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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
February, 2002

Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On October 19, 2001, NIDA released a Program Announcement entitled Role of Limbic System and Brain Ontogeny in Drug Abuse (PA-02-015). This initiative is designed to support basic research into the fundamental mechanisms of development of the midbrain and basal forebrain structures that mediate the euphoric properties of drugs as well as understanding how drugs of abuse affect the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying nervous system development. This PA replaces in its entirety PA-98-032, published in the NIH Guide February 25, 1998.

On October 22, 2001, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled Minority Institutions’ Drug Abuse Research Development Program (MIDARP) (PAR-02-016). The purpose of this PA is to increase the capacity of minority institutions with limited sponsored reseach experience in the biomedical, social and behavioral sciences to conduct research in drug abuse and addiction. Grants will be provided to develop the capacity of minority institutions and their minority faculty, staff and students, in particular, to conduct rigorous drug abuse research in all areas of research supported by NIDA including neuroscience, epidemiology, behavioral, clinical, social science, public health, biological, HIV/AIDS, health disparities and health services areas.

On November 20, 2001, NIDA issued a new RFA entitled Expansion of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (DA-02-003). Through this RFA, NIDA invites cooperative agreement applications from established clinical investigators to participate in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Applications from geographic areas not currently well represented in the CTN are particularly encouraged. This RFA is the third solicitation for participation in the CTN. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is January 22, 2002; Receipt date for applications is February 22, 2002.

On November 26, 2001, NIDA issued a new RFA entitled Inhalant Abuse: Supporting Broad-Based Research Approaches (DA-02-002). Through this RFA, NIDA requests applications to broaden the understanding of the epidemiology, social, behavioral, cognitive, and neurobiological consequences, treatment and prevention of inhalant abuse. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is March 12, 2002; Application Receipt Date is April 10, 2002.

NIDA released a new RFA on December 6, 2002 entitled Modifying and Testing Efficacious Behavioral Therapies to Make Them More Community Friendly (DA-02-006). The purpose of this initiative is to support studies that will adapt existing, efficacious behavioral therapies for community treatment settings, or prepare for such adaptation by identifying key components of efficacious therapies to be retained in adapted therapies. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is March 11, 2002; Application Receipt Date is April 11, 2002.

On December 31, 2001, NIDA issued an RFA entitled New Approaches to Prevent HIV/Other Infections in Drug Users (DA-02-009). The purpose of this RFA is to stimulate research on the development of new, improved, and innovative intervention approaches to prevent HIV and other blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in drug users and their sexual partners. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is March 18, 2002; Application Receipt Date is April 16, 2002.

In December 2001, NIDA released three RFAs in support of its new National Prevention Research Initiative (NPRI), comprised of three components: 1) Using Basic Science to Develop New Directions in Drug Abuse Prevention Research (DA-02-010), 2) Transdisciplinary Prevention Research Centers (TPRCs) (DA-02-005), and 3) Community Multi-Site Prevention Trials (CMPT) (DA-02-004). The purpose is to accelerate the development and testing of new prevention interventions through translational research that spans a continuum from basic science through laboratory efficacy testing to small- and large-scale field effectiveness studies.

On January 23, 2002, NIDA issued an RFA entitled Hepatitis C Diagnosis, Treatment and Interaction with HIV/AIDS (DA-02-008). The primary intent of this RFA is to support studies that relate directly to the development and testing of protocols for hepatitis C diagnosis and treatment in drug abusing populations, so as to provide data essential to the formulation of clinical guidelines in these areas. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is March18, 2002; Application Receipt Date is April 16, 2002.

On February 4, 2002, NIDA released an RFA entitled National Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Research System (DA-02-011). Through this RFA, NIDA invites cooperative agreement applications to participate in the National Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Research System (CJ-DATS). Awardees will conduct and participate in coordinated multi-site studies to conduct rigorous scientific research with offender populations across multiple settings including jails, prisons, and in the community. The goal of this cooperative research program is to establish a research infrastructure to develop and test research-based systems-level models that integrate public health and public safety approaches for criminal justice-involved individuals with addictive disorders. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA is April 12, 2002; Application Receipt Date is May 13, 2002.

Recent PAs/RFAs Issued In Collaboration with Other NIH Components

Research on HIV/STD Prevention Messages (PA-01-139)

Neurotechnology Research, Development and Enhancement (PA-02-003)

Bioenginnering Research Partnerships (PAR-02-010)

Bioenginnering Research Grants (PA-02-011)

Jointly Sponsored NIH Predoctoral Training Program in the Neurosciences (PAR-02-017)

Planning Grants to Organize Programs for International Clinical, Operational, and Health Services Research Training for AIDS and Tuberculosis (PA-02-022)

Development of PET and SPECT Ligands for Brain Imaging (SBIR Award) (PA-02-028)

Social and Cultural Dimensions of Health (PA-02-043)

Identifying Functional Links Between the Immune System and Brain Function Including Behavior (PA-02-045)

Dissertation Research Grants for Underrepresented Minorities in the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of Genetics Research (PA-02-048)

Interrelationship Between Sleep and Heart, Lung and Blood Diseases (RFA-HL-01-009)

Development of PET and SPECT Ligands for Brain Imaging (Phased Innovation Award) (RFA-MH-02-003)

Neuroimaging Technology Development to Assess Brain and Behavior in Pediatric Populations (RFA-DA-02-001)

