription drugs, inhalants, and marijuana.

Research Report Series- Heroin: Abuse and Addiction (Spanish)
September 2002

NIH Pub. No. 02-4165(S)
This booklet provides science-based information on the prevalence of heroin abuse, methods of use, short- and long-term effects of heroin abuse, and medical complications of chronic abuse. Describes effective treatment for heroin addiction and lists resources for more information.

Research Report Series- Nicotine Addiction (Spanish)
April 2002

NIH Pub. No. 01-4342(S)
This installment of the Research Report Series describes what nicotine is, presents current epidemiological research data regarding its use, and reports on the medical consequences of nicotine use. It also emphasizes the effects on the brain as well as current research findings about use during pregnancy, and treatment approaches.

CTN Publications

Twelve editions of the CTN Bulletin Board were distributed over the last several months. The Bulletin Board is an electronic report on the activities of the various protocol teams and subcommittees of the CTN.

Documents entitled 'Successfully Including Women in Clinical Trials' and 'Guidelines for Referencing NIDA & CTN in Written Materials' received final NIDA approval and have been distributed throughout the CTN.

A Spanish language brochure for clinicians that detailed CTN 0021, Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome for Spanish-Speaking Individuals Seeking Treatment for Substance Abuse (METS), was approved and printed for distribution to the participating sites.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Assessing the Impact of Childhood Interventions on Subsequent Drug Abuse. On May 23-24, 2000, NIDA and NIMH cosponsored a conference to support the development of research on the impact of mental health treatments for childhood psychopathologies on later risk for drug abuse. Treating childhood psychopathologies is potentially an extremely powerful approach to the prevention of drug abuse among a population at very high risk for drug abuse. Based on the presentations and papers commissioned for the meeting, a set of journal articles has been published as a special issue of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (2002, Vol. 70, No. 6, 1203-1306) edited by Meyer Glantz and Philip Kendall.

Kozel, N.J., Robertson, E.B., and Falkowski, C.L. The Community Epidemiology Workgroup Approach. Substance Use and Misuse, 37(5-7), pp. 783-803, 2002.

Compton, S.N., Burns, B.J., Egger, H.L., and Robertson, E. Review of the Evidence Base for Treatment of Childhood Psychopathology: Internalizing Disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(6), pp. 1240-1266, 2002.

Farmer, E.M.Z., Compton, S.N., Burns, B.J., and Robertson, E. Review of the Evidence Base for Treatment of Childhood Psychopathology: Externalizing Disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(6), pp. 1267-1302, 2002.

Papers presented during the 2001 NIDA sponsored health disparities workshop entitled Differential Drug Use, HIV/AIDS, and Related Outcomes Among Racial and Ethnic Populations: A Knowledge Assessment Workshop were published as a supplement to the Public Health Report in November 2002.

Swendsen, J.D., Conway, K.P., Rounsaville, B.J., and Merikangas, K.R. Are Personality Traits Familial Risk Factors for Substance Abuse? Results of a Controlled Family Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, pp. 1760-1766, 2002.

Royal, W., Khalsa, J.H. and Francis, H. Metabolic Disorders in the Pathogenesis of Nervous System Damage in HIV-infected Drug Users, JAIDS, 31(supplement 2): S27-S93, October 2002.

Khalsa, J.H., Genser, S., Francis, H. and Martin, B. Clinical Consequences of Marijuana. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Special Issue, November 2002, 42 (11): 7S-107S. Also cited in the Time Magazine, November 4, 2002.

Barnes, A.J., Kim, I., Schepers, R., Moolchan, E.T., Oyler, J., Wilson, L., Cooper, G., Reid, C., Hand, C., and Huestis, M.A. Comparison of Cozart Oral Fluid Opiate ELISA and GC/MS Results following Controlled Administration of Codeine Sulphate. Society of Forensic Toxicology, Detroit, MI, October 2002.

Basile, A., Fedorova, I., Zapata, A., Liu, X., Shippenberg, T.S., Duttaroy, A., Yamada, M. and Wess, J. Deletion of the M-5 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Morphine Reinforcement and Withdrawal but Not Morphine Analgesis. PNAS, 99(17), pp. 11452-11457, 2002.

