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Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse
February, 2001


Program Activities

New NIDA PAs and RFAs

On November 6, 2000, NIDA released a Program Announcement entitled "Exploratory/ Developmental Grant Applications (R21)" (PA-01-012). This is a re-issuance of PA-98-004 published in the NIH Guide for Contracts and Grants, on October 24, 1997, Volume 26, Number 36. The objective of the exploratory/developmental grant (R21) mechanism is to encourage applications from individuals who are interested in testing innovative or conceptually creative ideas that are scientifically sound and may advance our understanding of drug abuse and addiction. The exploratory/developmental mechanism of grant support is intended to enable an investigator to explore the feasibility of an innovative research question or approach.

On November 7, 2000, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled "Economics of Drug Abuse Treatment and Prevention Services" (PA-01-013), replacing PA-096-075 in its entirety. This PA encourages research on the economics of drug abuse treatment and prevention services. The economic studies will be supported jointly by the Services Research Branch and the Prevention Research Branch of the Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research as part of NIDA's health services research program.

On November 8, 2000, NIDA published a Program Announcement entitled "Behavioral Science Track Award for Rapid Transition" (PAR-01-014). This PA replaces PAR-97-046 and is intended to facilitate the entry of beginning investigators into the field of behavioral science research. Through this PA, NIDA invites newly independent investigators to submit applications for small-scale, exploratory, or pilot research projects related to NIDA's behavioral science mission. Funding of B/START awards is relatively rapid; i.e., within approximately six months of the date of receipt of the application.

On November 30, 2000, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled "Drug Abuse Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Other Infections" (PA-01-023) which seeks to stimulate a range of investigator-initiated studies to advance the scientific knowledge base on drug abuse aspects of HIV/AIDS and other serious infections. Through this PA, researchers are invited to address diverse and cross-cutting issues in multiple disciplines, including virology, etiology, therapeutics and vaccines, ethnography and epidemiology, and the behavioral and social sciences.

On January 2, 2001, NIDA issued a Program Announcement entitled "Collaborative Clinical Studies in Drug Abuse" (PAR-01-039). Through this PA, NIDA seeks to increase the collaboration of investigators at different sites in order to address clinical issues in drug abuse research that require sample sizes greater than a single site can reasonably attain. The expectation for the collaborative effort is that there will be implementation of common protocols across different sites in order to study patient outcomes, patient factors, provider factors, setting characteristics, interactions of these, or other effects where pooled samples are appropriate and necessary for the hypotheses under consideration.

On September 6, 2000, NIDA issued an RFA entitled "Services Research on the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network" (DA-01-003) to encourage research on changes in clinical management and organizational practices of community treatment providers participating in NIDA's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN); research to improve the ability of non-network providers to adopt new research-based treatments; and research on the cost-effectiveness of treatments tested in the CTN compared with typical treatment. Research on other health services issues related to the CTN and its overarching goal to improve drug abuse treatment nationwide is also encouraged. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: November 20, 2000; Application Receipt Date: December 19, 2000.

On November 21, 2000 NIDA issued an RFA entitled "The Transition from Drug Use to Addiction: Unearthing the Switch" (DA-01-004). The intent of this RFA is to stimulate research on the processes and mechanisms underlying the transition from drug use to drug addiction from a wide variety of academic disciplines and approaches. Research from epidemiologic, basic and clinical disciplines, including research on other transitional states with relevance to addiction, will be supported under this RFA. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: January 23, 2001; Application Receipt Date: February 23, 2001.

On January 15, 2001, NIDA issued an RFA entitled "Health Disparities: Drug Use and Its Adverse Behavioral, Social, Medical, and Mental Health Consequences" (DA-01-008). This RFA is part of the NIH-wide initiative to eliminate health disparities in racial and ethnic minority populations and builds on NIDA's efforts over the past several years to understand better and address drug abuse and addiction among and across racial and ethnic minority populations. It is designed to stimulate epidemiological, prevention, treatment, and services research that addresses issues relating to the differential drug use patterns and/or their associated behavioral, social, medical, and mental health consequences within and across racial and ethnic minority populations. Letter of Intent Receipt Date for this RFA: March 16, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 16, 2001.

On January 15, 2001, NIDA issued an RFA entitled "The Next Generation of Drug Abuse Prevention Research" (DA-01-009). This RFA encourages a new generation of drug abuse prevention research. Applications are solicited to examine elements that may account for program effectiveness of drug abuse prevention interventions that have either been empirically validated or are currently undergoing rigorous efficacy/effectiveness trials. The purpose is to gain a better understanding of what accounts for program effectiveness through: empirical tests of theoretically derived processes; identification of patterns related to differential effectiveness; generating and testing alternate hypotheses accounting for effectiveness based on differential outcomes from current or previous research; and specification and testing of elements singularly and in combination that contribute to effectiveness. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: March 16, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 16, 2001.