Elucidation of the Underlying Mechanisms of Placebo Effect (RFA-AT-02-002)

Studies of the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of Human Genetic Variation Research for Individuals and Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups (RFA-HG-02-003)

International Collaborative Genetics Research Training Program (RFA-TW-02-001)

Specialized Centers of Research on Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Women’s Health (RFA-OD-02-002)

Other Program Activities

NIDA/VACSP #1018 Buprenorphine Best Practices Trial

Enrollment for the study closed on January 6, 2001 with a total of 583 patients being enrolled. Patients can participate up to one year from the date of their enrollment. The last patient should complete their clinical participation on January 6, 2002 and their 30-day follow-up on February 6, 2002. There have been 38 physicians' offices and 33 pharmacies that participated in this study. 33.8% of the patients enrolled were female. The mean age at baseline was 35.8 years (36.0 median) with a range of 15 to 66. The breakdown of patients, by race, was 78.4% white, 8.1% black, 1.9% Asian/Pacific Islander, 1.0% Native American, and 10.5% other. Additionally, 17% of the patients identified themselves as Hispanic. As of October 16, 2001, 114 patients had completed, and 126 were still following the protocol. The main reasons for dropout were failure to return to clinic (67%) followed by the patient's request to discontinue (7.3%).

CTN Protocol Update

CTN 0001 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Detoxification in Inpatient Settings)--six sites across five nodes have begun enrollment. Total enrollment has reached about one-third of the total target enrollment.

CTN 0002 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Detoxification in Outpatient Settings)--all six sites across five nodes are enrolling patients. Total enrollment has reached over two-thirds of the total target enrollment.

CTN 0003 (Buprenorphine/Naloxone: Comparison of Three Taper Schedules for Opiate Detoxification)--thirteen sites across eight nodes are set to begin enrollment in January 2002.

CTN 0004 (Motivational Enhancement Therapy)--four sites have begun enrolling, two additional sites will be launched soon.

CTN 0005 (Motivational Interviewing)--all five sites are currently enrolling patients. Total enrollment has reached nearly half of the total target enrollment.

Spanish versions of protocol CTN 0004 and CTN 0005 are being developed for new Spanish-speaking enrollees.

CTN 0006 (Motivational Incentives in Drug Free Clinics)--four sites are currently enrolling patients, another four sites will begin enrollment in the next month. Total enrollment has reached about one-fifth of the target enrollment.

CTN 0007 (Motivational Incentives in Methadone Clinics)--six sites across four nodes are enrolling patients. Total enrollment has reached about one-third of the target enrollment.
Five new protocols are in the final stages of approval before being launched in the CTN. It is expected that all five will be enrolling by this summer. Seven new research concepts were reviewed and approved for further development into protocols. These will be launched in the fall or winter. By the end of 2002, it is projected that nineteen protocols will be actively enrolling patients throughout the CTN.

CTN Support Contracts Awarded

Three new contracts were awarded in September 2001 to support CTN activities. These are: NO1DA-1-2200, entitled Clinical Trials Network Pharmacy Support; NO1DA-1-2201, entitled Clinical Trials Network Administrative Support Center; and NO1DA-1-2204, entitled Clinical Laboratory Services.

NIDA Evaluation of the ONDCP Media Campaign

NIDA and ONDCP released the third report of findings from the Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, conducted under contract to NIDA by Westat, Inc., and the Annenberg School for Communications, University of Pennsylvania, in November. This report, entitled Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Third Semi-Annual Report of Findings, October 2001, reported on the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of parents and youth during the third wave of data collection, covering the period from January-June 2001. Trend data reflects comparisons between Wave 3 and Wave 1, covering November 1999-May 2001, the baseline for comparison. NIDA and Westat briefed ONDCP senior staff and the campaign team in late November.

The following are some of the highlights:

  • There are substantial levels of recalled exposure to Campaign anti-drug messages among parents and youth. Among parents, approximately 70% recalled seeing general anti-drug ads at least once a week across all media; about 20% recalled seeing specific Campaign TV ads. Among youth, close to 80% recalled seeing general anti-drug ads at least once a week; close to 50% recalled seeing specific Campaign TV ads. Youth recall of specific TV ads significantly increased from 35% in Wave 1 to 48% in Wave 3.
  • The branding innovation of the Campaign—i.e., “The Anti-Drug”—was recalled by 60% of 12-to-18-year-olds and 46% of parents.
  • There is evidence consistent with a Campaign effect on parents. There are positive changes in four out of five outcomes including talking about drugs with, and monitoring of, children. Also, parents who report more exposure to Campaign messages report better scores on those outcomes—talking and monitoring attitudes and behaviors. There is also an indication that these outcomes are associated with youth anti-drug intentions and behaviors.
    • Fathers appeared to be changing more in their attitudes and behaviors and these changes are associated with general and specific ad exposure —e.g., they have increased in their positive beliefs about the value of monitoring from 65% in Wave 1 to 86% in Wave 3. They also increased in actual monitoring behaviors.
  • Thus far there is little evidence of direct Campaign effects on youth. There is no statistically significant change in marijuana use or in beliefs and attitudes about marijuana use, and no tendency for those reporting more exposure to Campaign messages to hold more desirable beliefs.
  • Future semiannual reports will include follow-ups of those parents and children interviewed at Waves 1-3. This will provide data on how youth drug-related attitudes and behaviors change as they age into the more at-risk teenage years and how exposing to Campaign messages is affecting those attitudes and behaviors. There will be more examination of over-time effects; examination of some indirect effects—e.g., the effects of parents’ attitudes and behaviors on youth marijuana use; and more capability of analyzing whether the Campaign is producing the preventive effects on drug use.