Bergman, J., Katz, J.L. and Miczek, K.A. The Experimental Imperative. Psychopharmacology, 163, pp. 249-250, 2002.

Betts, E., Krasnova, I., McCoy, M., Ladenheim, B., and Cadet, J.L. Analysis of Methamphetamine-induced Changes in the Expression of Integrin Family Members in the Cortex of Wild-Type and c-fos Knockout Mice. Neurotoxicity Research, 4, pp. 617-623, 2002.

Bolla, K.I., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, K., and Cadet, J.L. Dose-related Neurocognitive Effects of Marijuana Use. Neurology, 59, pp. 1337-1342, 2002.

Brown, L.L., Kulkarni, S., Pavlova, O., Mukhin, A.G., Newman, A.H., and Horti, A.G. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Series of 5-(2-(4-pyridinyl)vinyl)-6-chloro-3-((1-methyl-2-(S)-pyrrolidinyl)methoxy)pyridine Analogues as Potential Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Agents for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. J. Med. Chem., 45, pp. 2841-2849, 2002.

Chausmer, A.L., Elmer, G.I., Rubinstein, M., Low, M.J., Grandy, D.K. and Katz, J.L. Cocaine-induced Locomotor Activity and Cocaine Discrimination in Dopamine D2 Receptor Mutant Mice. Psychopharmacology, 163, pp. 54-61, 2002.

Crombag, H., Grimm, J.W., and Shaham, Y. Effect of Dopamine Receptor Antagonists on Renewal of Cocaine Seeking by Rexposure to Drug-associated Contextual Cues. Neuropsychopharmacology, 27(6), pp. 1006-1015, 2002.

Crombag, H., and Shaham, Y. Renewal of Drug Seeking by Contextual Cues after Prolonged Extinction in Rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 1161(1), pp. 169-173, 2002.

Crombag, H.S., Jedynak, J.P., Redmond, K., Robinson, T.E., and Hope, B.T. Locomotor Sensitization to Cocaine is Associated with Increased Fos Expression in the Accumbens, But Not in the Caudate. Behavioral Brain Research, 136(2), pp. 455-462, 2002.

Dams, R., Murphy, C., Choo, R., Lambert, W., and Huestis, M. An LC-APCI-MS/MS Method for Oral Fluid and Urine to Monitor Maternal Drug Use in a Clinical In-utero Drug Exposure Study. Society of Forensic Toxicology, Detroit, MI, October, 2002.

Dams, R., Murphy, C., Choo, R., Lambert, W., and Huestis, M. Comparative Study of Simplified Sample Preparation on Ionization Efficiency of ESI and APCI and Development of a Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Multiple Drugs of Abuse in Biological Fluids. The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists 40th International Meeting, Paris, France, August, 2002.

Deng, X., Jayanthi, S., Ladenheim, B., Krasnova, I., and Cadet, J.L. Mice with Partial Deficiency in c-Jun Show Attenuation of Methamphetamine-induced Neuronal Apoptosis. Molecular Pharmacology, 62 (5), pp. 993-1000, 2002.

Duan, W., Zhu, X., Ladenheim, B., Yu, Q-S., Guo, Z., Oyler, J.M., Oyler, B.A., Cutler, R.G., Cadet , J.L., Greig, N.H., and Mattson M.P. p53 Inhibitors Preserve Dopamine Neurons and Motor Function in Experimental Parkinsonism. Annals of Neurology, 52(5), pp. 597-606, 2002.

Elmer, G.I., Pieper, J.O., Rubinstein, M., Low, M.J., Grandy, D.K., and Wise, R.A. Failure of Intravenous Morphine to Serve as an Effective Instrumental Reinforcer in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knock-out Mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(10), RC224, 2002.

Garavan, H., Ross, T.J., Murphy, K., Roche, R.A.P., and Stein, E.A. Dissociable Executive Functions in the Dynamic Control of Behavior: Inhibition, Error Detection and Correction. NeuroImage 17, pp. 1820-1829, 2002.