On January 25, 2001, NIDA issued an RFA entitled "Health and Developmental Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Methamphetamine" (DA-01-005). The purpose of this RFA is to support research on the health and development of children exposed to methamphetamine in utero. In order to maximize the timeliness of the research, NIDA supports the establishment of collaborative Community Research Networks (CRNs) to meet this goal. The aim of the CRNs is to forge partnerships between Research Directors (RDs) and Community Research Partners (CRPs). The Research Directors will be researchers with capabilities to conduct longitudinal cohort studies on the effects of in utero exposure to illicit drugs. The CRPs will be clinicians and researchers from communities where methamphetamine use is prevalent. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: March 19, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 19, 2001.

On January 25, 2001, NIDA issued an RFA entitled "Responding to Club Drugs and Other Emerging and Current Drug Abuse Trends" (DA-01-010). This RFA will support research to characterize the nature and extent of emerging/current drug abuse trends within local contexts and identify associated heath, social and behavioral consequences; to elucidate individual, social, cultural, and contextual factors influencing drug using behaviors; to enhance our ability to identify, monitor, and assess emerging drug abuse trends; to reveal processes and patterns of development and diffusion of new drug trends; and to identify community- or context-specific prevention and health services needs and interventions. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: March 16, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 16, 2001.

On January 25, 2001 NIDA released an RFA entitled "Research on GHB and Its Precursors" (DA-01-014). This RFA is being issued in response to the recent emergence of GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD as public health concerns. NIDA intends to support a broad range of scientific research that is expected to lead to a reduction in the abuse of these sedative-hypnotic "club drugs", and to the development of treatments for GHB abuse. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: March 19, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 17, 2001.

On January 25, 2001, NIDA in conjunction with numerous other NIH Institutes, issued RFAs entitled "Tools for Insertional Mutagenesis in the Mouse" (DA-01-011) and "Tools for Insertional Mutagenesis in the Mouse: SBIR/STTR Initiative" (DA-01-012). These RFAs solicit proposals for development of tools and techniques for the establishment of random and targeted sequence-tagged insertion libraries of embryonic stem (ES) cells that can be used to generate mutant mice in which the expression of the tagged gene could be controlled temporally and spatially. The development of such a resource for wide distribution to the scientific community would make it possible to scan the sequence database for any gene of interest and order the corresponding targeted ES cell line. Ideally, the insertional mutagenesis system developed would permit a wide range of genetic analyses and manipulations, including enhancer-trapping, conditional knockouts, conditional expression or overexpression, etc. It also would permit the larger community of investigators to utilize genomic resources efficiently. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: March 11, 2001; Application Receipt Date: April 11, 2001

On January 29, 2001, NIDA issued a new RFA entitled "International Studies on Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS" (DA-01-006). This RFA is intended to build on lessons learned in developed countries in response to the intertwined epidemics of drug abuse and the spread of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases. It seeks to foster cross-national and international research collaborations that, through both independent research and the recruitment, training and mentoring of new, multi-disciplinary researchers, lead to the development, adaptation, replication, and evaluation of effective interventions and approaches to slow or reverse the spread of HIV and other infections in vulnerable drug-using populations. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: February 28, 2001; Application Receipt Date: March 28, 2001.

On January 29, 2001, NIDA issued a new RFA entitled "HIV/AIDS and Drug Use Among Adolescents" (DA-01-007). The purpose of this RFA is to support drug use/abuse focused HIV/AIDS studies that address the particular challenges and needs of HIV-infected and at-risk adolescents. Specifically, research applications are sought on (a) prevention of HIV infection and related infectious diseases among adolescents; (b) transmission by HIV-positive youth; (c) accessibility, integration and management of adolescent-specific medical, mental health, and drug treatment services and interventions relative to HIV infection; (d) outreach strategies for high-risk adolescent sub-populations; and (e) analysis of infectious comorbidities and their influence on HIV progression. Letter of Intent Receipt Date: February 28, 2001; Application Receipt Date: March 28, 2001.


Other Program Activities

GHB Antidote Initiative

On October 19, 2000, NIDA's interdisciplinary team held a one-day meeting to consider the necessity of developing an antidote for gamma-hydroxy-butyrate (GHB) poisoning and a diagnostic tool for rapid testing of GHB in blood of victims. The participants were NIDA scientists and clinical experts who are national experts in dealing with cases of GHB poisoning and dependence.