PET Imaging of Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors with 2-[18F]F-A-85380 Injection

NIDA’s Brain Imaging Center has received approval for a Phase I Investigator-Sponsored IND (Investigation New Drug) application from the Food and Drug Administration entitled, “PET Imaging of Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors with 2-[18F]F-A-85380 Injection.” The IND allows the Brain Imaging Center to initiate the first human studies in the United States using this new radiotracer, which was specifically developed to image alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound [18F]2-F-A-85380 has both high affinity and selectivity for the alpha4beta2 subtype of nicotinic receptor and has a wide margin of safety. This subtype of the nicotinic receptor comprises the primary form found within the brain and is thought be associated with receptors linked to nicotine dependence and the loss of nicotinic receptors observed in neurodegenerative diseases. [18F]2-F-A-85380 was developed by a team of radiochemists and neuroscientists at the Brain Imaging Center and represents the first new radioligand to be both produced for and evaluated in humans within the laboratory. The team of investigators includes Alane S. Kimes, PhD., Carlo Contoreggi, M.D., Andrew G. Horti, Ph.D., Svetlana I. Chefer, Ph.D., Andrei O. Koren, Ph.D., Edythe D. London, Ph.D., Alexey G. Mukhin, M.D., Ph.D., Olga Pavlova, M.D., Ph.D., Monique Ernst, M.D., Ph.D., John A. Matochik, Ph.D., and Varughese Kurian, M.S., M.H.S.

SIP and MRTP Programs

The NIH Summer Internship Program (SIP) and the Minority Recruitment & Training Program (MRTP) are now accepting applications for the Summer 2002. Both programs provide training opportunities for students who are interested in the scientific basis of drug abuse. In this program, students gain basic science and/or clinical laboratory experience, attend student seminars, and participate in a summer poster presentation. The goal of this program is to expose students to the realities of research, from experimental design to data analysis, interpretation and presentation. For information and an application for the SIP, go to or contact Dr. Stephen Heishman ( For an application or to receive information about the MRTP, contact Christie Brannock (

NIDA’s New and Competing Grants Awarded Since September 2001

Adler, Martin -- Temple University
Opioids, Cannabinoids, Chemokines--Neuroimmune Interaction

Akil, Huda --
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Stress/Vulnerability To Drug Abuse: Neural Correlates

Alger, Bradley E. --
University of Maryland Baltimore Prof School
Endocannabinoids and GABAergic Control of Plasticity

Anderson, Richard G. --
University of Texas SW Medical Center/Dallas
Identification of Marker Proteins for Neuronal Caveolae

Anthony, James C. --
Johns Hopkins University
Clusters of Drug Involvement In Chile

Atkinson, Nigel S. --
University of Texas Austin
Abused Inhalants and Drosphila K+ Channel Transcription

Bajjalieh, Sandra M. --
University of Washington
The Role of Ceramide Kinase in Neurosecretion

Baker, Lisa E. --
Western Michigan University
GHB: Discrimination and Effects on Learning

Ball, Samuel A. --
APT Foundation, Inc.
Psychotherapy Enhancement for TC Retention

Beals, Janette L. --
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Drug Use and Health Disparities In 2 Indian Populations

Bergmeier, Stephen C. --
Ohio University Athens
Analogues of Methyllycaconitine

Berns, Gregory S. --
Emory University
Hyperscan: Simultaneous FMRI Across the Internet

Bidlack, Jean M. --
University of Rochester
Opioid Binding to U51: A Human Herpes Virus Protein

Bidlack, Jean M. --
University of Rochester
Opioid Modulation of Immunocompetence

Blakely, Randy D. --
Vanderbilt University
A Neurogenomic Model for Dopamine Transporter Regulation

Bockting, Walter --
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Gender Identity and HIV Risk

Booth, Brenda M. --
University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Little Rock
Cocaine and Chest Pain: ER Patient Care and Outcomes

Borkowski, John G. --
University of Notre Dame
Predicting and Preventing Neglect In Teen Mothers

Borsook, David --
Massachusetts General Hospital
CNS Reward/Aversion Circuitry Activated By Pain/Opioids

Boyer, Edward W. --
Children's Hospital (Boston, MA)
Relationship Between the Internet and Illicit Drug Use

Breiter, Hans C. --
Massachusetts General Hospital
Cocaine Addiction--Alterations In Reward Circuitry

Brown, David R. --
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Mucosal Defense Mechanisms In Substance Abuse

Brown, Richard A. --
Butler Hospital (Providence, RI)
Applying Exercise Intervention To Drug Treatment

Brue, Vesta --
Lifetechniques, Inc.
Electronic Smoking Cessation Monitor and Communicator

Bucholz, Kathleen K. --
Washington University
Gene-Enviroment In Outcomes of PSUD Twins' Offspring

Bucholz, Kathleen K. --
Washington University
Symptom Based Transitions In Addiction In Male Twins

Buckley, Todd C. --
Boston University
Nicotine, Attention, and Conditioned Arousal In PTSD