Gardner, E.L., Schiffer, W.K., Horan, B.A., Highfield, D., Dewey, S.L., Brodie, J.D., and Ashby, C.R., Jr. Gamma-vinyl GABA, An Irreversible Inhibitor of GABA Transaminase, Alters the Acquisition and Expression of Cocaine-induced Sensitization in Male Rats. Synapse, 46(4), pp. 240-250, 2002.

Greenwell, T.N., Zangen, A., Martin-Schild, S., Wise, R.A., and Zadina, J.E. Endormorphin-1 and -2 Immunoreactive Cells in the Hypothalamus are Labeled by Fluoro-gold Injections to the Ventral Tegmental Area. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 454, pp. 320-328, 2002.

Grimm, J.W., Shaham, Y., and Hope, B.T. Effect of the Cocaine and Sucrose Withdrawal Period on Extinction Behavior, Cue-induced Reinstatement, and Protein Levels of the Dopamine Transporter and Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Limbic and Cortical Areas in Rats. Behavioral Pharmacology, 13(5-6), pp. 379-388, 2002.

Hall, F.S., Li, X.F., Sora, I., Xu, F., Caron, M., Lesch, K.P., Murphy, D.L., and Uhl, G.R. Cocaine Mechanisms: Enhanced Cocaine, Fluoxetine and Nisoxetine Place Preferences following Monoamine Transporter Deletions. Neuroscience, 115(1), pp. 153-161, 2002.

Highfield, D., Mead, A., Grimm, J.W., Rocha, B., and Shaham, Y. Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in 129X1/SvJ Mice: Effects of Cocaine Priming, Cocaine Cues and Food Deprivation. Psychopharmacology, 161(4), pp. 417-424, 2002.

Huestis, M.A., Zigbuo, E., Heishman, S.J., Preston, K.L., Moolchan, E.M., Nelson, R.A., Newton, J.F., and Gorelick, D.A. Determination of Time of Last Exposure following Controlled Smoking of Multiple Marijuana Cigarettes. Society of Forensic Toxicology, Detroit, MI, October 2002.

Ikemoto, S. Ventral Striatal Anatomy of Locomotor Activity Induced by Cocaine, D-amphetamine, Dopamine and D1/D2 Agonists. Neuroscience, 113(4), pp. 939-955, 2002.

Jedynak, J.P., Ali, S.F., Haycock, J.W., and Hope, B.T. Acute Administration of Cocaine Regulates the Phosphorylation of Serine-19, -31, and -40 in Tyrosine Hydroxylase. Journal of Neurochemistry, 82(2), pp. 382-388, 2002.

Kitanaka, J., Kitanaka, N., Takemura, M., Wang, X.B., Hembree, C.M., Goodman, N.L., and Uhl, G.R. Isolation and Sequencing of a Putative Promoter Region of the Murine G Protein Beta 1 Subunit (GNB1) Gene. DNA Seq. 13(1), pp. 39-45, February 2002.

Kiyatkin, E.A., Brown, P.L., and Wise, R.A. Short Communication, Brain Temperature Fluctuation: A Reflection of Functional Neural Activation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 16, pp. 164-168, 2002.

Kiyatkin, E.A., and Wise, R.A. Brain and Body Hyperthermia Associated with Heroin Self-administration in Rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(3), pp. 1072-1080, 2002.

Krasnova, I.N., McCoy, M.T., Ladenheim, B., and Cadet, J.L. cDNA Array Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in the Striata of Wild-type and Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Transgenic Mice Treated with Neurotoxic Doses of Amphetamine. FASEB Journal, 16, pp. 1379-1388, 2002.

Kulkarni, S.S., Newman, A.H., and Houlihan, W.J. Three Dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships of Mazindol Analogues at the Dopamine Transporter. J. Med. Chem. 45, pp. 4119-4127, 2002.

Lawrence, N.S., Ross, T.J. and Stein, E.A. Cognitive Mechanisms of Nicotine on Visual Attention. Neuron, 36, pp. 539-548, 2002.