Annual Review of DTRD P-50 Grants

On October 25, 2000, DTR&D held an annual meeting with investigators of current P-50 grants to review their progress in evaluating different medications for the treatment of stimulant and opiate dependence. Investigators from the following centers participated: University of Pennsylvania (Helen Pettinati, PI), New York State Psychiatric Institute (Herbert Kleber, PI); Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene & NY Psychiatric Institute (Marian Fischman, PI); Yale University (Tom Kosten, PI); Friends Research Foundation, Los Angeles (Walter Ling, PI); University of Texas (John Grabowski, PI); University of Minnesota (Dorothy Hatsukami, PI); John's Hopkins University (George Bigelow, PI). Highlights of the meeting included: the emergence of disulfiram as a potential medication for the treatment of cocaine dependence; imaging data that suggests that the brains of some chronic cocaine abusers may operate in a fundamentally different way with respect to release of dopamine; and a study that demonstrated that LAAM (75 to 115 mg), buprenorphine (16 to 32 mg) and high dose methadone (60 to 100 mg) have a comparable efficacy.

Clinical Trials Network (CTN) Update

Five additional awards were made in September, increasing the number of CTN nodes from six to eleven. These new nodes are located at the Medical University of South Carolina, the University of Miami, Wayne State University, the University of Cincinnati, and the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. In January 2001, three additional awards were made to the University of Washington, New York Psychiatric Center and Duke University, bringing the total number of CTN nodes to fourteen.

The Methamphetamine Clinical Program

To implement the recommendations of the Methamphetamine Addiction Treatment Think Tank (MATTT) meeting, a process was started to establish a group of sites to conduct clinical trials in methamphetamine dependent patients. Five sites have been selected based in areas where the epidemic is currently concentrated: two are in the Midwest (Des Moines, Iowa, and Kansas City, Kansas), and the other three are in Los Angeles, San Diego, CA, and Honolulu, HI. The first medication study protocol was finalized (bupropion) and sent to local IRBs for review. Selegiline, the next medication to be studied, will be first evaluated in inpatient clinical pharmacology studies at UCLA and UCSF for safety interactions with amphetamine. Following these studies and, if safety is not an issue, selegiline will be advanced to outpatient studies following completion of the bupropion study.

Clinical Research Efficacy Screening Trial (CREST-I) Study

On April 26, 2000, consultants reviewed the data from each NIDA/VA Medications Development Research Unit (MDRU) in their CREST studies (three medications each and an unmatched placebo). Out of the 15 medications reviewed, three medications were shown to reduce cocaine use in these screening pilot studies. Reserpine, the anti-hypertensive medication, gave the strongest signal while cabergoline (dopamine agonist) and Hydergine (brain metabolic and blood flow enhancer) gave weaker signals. The recommendations of the consultants were to follow up with larger phase II studies on these medications.

Clinical Research Efficacy Screening Trial (CREST-II) Study

Similar to CREST-I, the second phase of rapid drug screening started following the completion of CREST-I. This second round involves eight different medications. The data from these trials are scheduled to be analyzed and reviewed by consultants by February 2001.

Cocaine Clinical Trials Operations

A group of four academic clinical sites has been established to replace the former Department of Veterans Affairs MDRU sites to conduct clinical trials for the treatment of cocaine addiction. The sites are UCLA, the University of Cincinnati, the Medical University of South Carolina, and the University of Texas at San Antonio. Seven protocols have been submitted for the sites to study: three are phase I interaction studies (Modafnil, Metyrapone, Tolcapone, and Disulfiram); one is a phase IIa study (Ondansteron); and two are phase IIb studies (resperpine and cabergoline). These studies began in January 2001.

Methylphenidate In Cocaine Dependant Individuals With ADD

An open label feasibility study showed a promising effect of methylphenidate in decreasing cocaine use in this co-morbid subgroup. NIDA has awarded a grant for Dr. Frances Levin to further study methylphenidate in this subgroup in a large, double blind study. This study is approximately half completed.

Selegiline

The selegiline IR study has been completed and data are currently being analyzed. The VA Cooperative Studies Program review committee and its central IRB have approved the phase III 300 subject Selegiline Transdermal System study protocol. The protocol was sent out to local investigators for review by local IRBs and was also submitted to FDA by Somerset Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for review. A kick-off meeting for this study was held at the end of January 2001.

Lofexidine for Heroin Withdrawal Study

This phase III multi-site study protocol was recently approved by the VA CSP central IRB. A kick-off meeting of the three participating sites (Los Angeles, Philadelphia VA, and Columbia University) was held in Long Beach, CA in January 2001.

Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

In November 2000, NIDA and ONDCP released the first report of findings from the Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, conducted under contract by Westat, Inc., and the Annenberg School for Communications, University of Pennsylvania. This report, entitled Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Campaign Exposure and Baseline Measurement of Correlates of Illicit Drug Use From November 1999 Through May 2000, reported on the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of parents and youth during the first wave of the full-blown campaign.