Budney, Susan E. --
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Trauma and Addicted Female Offenders Treatment Outcome

Busto, Usoa E. --
Center for Addiction and Mental Health
Brain Reward System, Depression and Nicotine Dependence

Buydens-Branchey, Laure B. --
Narrows Institute for Biomedical Research, Inc.
Effects of Buspirone In Withdrawal From Opiates

Byrnes, Elizabeth M. --
Tufts University Boston
Reproductive Consequences of Pubertal Morphine Abuse

Campbell, James S. --
Biographics, Inc.
System to Test Medications Developed to Treat Drug Abuse

Carelli, Regina M. --
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Combined Voltammetry/Electrophysiology In Behaving Rats

Carey, Robert J. --
Central New York Research Corporation
A Study of Stimulant Induced Conditioned Drug Effects

Carlezon, William A. --
McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
A Simple Behavioral Model of Cocaine Withdrawal In Rats

Carroll, Marilyn E. --
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Vulnerability To Drug Abuse--Experimental Interventions

Carvajal, Scott C. --
University of Arizona
Determinants of Latino/European American Youths' Substance Use

Celentano, David D. --
Johns Hopkins University
Reducing Youth Drug Related HIV/STD Risk In Thailand

Clark, D. J. --
Neuroscience Digital Library

Clark, Duncan B. --
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Drug Addiction Transitions from Adolesence to Adulthood

Clark, Vincent P. --
University of Connecticut School of Medicine and Dentistry
Neural Function In Cocaine Dependence and Relapse

Clayton, Richard R. --
University of Kentucky
Drug Abuse Prevention - A Lifecourse Perspective

Cobb, Melanie H. --
University of Texas SW Medical Center/Dallas
Protein Kinase Substrates for Assays In Single Neurons

Colder, Craig R. --
State University of New York at Buffalo
Disinhibition and Risk For Early Substance Use

Costello, Elizabeth J. --
Duke University
Prepubertal Comordity: Gender & Developmental Heterotypy

Cottler, Linda B. --
Washington University
Tricity Study of Club Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence

Crunelli, Vincenzo --
University of Wales
Electrophysiological Action of GHB In Brain Reward Areas

Dannals, Robert F. --
Johns Hopkins University
Design/Charcterization of Alpha-7 Nicotinic Radioprobes

Davis, Michael S. --
Inflexxion, Inc.
Multimedia Divorce Education

Davis, Michael S. --
Innovative Training Systems
Multimedia Divorce Adjustment For Young Children

De La Garza Ii, Richard --
Yeshiva University
Depression Enhances Vulnerability To Cocaine Relapse

Dehaven, Robert N. --
Adolor Corporation
Discovery of K Opioid Analgesics Using Chimeric Receptor

Dehaven, Robert N. --
Adolor Corporation
Novel Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists As Analgesics

Detrick, Pamela L. --
Westcare California, Inc.
Treatment of PTSD In Women In A Therapeutic Community

Difranza, Joseph R. --
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Transition of Nicotine Dependence

Dugovic, Christine --
Northwestern University
Importance of Sleep & Genotype In Drug Abuse Studies

Durell, Jack –
Substance Abuse Treatment Planning & Placement Systems

Dusenbury, Linda A. --
Tanglewood Research, Inc.
All Stars Plus: Enhanced Competency and Skills Training

Easa, David --
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Planning Grant For Clinical Research Training

Ellen, Jonathan M. --
Johns Hopkins University
Drug Use and HIV Infected Female Adolescents' Care Use

Elman, Igor --
Massachusetts General Hospital
Neuroimaging of Drug Craving In Cocaine Dependence

Ensminger, Margaret E. --
Johns Hopkins University
A High Risk Prospective Study of Drug Use and Crime

Estape, Estela S. --
University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences
Postdoctoral Master In Clinical Research

Evans, Thomas G. --
University of California Davis
North-Central California-Center For AIDS Research

Farrens, David L. --
Oregon Health & Science University
Purification & Structural Analysis/Cannabinoid Receptor

Feldman, Michael J. --
New York State Psychiatric Institute
Adolescent Substance Use, Suicide and Sexual Orientation

Feldman, Steven R. --
Wake Forest University
Reinforcing Properties of UV Light In Tanning Bed Users

Ferris, Craig F. --
University of Massachusetts Medical School
MRI of Brain Function and Receptors In Cocaine Addiction

Festinger, David S. --
Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
Ethics of Participant Payment In Drug Abuse Research

Fishbein, Diana H. --
Research Triangle Institute
Neurocognitive Prerequisites For Preventing Drug Abuse

Flay, Brian R. --
University of Illinois at Chicago
The Positive Action Program: Outcomes and Mediators

Fleming, Michael F. --
University of Wisconsin Madison
Opioid Addiction In Primary Care Chronic Pain Patients

Foster, Edward M. --
Oregon Research Institute
School Wide Prevention of Risk Factors For Drug Abuse

France, Charles P. --
University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio
GHB Abuse--Chemistry and Neurobiology

Fricker, Lloyd D. --
Yeshiva University
Prosaas, A Novel Peptide Substrate of Carboxypeptidase E

Frost, Douglas O. --
University of Maryland Baltimore Prof School
Effects of M-Amphetamine on Neural Circuit Development

Fung, Ho-Leung --
State University of New York at Buffalo
Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of GHB and Precursors