Lin, Z., Uhl, G.R. Dopamine Transporter Mutants with Cocaine Resistance and Normal Dopamine Uptake Provide Targets for Cocaine Antagonism. Mol. Pharmacol., 61(4), pp. 885-891, 2002.

Liu, Q.R., Zhang, P.W., Zhen, Q., Walther, D., Wang, X.B., and Uhl, G.R. KEPI, a PKC-Dependent Protein Phosphatase 1 Inhibitor Regulated by Morphine. J. Biol. Chem., 12, 277(15), pp. 13312-13320, 2002.

McMillan, D.E. and Katz, J.L. Continuing Implications of the Early Evidence against the Drive-Reduction Hypothesis of the Behavioral Effects of Drugs. Psychopharmacology, 163, pp. 251-264, 2002.

Mead, A.N., Rocha, B.A., Donovan, D.M. and Katz, J.L. Intravenous Cocaine Induced-activity and Behavioral Sensitization in Norepinephrine-, but not Dopamine-transporter Knockout Mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 15, pp. 514-520, 2002.

Mizoguchi, H., Wu, H., Narita, M., Hall, F.S., Sora, I., Uhl, G.R., Nagase, H., and Tseng, L.F. Antagonistic Property of Buprenorphine for Putative e-opioid Receptor-mediated G-protein Activation by b-endorphin in Pons/Medulla of the m-opioid Receptor Knockout Mouse. Neuroscience, 115(3), pp. 715-721, December 9, 2002.

Moolchan, E.T. Plenary Session Discussant: Biological Factors Influencing Tobacco Use and Risk National conference on Tobacco and Health Disparities: Forging a National Research Agenda" Tampa, FL. December 12, 2002.

Moron, J.A., Brockington, A., Wise, R., Rocha, B.A., and Hope, B.T. Dopamine Uptake through the NET in Brain Regions with Low Levels of the DAT: Evidence from Knockout Mouse Lines. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(2), pp. 389-395, 2002.

Newman, A.H. and Kulkarni, S.S. Probes for the Dopamine Transporter: New Leads toward a Cocaine-Abuse Therapeutic - A Focus on Analogues of Benztropine and Rimcazole. Med. Res. Rev., 22, pp. 1-36, 2002. (Invited review).

Onaivi, E.S., Leonard, C.M., Ishiguro, H., Zhang, P.W., Lin, Z., Akinshola, B.E., and Uhl, G.R. Endocannabinoids and Cannabinoid Receptor Genetics. Prog Neurobiol. 66(5), pp. 307-344, 2002. Shalev, U., Grimm, J.W., and Shaham, Y. Neurobiology of Relapse to Heroin and Cocaine: A Review. Pharmacological Reviews, 54(1), pp. 1-42, 2002.

Shalev, U., and Kafkafi, N. Repeated Maternal Separation Does Not Alter Sucrose-reinforced and Open-field Behaviors. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 73(1), pp. 115-122, 2002.

Solinas, M., Ferrer, S., You, Z.-B., Karcz-Kubicha, M., Popoli, P., and Goldberg, S.R. Caffeine Induces Dopamine and Glutamate Release in Shell of Nucleus Accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(15), pp. 6321-6324, 2002.

Thiriet, N., Ladenheim, B., McCoy, M.T., and Cadet, J.L. Analysis of Ecstasy (MDMA) - induced Transcriptional Responses in the Rat Cortex. FASEB Journal, 16, pp.1887-1894, 2002.

Uhl, G.R., Liu, Q.R., and Naiman, D. Substance Abuse Vulnerability Loci: Converging Genome Scanning Data. Trends Genet., 18(8), pp. 420-425, 2002.

Uhl, G.R., Hall, F.S., and Sora, I. Cocaine, Reward, Movement and Monoamine Transporters. Mol Psychiatry, 7(1), pp. 21-26, 2002.