Because these data will serve as baseline, no correlations were done to compare media exposure with specific attitudes and behaviors. The first report to produce such findings will be released in March 2001. Some of the findings include:

  • Using general exposure measures, and summing across all media,

    • 90 percent of parents and 93 percent of youth recalled exposure to one or more anti-drug ads each month. General exposure measures include both Campaign and other advertising.

    • Sixty-eight percent of parents and 70 percent of youth recalled exposure to one or more anti-drug ads each week.

    • The median general recall by parents was 10 ads per month (i.e., at least half of parents saw 10 or more per month and at least half saw 10 or fewer). The media recall by youth was around 11 ads per month.

  • Using specific aided recall measures

    • The median recall of specific youth TV ads by youth was 4 exposures in recent months.

    • The median aided recall of specific parent TV ads by parents was 3 exposures in recent months.

  • Parent-child reporting of past year marijuana use shows that, in general, parents have a pretty good idea of marijuana use among their children-e.g., 2.9% of parents report that their 12-13 year old child has used marijuana in the past year, and 3.3% of children this age report use; among 16-18 year olds, there is a greater gap in reporting with 19.5% of parents reporting marijuana use in the past year, and 29% youth reporting such use.

  • Most youth report that they receive offers to use marijuana, but they claim they rarely accept. Almost 50% of youth (16-18) reported that they had received offers of marijuana in the past 30 days, but 13% reported having smoked marijuana in that time.

NIH Summer Internship Program (SIP) and the Minority Recruitment & Training Program (MRTP)

The NIH Summer Internship Program (SIP) and the Minority Recruitment & Training Program (MRTP) are now accepting applications for Summer 2001. Both programs provide training opportunities for students who are interested in the scientific basis of drug abuse. In this program, students gain basic science and/or clinical laboratory experience, attend student seminars, and participate in a summer poster presentation. The goal of this program is to expose students to the realities of research, from experimental design to data analysis, interpretation and presentation. For information and an application for the SIP, go to www.training.nih.gov or contact Dr. Stephen Heishman (sheish@intra.nida.nih.gov). For an application or to receive information about the MRTP, contact Christie Brannock (cbrann@intra.nida.nih.gov)


NIDA's New and Competing Grants Awarded Since September 2000

Adler, Martin W. -- Temple University
Center on Intersystem Regulation By Drugs of Abuse

Akbarian, Schahram -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Conditional Mutagenesis In Addiction Circuitry

Altice, Frederick L. -- Yale University
Directly Observed Anti-Retroviral Therapy Among Active Drug Users

Amara, Susan G. -- Oregon Health Sciences University
Expression Profilling of Psychostimulant-Regulated Genes

Bainton, Roland J. -- University of California, San Francisco
A Genetic Study of Drosophila Responses To Cocaine

Barnes, Grace M. -- Research Institute on Addiction
Sports, Gender and Adolescent Substance Use

Bartlett, John G. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Johns Hopkins Center For AIDS Research

Becker, Jill B. -- University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Gender Differences In Drug Abuse

Belenko, Steven R. -- CASA at Columbia University
Impact Evaluation of the DTAP Diversion Program

Bell, David C. -- Affiliated Systems Corporation
Community-Based Research on Drug Use Networks

Bell, Jeanne E. -- University of Edinburgh
Drug Related CNS Damage-Synergy With Effects of HIV

Berridge, Craig W. -- University of Wisconsin
Amphetamine-Like Stimulants: Norepinephrine & Behavior

Bierut, Laura J. -- Washington University
Family Study of Cocaine Dependence

Bloom, Alan S. -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Effects of THC on Regional Brain Activity: A fMRI Study

Booth, Robert E. -- University of Colorado
Rocky Mountain Regional Clinical Trials Node

Botvin, Gilbert J. -- Cornell University Medical College
Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention with Minority Youth

Bowen, Gary L. -- Flying Bridge Technologies
SSP Drug Abuse Prevention Screening Tool: Development

Bowser, John J. -- Compact Membrane Systems, Inc
Concentration Method for Thermally Labile Pharmaceutical

Brady, Kathleen T. -- Medical University of South Carolina
Southeastern Node of the Clinical Trials Network

Brot, Michelle D. -- University of Washington
Drugs of Abuse In Dopamine-Deficient Mice

Brown, Emma J. -- University of Central Florida
An Ethnography: Drug Use Among African American Women

Brue, Vesta -- Lifetechniques, Inc.
Duration Adjustments In Scheduled Reduced Smoking