Galli, Aurelio A. --
University of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio
Molecular Mechanisms of Stimulant Abuse

Gant, Larry M. --
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
HIV Risk Reduction For Drug Dependent Black Men

Garavan, Hugh P. --
Medical College of Wisconsin
The Role of Executive Functions In Cocaine Abuse

Gelberg, Lillian --
University of California Los Angeles
Homeless Women--Drugs, Race/Ethicity, and Health Care

George, Tony P. --
Yale University
Optimizing Treatment For Schizophrenic Smokers

Gerber-Allred, Carol M. --
Positive Action, Inc.
A Web Site and CD-Rom For 6th Graders on Drug Prevention

Gerber-Allred, Carol M. --
Positive Action, Inc.
Interactive CD-Rom & Website For Monitoring & Training

Gerhardt, Greg A. --
University of Kentucky
Neurochem Chip: Study of Neurotransmitter Release

Gevins, Alan S. --
Sam Technology, Inc.
nNice (Neurocognitive Index Of Cannabis Effects) System

Gibb, James W. --
University of Utah
Differential Effects of Methamphetamine and Cocaine

Giles, Steven M. --
Tanglewood Research, Inc.
Building Teacher Mastery Via An Internet Training System

Goda, Yukiko --
University of California San Diego
Synapse Remodeling on Photoconductive Silicon Interface

Gogineni, Aruna --
Brown University
Drug Reduction Intervention For Needle Exchange Clients

Grabowski, John G. --
University of Texas Health Sciences Center Houston
Opioid Maintenance: Optimal Stabilization & Withdrawal

Greenbaum, Paul E. --
University of South Florida
Mapping Substance Abuse Service Use

Greenblatt, David J. --
Tufts University Boston
Haart Regimens In Substance Abusers

Griffin, Kenneth W. --
Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Ethnic Differences In Competence and Adolescent Drug Use

Groopman, Jerome E. --
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Pathogenesis of Hepatic Injury With HCV/HIV Coinfection

Hagan, Holly C. --
Seattle-King County Public Health Department
Etiology and Prevention of Blood Borne Viruses In IDUs

Hall, Sharon M. --
University of California San Francisco
Maintaining Nonsmoking: Treatment of Older Smokers

Hallfors, Denise D. --
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Research To Practice: An Indicated Prevention Program

Hammett, Theodore --
ABT Associates, Inc.
Cross Border HIV Prevention Project--China and Vietnam

Hansen, William B. --
Tanglewood Research, Inc.
Drug Prevention In High Schools: All Stars, Sr.

Hatsukami, Dorothy K. --
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Interventions For Tobacco Dependent Adolescents

He, Zhigang --
Children's Hospital (Boston, MA)
Signaling Mechanisms Mediating Effects of Semaphorin3a

Heberlein, Ulrike A. --
University of California San Francisco
Molecular Genetics/Nicotine-Induced Behaviors/Drosophila

Heimer, Robert --
Yale University
HIV Transmission In Russia Through Liquid Drug Injection

Hemby, Scott E. --
Emory University
Molecular Fingerprint of Cocaine Abuse Analysis

Hemby, Scott E. --
Emory University
Accumbens-Pallidal GABA and Morphine Reinforcement

Herting, Jerald R. --
University of Washington
Differential Effectiveness In Drug Prevention Programs

Hochhaus, Guenther --
Nanocoat Technologies
Slow Release Coatings For Inhaled Dynorphins

Hoebel, Bartley G. --
Princeton University
Accumbens Acetylcholine In A Neural Circuit For Aversion

Hogue, Aaron T. --
Fordham University
Adherence and Competence In Adolescent Drug Use Therapy

Holtz, Kristen D. --
Danya International, Inc.
Research Club For Elementary School-Aged Students

Hubbard, Robert L. --
Duke University
National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

Hunt, Geoffrey P. --
Scientific Analysis Corporation
The Social World of Club Drugs: A Qualitative Study

Hutchison, Kent E. --
University of Colorado at Boulder
Progression of Craving and Addiction: Genetic Factors

Iguchi, Martin Y. --
RAND Corporation
Partner-Oriented Drug Treatment and HIV Risk Reduction

Irvine, A. B. --
Oregon Center For Applied Science
Interactive Training For Parents of At-Risk Adolescents

Izenwasser, Sari --
University of Miami
Behavioral Consequences of Drug Exposure In Adolescents

Jacobs, Russell E. --
California Institute of Technology
In Vivo Imaging of Neuronal Activity - After the Fact

Jacobsen, Leslie K. --
Yale University
Smoking, Brain Function and Outcome In Adolescents

Janda, Kim D. --
Scripps Research Institute
Immunopharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Cocaine Abuse

Jarbe, Torbjorn U. --
Temple University
Exogenous/Endogenous Cannabinoids--A Comparison

Javitch, Jonathan A. --
Columbia University Health Sciences
Archaeal & Bacterial Homologs of Dopamine Transporter

Jerome, Albert --
Behavioral Research Associates, Inc.
Netschedules: Internet-Based Gradual Smoking Cessation

Johnson, James R. --
James R. Johnson and Associates, LLC
Long Acting Naltrexone Biodegradable Injectable Gel

Kandel, Denise B. --
Columbia University Health Sciences
Epidemiological/Familial Aspects of Drug Use

Kandel, Denise B. --
Columbia University Health Sciences
Transition To Nicotine Dependence In Adolescence