Vorel, S.R., Ashby, C.R., Jr., Paul, M., Liu, X., Hayes, R., Hagan, J.J., Middlemiss, D.N., Stemp, G., and Gardner, E.L. Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonism Inhibits Cocaine-seeking and Cocaine-enhanced Brain Reward in Rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(21), pp. 9595-9603, 2002.

Wise, R.A., and Gardner, E.L. Functional Anatomy of Substance-related Disorders: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd XVI-7, 2002.

Witkin, J.M., Gasior, M., Schad, C., Zapata, A., Shippenberg, T.S., Hartman, T., and Slusher, B.S. NAALADase (GCP II) Inhibition Prevents Cocaine-kindled Seizures. Neuropharmacology, 43(3), pp. 348-356, September 2002.

Xi, Z-X and Stein, E.A. Blockade of Ionotropic Glutamatergic Transmission in the Ventral Tegmental Area Reduces Heroin Reinforcement in Rat. Psychopharmacology, 164, pp. 144-150, 2002.

Xi, Z-X., Wu, G-H., Stein, E.A. and Li, S-J, GABAergic Mechanisms of Heroin-induced Brain Activation Assessed with Functional MRI. Magn. Reson. Med., 48, pp. 838-843, 2002.

Xi, Z-X. and Stein, E.A. Xi,. GABAergic Mechanisms of Opiate Reinforcement. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37, pp. 485-494, 2002.

Yu, J., Allison, S., Ibrahim, D., Cadet, J.L., and Angulo, J. Ontogeny of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Mediation of Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity in the Striatum of the Mouse Brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 965, pp. 247-253, 2002.

Yu, J., Cadet, J.L., and Angulo, J. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) Receptor Antagonists Abrogate Methamphetamine-induced Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity in the Murine Brain. Journal of Neurochemistry, 83, pp. 613-622, 2002. Zangen, A., Ikemoto, S., and Wise, R.A. Rewarding and Psychomotor Stimulant Effects of Endomorphin-1: Anterior-Posterior Differences within the Ventral Tegemental Area. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(16), pp. 7225-7233, 2002.

Zapata, A., Gasior, M., Geter-Douglass, B., Tortella, F.C., Newman, A.H.and Witkin, J.M. Attenuation of the Stimulant and Convulsant Effects of Cocaine by 17-substituted—3-Hydroxy and 3- Alkoxy-Derivatives of Dextromethorphan: A Sigma and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor-Independent Mechanism. Pharm. Biochem. Behav., 74, pp. 313-323, 2002.

Zhou, Y., Spangler, R., Schlussman, S.D., Yuferov, V.P., Sora, I., Ho, A., Uhl, G.R., and Kreek, M.J. Effects of Acute "Binge" Cocaine on Preprodynorphin, Preproenkephalin, Proopiomelanocortin, and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor mRNA Levels in the Striatum and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis of mu-opioid Receptor Knockout Mice. Synapse, 45(4), pp. 220-229, September 15, 2002.

Zou, M-F., Agoston, G.E., Belov, Y., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L. and Newman, A.H. Enantioselective Synthesis of S-(+)-2_-Carboalkoxy-3_-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]tropanes as Novel Probes for the Dopamine Transporter. Bioorg Med. Chem. Lett. 12, pp. 1249-1252, 2002.

Zou, M-F., Agoston, G.E., Belov, Y., Kopajtic, T., Katz, J.L., and Newman, A.H. Enantioselective Synthesis of S-(+)-2_-carboalkoxy-3_-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]tropanes as Novel Probes for the Dopamine Transporter. Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 12, pp. 1249-1252, 2002.

Moras, K. A Tool to Advance the Effectiveness and Dissemination of Empirically Supported Psychotherapies and the NIMH Public Health Research Agenda: Commentary. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(4), pp. 425-430, 2002.

Moras, K. Research in Psychotherapy. In M. Hersen & W. Sledge (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy (Vol. 2). NY: Academic Press, pp. 525-545, 2002.


Index

Research Findings

Program Activities

Extramural Policy and Review Activities

Congressional Affairs

International Activities

Meetings and Conferences

Media and Education Activities

Planned Meetings

Publications

Staff Highlights

Grantee Honors



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