Butler, Stephen F. -- Innovative Training Systems
Computerized ASI Consultation For Addictions Counselors

Carlezon, William A. -- McLean Hospital
Role Of Nucleus Accumbens Ca2+ Flux In Cocaine Reward

Carroll, Kathleen M. -- Yale University
Psychotherapy of Substance Use Disorders

Chernen, Leslie -- Accurate Assessments
Enhancing the ASI with Gambling & ADHD Domains

Chiauzzi, Emil -- Innovative Training Systems
Multimedia Safe Driving Program For Adolescents

Cicchetti, Dante -- University of Rochester
Teen Drug Use/Abuse: Pathways From Child Maltreatment

Clark, DJ -- Videodiscovery, Inc
Computer Health Performance Assessment

Clentano, David -- Johns Hopkins University
HPTU - Thailand

Coatsworth, J. D. -- Pennsylvania State University
Clinical Processes In Drug Abuse Prevention

Colbern, Deborah L. --Beemnet, Inc.
National Kids Judge! Neuroscience Fairs Partnership

Collins, Linda M. -- Pennsylvania State University
Center For Prevention Methodology

Compton, Wilson M. -- Washington University
Psychiatric Comorbidity In Drug Abusers

Cook, Royer F. -- ISA Associates
A Workplace CD-Rom Drug Prevention Program for Parents

Cornish, James W. -- University of Pennsylvania
Naltrexone Treatment of Opioid Dependent Parolees

Cronin, Christopher J. -- Saint Leo College
Intervention For Marijuana Use Among College Students

Crowley, Thomas J. --University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Genetics of Adolescent Antisocial Drug Dependence

Cubells, Joseph F. -- Yale University School of Medicine
Genetics of Cocaine Induced Psychosis

Cunningham, Kathryn A. -- University of Texas
Neuropsychopharmacology MDMA: Monoaminergic Mechanisms

Dehovitz, Jack A. -- SUNY Health Sciences Center
SUNY AIDS International Training Program

Del Rio, Carlos -- Emory University School of Medicine
Persons Without HAART: Characteristics and Determinants

Delorey, Timothy M. -- Moltech Corporation
Design of New Benzodiazepine Ligands as Memory Enhancers

Des Jarlais, Don C. -- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
HIV Risk Behaviors Among Urban Nomad Drug Injectors

Dewey, William L. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Effects of Opiates on Cellular Mechanisms

Dingman, Sherry -- Marist College
Perfluoro Analogues for Imaging B: MRI/Behavioral Study

Dishion, Thomas J. -- University of Oregon
Enhancing Family-Based Prevention of Adolescent Drug Use

Donovan, Dennis M. -- University of Washington
Clinical Trials Network: Pacific Northwest Node

Donovan, Stephen J. --Research Foundation Mental/Hygiene, Inc.
Temper, Mood Swings & Marijuana-A Treatable Syndrome

Drucker, Ernest -- Montefiore Medical Center
Office-Based Methadone Prescribing

Dusenbury, Linda -- Tanglewood Research
Video-Based Teacher Training In Drug Prevention

Erb, Judith L. --IA, Inc.
Immunophore Test Strips for Screening Steroids of Abuse

Esposito, Noreen W. -- Columbia University
Women Drug Abusers and Post Sexual Assault Care

Farzadegan, Homayoon -- Johns Hopkins University
Epidemiology of Drug-Resistant HIV-1 In IDUs

Fattom, Ali -- NABI
Vaccination For Treatment of Nicotine Dependence

Ferris, Craig F. -- Insight Neuroimaging Systems
Noninvasive Device for FMRI Studies In Cocaine Abuse

Flanigan, Timothy P. -- Miriam Hospital
Directly Observed HAART For Active Substance Abusers

Frankel, Wayne, N. -- The Jackson Laboratory
Production & Screening of Mouse Neurological Mutations

Fraser, Mark W. -- University of North Carolina
Making Choices: A Social Development Program

French, Michael T. -- University of Miami School of Medicine
Chronic Drug Use, Depression, and Labor Supply

Friedmann, Peter D. -- Rhode Island Hospital
Linkage To Health Services In Drug Abuse Treatment

Garland, Marianne -- Columbia University
Glucuronyl-Transferase Activity In the Fetal Primate

Gastfriend, David R. -- Massachusetts General Hospital
Improving Drug Abuse Treatment Planning Criteria

Giles, Steven M. -- Tanglewood Research, Inc.
Modeling Drug Prevention Program Fidelity

Glang, Ann E. --Oregon Center for Applied Sciences, Inc.
Interactive Program For Effective Playground Supervision

Golder, Seana --University of Washington
Modeling Women's Involvement In High Risk Behavior