Kelsoe, John R. --
University of California San Diego
Microarray Studies of Amphetamine Models of Psychosis

Khroyan, Taline V. --
SRI International
Nicotine Self Administration In Mice

Kinlock, Timothy W. --
Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Motivational Enhancement For Drug Court Probationers

Kirstein, Cheryl L. --
University of South Florida
Effects of Cocaine on the Developing Nucleus Accumbens

Klein, Laura --
Pennsylvania State University
Oral Nicotine Consumption In Periadolescent Mice

Klepinger, Daniel H. --
Battelle Centers/Public Health Research & Evaluation
Family, Drug Use, and Disparities In Adverse Outcomes

Knight, Danica K. --
Texas Christian University
Social Stress Among Mothers In Treatment

Krebs, Christopher P. --
Research Triangle Institute
Trends In Club Drug Use

Kumar, Anil --
University of Kansas Medical Center
Efffects of Opiate Virus/Host Response In SHIV

Lesage, Mark G. --
Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Inc.
Modeling Behavioral Treatments For Nicotine Dependence

Lester, Barry M. --
Emma Pendleton Bradley Hospital
Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Child Development

Li, Jianghong --
Hispanic Health Council
Sociocultural Factors on Syringe Sharing and HIV Risks

Liang, Yiqing --
Clever Systems, Inc.
High Throughput Phenotyping: Drug Effects on Homecage Mouse Behavior

Liu, Ming --
Novascreen Biosciences Corporation
Identification of Novel D1 Selective Agonists

London, Edythe D. --
University of California Los Angeles
Nicotine Withdrawal, Smoking & Cognition: An FMRI Study

Lord, Sarah E. --
Inflexxion, Inc.
Next Edition: Multimedia Adolescent Drug Prevention

Lukas, Scott E. --
McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
Polydrug Abuse Imaging and Behavior

Macalino, Grace E. --
Brown University
IDU Access To HIV/HCV Prevention

Malow, Robert M. --
University of Miami
HIV Prevention For Adolescents: Research To Practice

Manev, Hari --
University of Illinois at Chicago
GHB and GABA-B Receptor In Drosophila

Marcelin, Louis H. --
University of Miami
Haitian Youth: Risk of Drug Use and HIV Infection

Mark, Gregory P. --
Oregon Health & Science University
Central Cholinergic Involvement In Cocaine Addiction

Marlowe, Douglas B. --
Treatment Research Institute, Inc. (TRI)
Services Research on Sanctions/Rewards In Drug Court

Marrocco, Richard T. --
University of Oregon
The Neurochemistry of Visuospatial Attention

Marsch, Lisa A. --
Healthsim, Inc.
Applying Web Technology To Buprenorphine Treatment

Marsch, Lisa A. --
University of Vermont
Chemotherapy for Opioid-Dependent Adolescents

Marsiglia, Flavio --
Arizona State University
Drug Resistance Strategies: The Next Generation

Martinez, Charles R. --
Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
A Parent Intervention To Prevent Latino Youth Drug Use

Martinez-Maldonado, Manuel --
Ponce School of Medicine
Master Degree In Public Health at Ponce School of Medicine

Mash, Deborah C. --
University of Miami
Rapid Screening Method: Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Detection

Matsumoto, Rae R. --
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Synthesis & Evaluation of Cocaine Antagonists

McCoy, Clyde B. --
University of Miami
Drug Abuse and AIDS Research Center at University of Miami

McCoy, Clyde B. --
University of Miami
Alternative Strategies In the Prevention of HIV/STDs

Mcgaugh, James L. --
University of California Irvine
7th Conference on Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Meaney, Michael J. --
McGill University
Individual Differences In Mesolimbic Dopamine Systems

Mello, Nancy K.--
McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
Cocaine Abuse and the Role of Gonadal Steroid Hormones

Meucci, Olimpia --
MCP Hahnemann University
Role of Chemokine Receptors In Neuronal Survival

Mezzich, Ada C. --
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Female Adolescent Drug Abuse: Biobehavioral Development

Michael, Adrian C. --
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh
Sampling and Detection of Neuropeptides In Nl Volumes

Michels, Peter C. --
Albany Molecular Research, Inc.
Biocatalytic Synthesis of Selective D1 Agonists

Milby, Jesse B. --
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Abuse Therapies for the Homeless

Mintzer, Miriam Z. --
Johns Hopkins University
Neuroimaging of Benzodiazepine-Induced Amnesia

Mody, Istvan --
University of California Los Angeles
Mechanisms/GHB/Models/Acute/Chronic GBH Intoxication.

Mogil, Jeffrey S. --
McGill University
QTL Mapping of Multiple Analgesic Modalities

Monterosso, John --
University of Pennsylvania
Brain Substrates of Self-Control In Addiction

Murguia, Edward E. --
Texas A&M University System
Youth, Technology, and the Proliferation of Drug Use

Naar-King, Sylvie --
Wayne State University
Motivational Therapy/Reduce Risk Behaviors/HIV/Youth

Nader, Michael A. --
Wake Forest University
Transition To Cocaine Abuse In Monkey: Role of Dopamine

Nagarkatti, Mitzi --
Virginia Commonwealth University
Cannabinoid-Induced Apoptosis of Immune Cells

Nagy, Andras --
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
New Directions In Mutagenized Es Cell Libraries

Neaigus, Alan --
National Development & Research Institutes
Network Risks Among Injecting Drug Users

Neff, James A. --
University of Texas Austin
Research Program on Drug Abuse Interventions

Nemes, Susanna --
Danya International, Inc.
Smoking Cessation Intervention For Youth

Neumeyer, John L. --
McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioids: Synthesis and Evaluation

Nichols, Ruthann --
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Novel Genes Involved In Drug Response

Norris, Keith C. --
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine & Science
Masters of Clinical Research Sciences Planning Grant

O'Donnell, Patricio --
Albany Medical College of Union University
Electrophysiology of Behavioral Sensitization

O'Dowd, Diane K. --
University of California Irvine
Role of Nicotine In Regulation of naChRs In Drosophila

Odum, Amy --
University of New Hampshire
Effects of Drugs In An Animal Model of Relapse

Ofili, Elizabeth --
Morehouse School of Medicine
Planning Grant For Clinical Research Training

Ondersma, Steven J. --
Wayne State University
Interactive Motivational Media For Perinatal Drug Abuse

O'Toole, Thomas P. --
Johns Hopkins University
Clinical Research To Improve Drug Abuse Treatment Entry

Owens, Samuel M. --
University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Little Rock
Preclinical Testing of Antibody Therapy for Meth Abuse

Paul, Robert H. --
Miriam Hospital
Cognition In HIV-Infected Cocaine Abusers

Picciotto, Marina R. --
Yale University
Anatomical Basis For Nicotine Addiction In Mice

Pickett, Kate E. --
University of Chicago
Patterns of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy

Pilowsky, Daniel J. --
Columbia University Health Sciences
HIV Risk-Reduction With Drug-Using Youth

Piomelli, Daniele --
University of California Irvine
Endocannabinoid Release and Inactivation

Pitt, Jane R. --
Columbia University Health Sciences
Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS IV)

Poland, Russell E --
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Developmental Exposure To Nicotine

Polich, John M. --
Scripps Research Institute
Neuroelectric Assessment of MDMA (Ecstasy) Use In Adults

Price, Rumi K. --
Washington University
Follow-Up of Vietnam Veterans at Risk For Suicide

Pruitt, Steven C. --
Roswell Park Cancer Institute Corp.
Development of A High Throughput Gene Trap Vector

Rao, Uma --
University of California Los Angeles
Markers of Risk For Nicotine Dependence In Youngsters

Regan, Jeffrey F. --
Dermal Systems International, Inc.
A Novel Drugs-of-Abuse Longitudinal Abstinence Monitor

Reich, Theodore --
Washington University
The Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence

Renshaw, Perry F. --
McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA)
High Field MR Research In Drug Abuse

Rhee, Soo H. --
University of Colorado at Boulder
Causes of Comorbidity: Substance Use Disorder, ADHD & CD

Riley, William T. --
Personal Improvement Computer Systems
Community Based Automated Smoking Assessment

Risinger, Robert C. --
Medical College of Wisconsin
Neural Substrates of Human Cocaine Self-Administration

Robbins, Michael S. --
University of Miami
Involving Parents In Adolescent Drug Abuse Treatment

Robertson, Angela A. --
Mississippi State University
Prevalence of HIV/STDs Among Incarcerated Juveniles

Roffman, Roger A. --
University of Washington
Reaching and Motivating Change In Teen Marijuana Smokers

Roffman, Roger A. --
University of Washington
Marijuana Dependence Treatment

Roll, John M. --
Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Human Methamphetamine Use: A Model

Roll, John M. --
University of California Los Angeles
Behavorial Pharmacology of Gamma Hydroxybutyrate

Roman, Paul M. --
University of Georgia
CTN Membership and Adoption of Innovative Tx Practices

Roman, Paul M. --
University of Georgia
Therapeutic Communities--Management and Performance

Rush, Craig R. --
University of Kentucky
GABA Agonists As Pharmacotherapies For Cocaine Abuse

Sacks, Joann Y. --
National Development & Research Institutes
Women's Prison TC--Outcomes, Process & Economic Analysis

Sanders-Phillips, Kathy --
Howard University
Community-Based Correlates of Adolescent Substance Use

Scheier, Lawrence M. --
University of Nevada Las Vegas
Dynamic Models of Adolescent Drug Use Prevention

Schensul, Jean J. --
Institute for Community Research
Club Drugs/Resource Inequity/Health Risk In Urban Youth

Schottenfeld, Richard S. --
Yale University
HIV Risk Reduction And Drug Abuse Treatment In Malaysia

Schwartz, Robert P. --
Friends Research Institute, Inc.
Services Research On Interim Opioid Maintenance

Seeman, Philip --
University of Toronto
Receptors Mediating Drug Dependence

Semba, Richard D. --
Johns Hopkins University
Iron Deficiency and Anemia In HIV and HCV Infected Women

Siegal, Harvey A. --
Wright State University
Crack Cocaine and Health Services Use In Rural Ohio

Siegel, Shepard --
McMaster University
Associative Contributions To Drug Tolerance

Sindelar, Jody L. --
Yale University
Economic Evaluations In The CTN--Methods & Applications

Singer, Lynn T. --
Case Western Reserve University
Developmental Outcomes of Prenatal Exposure To MDMA

Slesnick, Natasha --
University of New Mexico Albuquerque
Outcome of CRA With Homeless Street Youth