Goldowitz, Daniel -- University of Tennessee - Memphis
Targeted Mutagenesis of Mouse Genome & Neural Phenotype

Greenblatt, David J. -- Tufts University
Chronic Benzodiazepines: Behavior and Neurochemistry

Greenblatt, David J. -- Tufts University
Antiretroviral Therapies and Substance Abuse

Guay, Laura A. -- MU-JHU Research Collaboration
HPTU- JHU/MCAIDS Uganda

Haggerty, Kevin P. -- University of Washington
Examining The Efficacy of 'Parents Who Care'

Halkitis, Perry N. -- New Jersey City University
Club Drug Use and Men's Health: A Community Study

Haller, Deborah L. --Virginia Commonwealth University
Adherence Therapy for Opioid Abusing Pain Patients

Haney, Margaret -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
THC and Marijuana: Effects In Individuals With HIV/AIDS

Hansen, William B. -- Tanglewood Research, Inc.
All Stars, Jr.: Drug Prevention For Elementary Schools

Hauser, Kurt F. -- University of Kentucky
Opiates: Neuronal and Glial Vulnerability To HIV

Henderson, Leslie P. -- Dartmouth Medical School
GABA A Receptor Modulators In the Developing Rat Forebrain

Hershow, Ronald C. -- University of Illinois, Chicago
Early Natural History of HCV Infection Among IDUs

Hill, Karl G. -- University of Washington
Intergenerational Influence of Substance Use on Children

Hillhouse, Maureen P. -- University of California
Replicating the Addicted-Self Model of Recovery

Honda, Christopher N. -- University of Minnesota
Opioid Receptors And Spinal Nociception

Hops, Hyman -- Oregon Research Institute
Drug Use & HIV Risk:Treatment of Hispanic & Anglo Youth

Hser, Yih-Ing -- UCLA Drug Abuse Research Center
A 12-Year Follow-Up Of a Cocaine-Dependent Sample

Huang, Tien L. -- Xavier University of Louisiana
Novel Anti-PCP Agents With Neuroprotective Properties

Hubbard, Robert L. -- Duke University Medical Center
National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

Hussong, Andrea M. -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Self Medication and Adolescent Substance Use

Jackson, J. B. -- Johns Hopkins University
HPTU- JHU/MCAIDS China

Jason, Leonard A. -- DePaul University
Abstinent Social Support In Oxford House

Johns, Josephine M. -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Cocaine and Maternal Neglect: Intergenerational Effects

Johnson, Bankole A. -- University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio
Medication Development for Methamphetamine Dependence

Johnson, Lawrence L. -- Trudeau Institute, Inc
Effect of Morphine on Immune Resistance to T Gondii

Jones, Hendree E. -- John Hopkins University
Treating the Partners of Drug Using Pregnant Women

Justice, Joseph B. -- Emory University
Ligand Binding Sites on the Dopamine Transporter

Kantak, Kathleen M. -- Boston University
New Method for Studying Drug Self-Administration In Mice

Kaplan, Andrew H. -- University of North Carolina
Adherence To HAART Among Incarcerated Substance Users

Karim, Salim S. -- Mailman School of Public Health
International Training Program In Epidemiology of AIDS

Karpatkin, Simon -- New York University School of Medicine
AIDS and Thrombocytopenia: Drug Abusers and Homosexuals

Khanna, Pyare L. -- Discoverx
Complementation Assay for G Protein Linked Receptors

Koob, George F. -- Scripps Research Institute
Dopamine Partial Agonists and Psychostimulant Dependence

Kosten, Thomas R. --Yale University
Comorbidity In Cocaine and Opioid Pharmacotherapy

Lahoste, Gerald J. -- University of New Orleans
Gap Junctions and Dopamine Plasticity

Lally, Michelle A. -- Miriam Hospital
HIV/Infectious Disease Test/Treatment In Substance Abuse

Laudet, Alexandre -- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
Referral To Self-Help: Clinicians and Clients Views

Leukefeld, Carl G. -- University of Kentucky
HIV Risk Reduction Among Rural Drug Abusers

Lewis, Michael P. -- The Athena Group, Inc.
Lord Kelvin: A Computer-Based Science Learning System

Li, Ming D. -- University of Tennessee, Memphis
Gene Expression Profiling During Exposure To Nicotine

Liberty, Hilary J. -- Social Sciences Innovations
Detecting Crack and Other Cocaine Use With Fast Patches

Likness, Mark A. -- Plowshare Technologies, Inc.
A Portable Device For Measuring Smoking Topography

Lysle, Donald T. -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Behavioral Factors In Heroin's Effect On Nitric Oxide

Magura, Stephen -- National Development & Research Institute, Inc.
Innovative Job Placement Model For Methadone Patients

Maier, Steven F. -- University of Colorado
Stressor Controllability, Drugs of Abuse, and Serotonin

Makriyannis, Alexandros -- University of Connecticut
Studies On Cannabinoid Effects and Cannabimimetic Drugs

Malow, Robert M. -- University of Miami School of Medicine
Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of HIV + Drug Abusers

Margolin, Arthur -- Connecticut Mental Health Center
Acupuncture and Coping Skills Training For Cocaine Abuse

Martinez, Diana -- Columbia University
Imaging Mesolimbic DA Receptors In Cocaine Abuse

Martinez, Joe L. -- University of Texas, San Antonio
Enkephalins and Learning

Mazure, Carolyn M. -- Yale New Haven Hospital
Yale IWHR Scholar Program On Women and Drug Abuse

Mcchargue, Dennis E. -- University of Illinois, Chicago
Depression-Prone Smokers and Cigarette Craving

McNeese-Smith, Donna K. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Substance Abuse Treatment In Two Managed Care Structures

Meng, Fan -- University of Michigan
Novel Microarray for SNP and Methylation Detection

Miles, Michael F. -- Ernest Gallo Clinic & Research Center
Analyzing Gene Expression Profile Clusters By Comparison

Moncher, Michael S. -- Intersystems, Inc.
Drug Abuse Prevention Among Adolescent Women

Moore, Richard D. -- Johns Hopkins University
Mid Career Investigator Award

Neumeyer, John L. -- Brain Research Lab, Inc.
Dopamine Agonists For the Therapy of Cocaine Addiction

Nicholson, Katherine L. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Effect Of NMDA Antagonists on Acute Opioid Dependence

Nickerson, Deborah -- University of Washington
Starnet: Research Experiences for Students and Teachers

Nunes, Edward V. -- New York State Psychiatric Institute
CU Partners: NY/Long Island Regional Node

Ortabasi, Llse M. -- Kinder Magic Software
Science Snoops-Life Science Investigations

Ouellet, Lawrence J. -- University of Illinois at Chicago
Noninjected Heroin Use, HIV & Transitions To Injection

Paul, Elizabeth H. -- National Health Promotion Associates, Inc.
Life Skills Training Through CD-ROM Technology

Pasternak, Gavril W. -- Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
Biochemical Characterization of Opioid Binding Sites

Pettegrew, Jay W. -- University of Pittsburgh
In Vivo 31p-1h MRSI and MRI Brain Studies of Nicotine

Pickens, Roy W. -- Virginia Commonwealth University
Building Research Careers In Women's Health

Podell, Michael -- Ohio State University
A Feline Model of NeuroAIDS and Drug Abuse

Potashkin, Judith -- Finch University of Health Sciences
Cocaine Regulation of FOSb Splicing

Rakela, Jorge L. -- Mayo Clinic Scottsdale
Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection In HIV-1 Infected Subjects

Ramsay, Douglas S. -- University of Washington
A Small-Animal Model of Inhalant Self-Administration

Rapoza, Darion -- Entertainment Science, Inc.
A Single-Player Drug Abuse Prevention Video Game

Ricaurte, George A. -- Johns Hopkins University
Gene Expression and Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity

Riggs, Paula D. -- University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
Substance Dependent Teens: Impact of Treating Depression

Robinson, Terry E. -- University of Michigan
Neuroplastic Adaptations Engendered By Drugs of Abuse

Robles-Sotelo, Elias -- University of Arkansas
Delay Discounting & Impulsiveness In Methadone Patients

Rocha, Beatriz D. -- University of Maryland Baltimore Professional School
Cocaine Self-Administration In The DAT Knockout Mice

Roffman, Roger A. -- University of Washington
Motivating Marijuana Cessation

Sanna, Pietro P. -- Scripps Research Institute
Gene Expression Bases of Cocaine Dependence and Relapse

Schmitz, Joy M. -- University of Texas Houston Health Science Center
Integrated Treatment for Cocaine and Mood Disorders

Schoenbaum, Ellie E. -- Montefiore Medical Center
Natural History of Menopause In HIV Infected Drug Users

Schottenfeld, Richard S. -- Yale University
Research Training Fellowship In Substance Abuse

Schuster, Charles R. -- Wayne State University School of Medicine
Great Lakes Clinical Trials Network Regional Node

Schwarz, Kathleen B. -- Johns Hopkins University
Viral Hepatitis In Children of Injection Drug Users

Self, David W. -- Yale University School of Medicine
Gene Expression and Cocaine In Prolonged Abstinence

Shelton, Keith L. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Diazepam Discrimination In GABA Subunit Knockout Mice