Slotkin, Theodore A. --
Duke University
Fetal & Adolescent Nicotine Effects on CNS 5HT Systems

Sorensen, James --
University of California San Francisco
Therapeutic Community and Opioid Replacement Therapy

Sorg, Barbara A. --
Washington State University
Cocaine and Brain Extracellular Matrix

Spence, Richard T. --
University of Texas Austin
A Study of Heroin Inhalers

Spence, Richard T. --
University of Texas Austin
Drug Attitudes and Behavior on the US/Mexico Border

Stein, Michael D. --
Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, RI)
Midcareer Investigator Award In Substance Abuse Research

Steketee, Jeffery D. --
University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center
Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Cocaine Sensitization

Sterk, Claire E. --
Emory University
Club Drugs: Ecstasy Use Patterns and HIV Risk

Sterns, Ronni S. --
Creative Action, Inc.
PIRL: Prison Information Resource Library

Strathdee, Steffanie A. --
Johns Hopkins University
Reduce Transmission Risks & Improve HCV Treatment Access

Striley, Catherine W. --
Washington University
Culture In Congruence and Substance Treatment Access

Strombeck, Rita D. --
Healthcare Education Associates
HIV/AIDS Prevention For Women In Drug Treatment

Stroud, Laura R. --
Miriam Hospital
Prenatal Smoking Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

Sweat, Michael D. --
Johns Hopkins University
Evaluation of A 3-Component IDU Intervention

Sweedler, Jonathan V. --
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Neuropeptides In The CNS With Imaging Mass Spectrometry

Tancer, Manuel E. --
Wayne State University
Effects of the Ecstasy Drug In Humans

Tangney, June P. --
George Mason University
Recidivism, Drug Abuse, and HIV Risk Behaviors

Tao, Rui --
Rutgers University
Opioids & Plasticity In Regulation of Serotonin Release

Tarazi, Frank I. --
Biostream Therapeutics, Inc.
Neuroadaptive Effects After Chronic CTDP 31446 Treatment

Tidey, Jennifer W. --
Brown University
Transdermal Nicotine and Bupropion-SR In Schizophrenics

Tsibulsky, Vladimir --
University of Cincinnati
Measurement of Priming and Satiety Thresholds In Mice

Tulsky, Jacqueline P. --
University of California San Francisco
A Clinical Trial of Dot For Haart In Jailed Drug Users

Tunnicliff, Godfrey --
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis
Mechanisms of Signal Transduction of GHB Action

Tuomalo, Ruth E. --
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS)

Valdez, Avelardo --
University of Texas San Antonio
Hispanic Heroin Users, Transitions To Injecting and HIV

Vander Stoep, Ann --
University of Washington
Emergence: Co-Occurring Depression/Externalizing Problems

Volsky, David J. --
St. Luke's-Roosevelt Institute for Health Sciences
Toward A Mouse Model of HIV Infection & Drug Addiction

Waldron, Holly B. --
University of New Mexico Albuquerque
Resistant Adolescent Substance Abusers In Treatment

Walsh, J. M. --
Walsh Group, PA
Web-Based Drug-Free Workplace Development

Waltz, Jennifer A. --
Behavioral Technology Transfer Group
Skills Training Video For Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Waters, Andrew J. --
Georgetown University
Role of Attentional Bias In Tobacco Dependence

Wecker, Lynn --
University of South Florida
Regulation of Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

Weerts, Elise M. --
Johns Hopkins University
Studies on the Role of GABA In Cocaine Addiction

Weerts, Elise M. --
Johns Hopkins University
Dependence Potential of GHB, GBL and 1,4-Bd

Wells, Jennifer J. --
Oregon Center for Applied Science
Preventing Substance Abuse In Special Education Students

Wenzel, Suzanne L. --
RAND Corporation
Quality of Care In the Therapeutic Community

Wetter, David W. --
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Race/Ethnicity and the Process of Smoking Cessation

Whitbeck, Leslie B. --
University of Nebraska Lincoln
Partnerships For Culturally Specific Drug Prevention

Wilson, Darcy B. --
Mixture Sciences, Inc.
Mimic Peptides of HIV1 Epitopes As Vaccines

Winter, Jerrold C. --
State University of New York at Buffalo
Behavioral & Pharmacological Analysis of Drugs of Abuse

Woods, James H. --
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
Narcotic Drug and Opioid Peptide Basic Research Project

Woods, Kristy F. --
Meharry Medical College
Planning Grant for Clinical Research Training

Woolverton, William L. --
University of Mississippi Medical Center
Dopaminergic Mechanisms In Stimulant Self Administration

Wu, Z. H. --
University of Texas Medical Br Galveston
Club Drug Use In Young, Low Income Women

Xu, Ming --
University of Cincinnati
Molecular Determinants of Compulsive Cocaine-Taking

Young, Paul A. --
Nova Research Company
Adolescent HIV/STD Risk of Exposure Screen Development

Young, Rebecca M. --
National Development & Research Institutes
Measuring Sexual Minority Status Among Women Drug Users

Zaveri, Nurulain T. --
SRI International
Design of Small-Molecule Nociceptin Receptor Ligands

Zeltser, Gregory --
Physical Optics Corporation
Immunofluorometric Drug Detection System

Zlotnick, Caron --
Butler Hospital (Providence, RI)
Treatment for PTSD and Substance Abuse In Prisoners

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