Sholomskas, Diane E. -- Applied Behavioral Research
Evaluating Manual-Guided Training In Clinical Settings

Singer, Merrill -- Hispanic Health Council
Effects of Partner Violence Victimization In Drug Use

Smith, James E. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Neurobiology of Speedball Self-Administration

Smith, James E. -- Wake Forest University
Neurobiological Mechanisms of Drug Reinforcement

Somoza, Eugene C. -- University of Cincinnati
Clinical Trials Network, Ohio Valley Node

Spielberg, Freya -- Harborview Medical Center
Counseling Strategies To Reduce HIV Risk Among IDU

Stein, Elliot A. -- Medical College of Wisconsin
Functional MRI of Human Drug Abuse

Stein, Lynda A. -- Brown University
Motivational Interviews for Incarcerated Teens

Stein, Michael D. -- Rhode Island Hospital
A Trial To Reduce Hepatitis C Among Infection Drug Users

Stiffman, Arlene R. -- Washington University
Adolescent American-Indian Multisector Help Inquiry

Stiffman, Arlene R. -- Washington University
GWB Social Work Center For Addictions Research

Stitzer, Maxine L. -- Johns Hopkins University
Novel Lapse-Responsive Approach To Smoking Cessation

Strombeck, Rita D. -- Healthcare Education Association
HIV/AIDS Prevention for Women In Drug Treatment

Suhadolik, Robert J. -- Temple University
Effect of Opiods on 2-50as/Pkr Pathway In HIV Infection

Sussman, Steven Y. --University of Southern California
Project Towards No Drug Abuse Components Analysis

Swaim, Randall C. -- Colorado State University
Using Media To Prevent Violence Among Rural Youth

Szapocznik, Jose -- University of Miami
Florida Node of the Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

Taffe, Michael -- Scripps Research Institutes
Neuropharmacology of Primate Cognition

Taha, Taha E. -- Johns Hopkins University
HIV Prevention Trials Unit - Malawi

Tank, A. W. -- University of Rochester
Nicotine Effects on the Adrenal Medulla and Brain

Tarter, Ralph E. -- University of Pittsburgh
Drug Abuse Vulnerability: Mechanisms and Manifestations

Thio, Chloe L. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Hepatitis C Clearance and Host Genetic Factors

Thomas, David L. -- Johns Hopkins University
HIV-HCV Coinfection: Antiviral Therapy and Fibrosis

Tompkins, Christopher -- Brandeis University
Development of Case Rates For Substance Abusers

Trupin, Eric W. -- University of Washington
Developing Prime Time Project for Double Jeopardy Youth

Tsien, Joe -- Princeton University
Genetic Analysis of Temporal Phases of Memory Consolidation

Tully, Tim -- Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Genome Responses to Drosophila Addiction Using DNA Chips

Valentine, Fred T. -- New York University Medical Center
Center for AIDS Research

Vlahov, David -- New York Academy of Medicine
Evaluating Supervised HAART In Late Stage HIV In IDUs

Von Zastrow, Mark E. -- University of California, San Francisco
Proteins Regulating Endocytosis of Opioid Receptors

Vrana, Kent E. -- Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Functional Genomics of Cocaine Self-Administration

Wagner, Edward J. -- Oregon Health Sciences University
Cannabinoid-Induced Disruption of the Reproductive Axis

Walker, Bruce D. -- Massachusetts General Hospital Partners/Fenway/Shattuck
Center for AIDS Research

Walwyn, Wendy M. -- University of California, Los Angeles
Opioid Receptor Desensitization, Internalization & Tolerance

Wang, Hong -- Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Postnatal Targeting of Striatal Opioid & NMDA Receptors

Wawer, Maria J. -- Columbia University
HPTU- Rakai, Uganda

Wehner, Jeanne M. -- University of Colorado
Genetics of Alcohol and Substance Abuse

Wenzel, Suzanne L. -- Rand
Drug Abuse, Violence, and HIV/AIDS In Impoverished Women

Wesson, Donald R. -- Drugabuse Sciences, Inc.
SR Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opiate Dependence

Whitbeck, Leslie B. -- Institute for Social & Behavioral Research
Pathways to Substance Abuse Among Ojibwe Children

Williams, Robert W. -- University of Tennessee, Memphis
Informatics Center for Mouse Neurogenetics

Wilson, Emery A. -- University of Kentucky
Interdisciplinary Research Careers In Women's Health

Wong, Dean F. -- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Human Imaging Research In Neuropsychiatry & Drug Abuse

Wright, Teresa L. -- Northern California Institute for Research & Education
HCV Variants and Immune Response In Injection Drug Users

Yu, Xiao-Fang -- Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health
Viral & Host Factors on HIV Transmission/Pathogenesis


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